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About Other / Hobbyist Dennis DegasMale/United States Group :icondiscoveryguild: DiscoveryGuild
 
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Dinovember Day #17 - Apex Predator by zap123build Dinovember Day #17 - Apex Predator :iconzap123build:zap123build 17 0 Dinovember Day #13 - Horned Goliath by zap123build Dinovember Day #13 - Horned Goliath :iconzap123build:zap123build 16 0 Dinovember Day #16 - Short-Tailed Sea Tyrant by zap123build Dinovember Day #16 - Short-Tailed Sea Tyrant :iconzap123build:zap123build 15 0 Dinovember Day #15 - Long-Tailed Sea Tyrant by zap123build Dinovember Day #15 - Long-Tailed Sea Tyrant :iconzap123build:zap123build 19 1 Dinovember Day #14 - Long-Necked Sea Tyrant by zap123build Dinovember Day #14 - Long-Necked Sea Tyrant :iconzap123build:zap123build 19 0 Dinovember Day #12 - Transitional Tyrant by zap123build Dinovember Day #12 - Transitional Tyrant :iconzap123build:zap123build 20 0 Dinovember Day #11 - Club-Tailed Goliath by zap123build Dinovember Day #11 - Club-Tailed Goliath :iconzap123build:zap123build 20 2 Dinovember Day #10 - Flying Tyrant by zap123build Dinovember Day #10 - Flying Tyrant :iconzap123build:zap123build 17 0 Dinovember Day #9 - Spike-Tailed Goliath by zap123build Dinovember Day #9 - Spike-Tailed Goliath :iconzap123build:zap123build 18 2 Dinovember Day #8 - Egg Thief by zap123build Dinovember Day #8 - Egg Thief :iconzap123build:zap123build 16 0 Dinovember Day #7 - Helmeted Goliath by zap123build Dinovember Day #7 - Helmeted Goliath :iconzap123build:zap123build 18 0 Dinovember Day #6 - Tiny Tyrant by zap123build Dinovember Day #6 - Tiny Tyrant :iconzap123build:zap123build 20 2 Dinovember Day #5 - Duck-Billed Goliath by zap123build Dinovember Day #5 - Duck-Billed Goliath :iconzap123build:zap123build 14 2 Dinovember Day #4 - True Tyrant by zap123build Dinovember Day #4 - True Tyrant :iconzap123build:zap123build 23 0 Dinovember Day #3 - Long Necked Goliath by zap123build Dinovember Day #3 - Long Necked Goliath :iconzap123build:zap123build 22 0 Dinovember Day #2 - Primitive Retrosaur: Carnivore by zap123build Dinovember Day #2 - Primitive Retrosaur: Carnivore :iconzap123build:zap123build 20 0

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Four-horned Face by megabass22 Four-horned Face :iconmegabass22:megabass22 146 43 MOC: Salticidae by Galvaridarts MOC: Salticidae :icongalvaridarts:Galvaridarts 147 13 30 Day Dinosaur Challenge Day 27 by StygimolochSpinifer 30 Day Dinosaur Challenge Day 27 :iconstygimolochspinifer:StygimolochSpinifer 113 4 Morning in the swamp. by Plioart Morning in the swamp. :iconplioart:Plioart 182 31 Borderlands Psycho Torso (MOC) by Thatdudemaan Borderlands Psycho Torso (MOC) :iconthatdudemaan:Thatdudemaan 5 82 Raptor attack by Carnosaur Raptor attack :iconcarnosaur:Carnosaur 12 2

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Dinovember Day #17 - Apex Predator
30-Day Retrosaur Art Challenge - Day #17 – Apex Predator

Pyroteratus tartarus – “Fire Monster from Tartarus”
(Pie-Row-Tear-At-Uss) (Tar-Tar-Uss)

Pyroteratus is probably the strongest and most terrifying True Tyrant so far discovered. Titled the Apex Predator to kill all Apex Predators, this beast was armed to the teeth with recurved talons on its feet and hands, spines on its body for protection, a hard-spiny club on the end of its tail, forward and backward pointing horns on its head, and a pair of hollow teeth that very well may have been used to envenomate its prey. Why would such a large and intimidating creature need venom? Well, some scientists have suggested this antediluvian monster most definitely took down some of the largest Long-Necked Goliaths ever to walk the earth, using its large fangs to inject venom beneath the tough hide of the Goliaths and wait for it to die, or just start tearing into its prey as soon as it feels the fangs. It was named Pyroteratus due to its monstrous size and features, and due to its proximity to ancient volcanoes, obviously its natural habitat, making it all the more hellish of a beast.

