From 1980 to 2016, the Republican Party has been organized under the "Reagan Coalition," ultimately organized in four distinct factions: Pro-Business Republicans, Christian Evangelicals, National Security conservatives (often called Defense Hawks, but that's a disingenuous oversimplification of a faction that includes Chuck Hagel and Colin Powell), and what we will call "Nativists." The Democrats eventually managed for piece together an opposition coalition or environmentalists, gay rights advocates, the black community, Social-Democrats, organized labor, and feminists.
Contrary to popular belief, Hispanics have usually been swing voters, and aren't reliable Democrats outside of a few states where the state Republican party really shot themselves in the foot regarding immigration policy (see California). Latinx voters, and the broader Catholic community, tend to be more socially conservative (though less so than Evangelicals), but economically more liberal.
There was an inherent advantage that the GOP had: all of the factions in the coalition were in basic agreement about most issues that the party actually executed: Low Taxes, High Defense Spending, opposition to policies that benefit women and minorities (that's not how they saw it, but it doesn't change the facts). The Democrats always struggled to rally every faction of their coalition, because each faction was in and of itself so ideologically fractious that any attempt to unify a large group of the party would inevitably drive down turnout from the rest of the group. The only exception as when the party ran charismatic candidates with fairly vague policy objectives.
In 2016, the coalitions blew up, not just the coalitions but the factions that made up the coalitions fragmented. Both candidates had alienated large segments of their parties, and in 2016 most of these groups became swing voters, with the exception of the Feminists, LGBT community, and Nativists, who have evolved into two opposing factions. The LGBTQIA and Feminist factions have become "Intersectionalists," often called SJWs by what the Nativists mutated into, the "Alt-Right" or White Nationalists. These form the only remotely coherent factions as of right now. Labor Unions sided more with Trump than Clinton, African Americans are seeing a generational schism in ideology, there are essentially two factions of Environmentalists right now and neither side seems to know what they are about or that the other exists, and the Socialists are so busy eating eachother and everyone else on the left that its hard to call them a faction. On the right, the National Security conservatives are still trying to figure out what the hell is happening to the world before they can form any kind of coherent position, Evangelicals can't figure out who they're supposed to be fighting anymore, and Pro-Business conservatives are torn between just trying to get things back to normal and nihilistic capitalists.
In 2018, Democrats built an even BIGGER Tent than ever before, opening the door to some evangelicals and pro-Business Democrats who would have been Republicans just 4 years ago, while Republicans went all in on the Alt-Right. But the important thing was that we got something of a preview as to how these factions will evolve, though we still have no earthly idea how the next coalitions will be organized. The Social-Democrats have become Democratic-Socialists, and they are making a serious effort right now to unite Intersectionalists, and the new generation of Greens, exemplified in the Justice Democrats "Green New Deal" campaign. There are still holdouts, Bernie Sanders in particular is still doing all that he can to destroy his own movement by alienating everyone who you wouldn't call a "Brocialist" and endorsing a string of candidates who all lost in 2018. But the new generation seems to have an appreciation for how to build a new political base.
On the right things are much less clear. The Republican play to the nativists will only last as long as the Economy is doing well. Once there's a recession Labor, Business interests, and Evangelicals who tolerate this shift will go shopping for another candidate. What is less clear is how these groups will align in the years to come. Its entirely possible that the Democratic leadership will push the party to the right to build a coalition around older more conservative African-Americans, economically liberal Evangelicals and Catholics to become Christian Democrats if they think that is where the center lies for the future of American politics. Alternatively, the Democratic-Socialists could recapture Unions and both major ethnic minority groups with the promise of a comprehensive Green