(Based off of Acrocanthosaurus, Spinosaurus, and back when scientists thought Sinornithosaurus was venomous)

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Dinovember Day #13 - Horned Goliath
30-Day Retrosaur Art Challenge - Day #13 – Horned Goliath

Carcinoceratops primus – “First Crab-Horned Face”
(Car-Sin-Oh-Sair-Ah-Tops) (Prime-Uss)

There is a dizzyingly large array of Horned Goliaths, and this one is just as unique as the rest. Although not quite as near-and-dear to everyone’s hearts as Agathaumas, Carcinoceratops holds the record for spikes, wattles, and tusks. Its frill is merged with the flesh of its neck and back and muscle runs the lengths to help support the muscles needed to ram into opponents and to chew its food of bark, cycads, and other hard fruits. It is thought these animals fight one another for the rights to mate by clashing their horns and frills together, but this is not yet known and obviously these animals were none too bright, so a big show of dominance may have been all for not. Only more fossil remains will tell!

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Dinovember Day #16 - Short-Tailed Sea Tyrant
30-Day Retrosaur Art Challenge - Day #16 – Short-Tailed Sea Tyrant

Chelonosuchus densocuticus – “Thick-Skinned Turtle Crocodile”
(Shell-On-Oh-Sue-Kuss) (Den-So-Cute-Ih-Kuss)

The last of the three known types of Sea Tyrants were made up mostly of true titans! Short-Tailed Sea Tyrants were some of the largest creatures in the oceans of prehistoric times. The largest of them had heads nearly twice as long as human and railroad-spike sized teeth. Chelonosuchus was a heavily armored turtle-like beast with teeth shaped like the chompers of modern sperm whales it used to pulverize and puncture the fins of other marine animals. Most of the time they would have preyed upon Long-Tailed Sea Tyrants but literally anything else in the oceans would do, for Chelonosuchus were some of the largest ever found. Like all other Sea Tyrants, Chelonosuchus had a set of long, thin claws jutting out of the front flippers that could not be moved independently like true digits, and would have been used for many things, like intraspecific combat, food entrapment, and hauling themselves up onto beaches to lay their eggs.

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Dinovember Day #15 - Long-Tailed Sea Tyrant
30-Day Retrosaur Art Challenge - Day #15 – Long-Tailed Sea Tyrant

Teratogyrinus pelagicus – “Monster Tadpole of the Sea”
(Tear-At-Oh-Gee-Rine-Uss) (Pell-Age-Ick-Us)

Adapted to ambush predation from the common Sea Tyrant ancestors, Long-Tailed Sea Tyrants are known for their obnoxiously long caudal vertebrae, with which they use to propel themselves in extreme bursts of speed to pursue their prey. Teratogyrinus is one of these apex marine predators adapted to prey upon a large array of prey. Specifically, they tended to go after larger prey, tearing off chunks until the animal died of blood loss. The claws on the front flippers of Teratogyrinus are vestigial with most of the usable length of the digit encased in the flipper. They would have used these claws to scrape mollusks off rocks, pinch fish out of crevasses, and even to scratch parasites off their bodies, but most experts suggest these predators would have hauled themselves out onto the beach to lay their eggs, but more research is needed to confirm this. It has become obvious with the fossil record, that Long-Tailed Sea Tyrants and Long-Necked Sea Tyrants were mortal enemies. Both could clamber onto land and both have been found in close proximity to one another on multiple occasions, so it would come as no surprise they attacked one another. It would seem the Long-Tailed Sea Tyrants had a stronger bite than the Long-Necked Sea Tyrants but were less maneuverable.

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Dinovember Day #14 - Long-Necked Sea Tyrant
30-Day Retrosaur Art Challenge - Day #14 – Long-Necked Sea Tyrant

Anguitherium crassiventrus – “Fat-Bellied Snake Beast”
(An-Gwee-Theer-Ee-Um) (Krass- Ee-Vent-Russ)

Transitional Tyrants were a group of tyrants that started to adapt to an aquatic lifestyle with some of them developing subterranean abilities, and some going more amphibious. Next to branch off were the Long-Necked Sea Tyrants. Unlike the Long-Necked Goliaths, these animals are carnivorous fish-eaters that trap their dangerous prey between the long needle-like teeth before swallowing them whole. Anguitherium is an example of this group that represents one of the largest and most terrifying so far discovered. This was not because you wouldn’t want to swim with it, which you wouldn’t, but because they were perfectly capable of coming out onto land and tearing into land animals, before delving back into the ocean depths. With their long necks and railroad-spike-like teeth, Anguitherium would find Flying Tyrants or early Birds flying over the water and strike with a viper-like intensity that would catch these flying creatures by surprise. Anguitherium has vestigial spurs on their front flippers that they use to help haul themselves onto land to chase after beach-dwelling transitional tyrants and goliaths but also more importantly to lay their eggs in large scrapes they dig in the beach dunes. After they lay their eggs, of which there are hundreds, they leave them to fend for themselves as most Retrosaurs do, and whoever survives, survives; Survival of the fittest!

(Based off Plesiosaurs, and outdated reconstructions of beach-walking Plesiosaurs)

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Pfdimet by zap123build    

            Dimetrodon is one of the most recognizable prehistoric animals and is often mistaken for a dinosaur. It looks like a cross between a lizard and a dog and has the teeth to match, thus its name that translates to, “Two shapes of Teeth.” Despite the fact that popular culture mistakes this animal for a member of Dinosauria, it had many features that differentiate it from the dinosaurs including; Semi-Squat legs, a thin sail on its back, and mammalian dentition. All these aspects and more make this a very interesting animal, and one of the most common predators of Permian North America and Europe.                                        

1024px-Dimetrodon pair by zap123build

            Dimetrodon lived during the period known as the Early Permian, more specifically 295–272 million years ago, in a wide range of the world. Fossils of the animal have been discovered in USA (Texas, Oklahoma, Utah, Arizona, Ohio, New Mexico, and Arizona) and Europe (Germany). The first instance of this animal’s discovery came about in the 1870s by esteemed Paleontologist, Edward Drinker Cope, after receiving the initial specimens from an area of Texas called the Red Beds. Cope acquired the material from collectors excavating the area including Swiss naturalist Jacob Boll, geologist W. F. Cummins, and amateur paleontologist Charles Hazelius Sternberg. Edward Drinker Cope sent his material to the American Museum of Natural History while his rival, Othniel Charles Marsh, sent his Dimetrodon material to the Walker Museum in Chicago (Now annexed to the Field Museum). The list of valid species is long and consists of; D. angelensis, D. borealis, D. booneorum, D. dollovianus, D. giganhomogenes, D. grandis, D. limbatus, D. loomisi, D. macrospondylus, D. milleri, D. natalis, D. occidentalis, and D. teutonis. Michigan Paleontologist, Ermine Cowles Case, completed a study on Dimetrodon in which he named a great many species with the aide of The American Museum of Natural History, which granted him funding to conduct his research. Searching through the material that Edward Drinker Cope had discovered and labeled Dimetrodon, Case found that many of these finds were of new species. After Case’s study, new specimens of Dimetrodon were discovered in other localities of the United States including Utah, Arizona, and Ohio. One of the recent discoveries occurred in 2001, when a new species of Dimetrodon had been uncovered from the Thuringian Forest of Germany. And then again in 2015 a species previously known as Bathygnathus uncovered in Canada went through a name change, being a nomen dubium (a scientific name that is of unknown or doubtful application.) to Dimetrodon, and is now categorized under D. borealis. These more recent finds extend the range of the Permian predator farther than had ever been known. But this pays no homage to the raw power that Dimetrodon housed.


Dimetrodon-size by zap123build

            Although Dimetrodon remains a very unusual animal, it loses its uniqueness when compared with the other animals it shared its environment with; Diplocaulus, Eryops, Ophiacodon, Edaphosaurus, Xenacanthus, Diadectes, and many more. Since Dimetrodon would have lived in a very swampy biome, it would likely have preyed upon amphibians and fish of the lakes and streams of its environment. Theories have been proposed by Paleontologists, Robert Bakker and Everett Olson, that Dimetrodon would have been an expert hunter of these aquatic prey and may have been the reason the odd amphibian Diplocaulus evolved its boomerang-shaped headgear; in order to make it difficult for a predator such as Dimetrodon to swallow it whole.    
         


Dimetrodon Conor Daly by zap123build

  The anatomy of Dimetrodon is rather odd as well; it showcases adaptations similar to both mammals and reptiles. The skull of Dimetrodon is deep and compressed laterally. The skull has only one pair of holes, called fenestrae, on either side of the skull which is a telltale sign of the animal’s heritage; Dimetrodon was a Synapsid, an early mammal-like-reptile and ancestor to modern mammals. Dimetrodon’s relatives consist of; Sphenacodon, Secodontosaurus, and Cryptovenator. Dimetrodon was also the ancestor of therapsids, another line of Mammal-like-reptiles that eventually led to modern mammals. Dimetrodon teeth were another sign of its relation to mammals. Unlike most reptiles and amphibians it shared its environment with, Dimetrodon’s teeth changed shape along the jawline. Canine and incisor teeth were at the front of the jaws, and then smaller teeth lined the rest of the jaw becoming smaller in size. All of the teeth of Dimetrodon are serrated and would have helped hold on to and slice through struggling prey.    
       

Dimetrodon skeleton by zap123build


     One of the most obvious traits that Dimetrodon had is its enormous sail. Along the vertebrae of the animal, a line of tall and thin neural spines juts upwards. It is unknown whether or not the animal truly had a span of skin covering the sail; however this is a very likely hypothesis and has been in use for as long as Dimetrodon has been known to science. The spines are compressed in a rectangular shape from the sides and on many specimens, preserve a figure-eight shape in cross-section. On many specimens, the spines stop at a certain point and start to point in odd directions. This, coupled with the fact that the points of the spine near their end bend sharply, suggests that the sail of skin would only have reached a certain point and then stopped, shortening the sail to be much smaller than usually portrayed. The exact use of this spine, like the integument (external covering) of most prehistoric animals, is unknown; however, theories exist for its use. One such theory is that the sail could have helped the animal warm up by facing the sun, or cool down by facing away from it. The other, slightly more excepted theory, is that the sail might have been a sexual display to help attract mates. Perhaps the animal could have fed blood into the sail to change its color and help it attract more mates, but these are theories that may never be tested due to the animal being extinct.


Contemps by zap123build

            Despite the fact that Dimetrodon is long extinct, it has stayed in the public’s mind as that “other dinosaur.” Commonly portrayed in books about dinosaurs, the common misconception is that this ancient animal is a Dinosaur, of which it is far from it. In fact, Dimetrodon has more in common with humans than it does with Dinosaurs. However, as 99% of all other life forms that have ever existed, it is extinct and the only evidence of it having ever existed is in its fossilized remains. Dimetrodon remains a strange animal, from an even stranger time.

   


           

Works cited:

"Dimetrodon." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimetrod….

"Dimetrodon - Enchanted Learning Software." Dimetrodon - Enchanted Learning Software. Enchanted Learning, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015. <www.enchantedlearning.com/subj….

"How Much Do You Know About Dimetrodon?" About.com Education. About, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015. <dinosaurs.about.com/od/typesof….

"Dimetrodon." Dinopedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015. <dinopedia.wikia.com/wiki/Dimet….

Gonzalez, Robbie. "All Together Now: DIMETRODON IS NOT A DINOSAUR." Io9. Io9, n.d. Web. 09 Dec. 2015. <io9.com/all-together-now-dimet….

Switek, Brian. "Sail-Backed Dimetrodon Had a Nasty Bite." Phenomena SailBacked Dimetrodon Had a Nasty Bite Comments. National Geographic, 07 Feb. 2014. Web. 09 Dec. 2015. <phenomena.nationalgeographic.c….

"Canuckosaur! First Canadian 'dinosaur' Becomes Dimetrodon Borealis." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 Nov. 2015. Web. 09 Dec. 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/….

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zap123build
Dennis Degas
Artist | Hobbyist | Other
United States
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:iconraresanimals:
RaresAnimals Featured By Owner Dec 28, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Nice youtube channel, I love your videos!
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:iconlynus-the-porcupine:
Lynus-the-Porcupine Featured By Owner Sep 9, 2018
I appreciate the :+devwatch:
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:iconhewytoonmore:
HewyToonmore Featured By Owner Aug 4, 2018
Thanks for the watch! :D
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:iconpitch-black-crow:
pitch-black-crow Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
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:icondeinocheirusmaster:
deinocheirusmaster Featured By Owner Jul 4, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Thanks for watching me!
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:iconhypo-potamus:
hypo-potamus Featured By Owner Edited Jun 16, 2018  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thanks for watching me Dennis!!!
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:icondinobirdman:
DinoBirdMan Featured By Owner May 17, 2018  Student Artist
Happy Birthday! :cake: :party:
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:icondinobirdy:
DinoBirdy Featured By Owner May 17, 2018  Hobbyist General Artist
Happy Birthday!
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:iconshade2800:
Shade2800 Featured By Owner May 17, 2018  Hobbyist Artist
Hope you have a Happy Birthday!
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:icondragunalb:
Dragunalb Featured By Owner Dec 19, 2017  Student Traditional Artist
Thanks a lot for the watch! I really do appreciate it :D
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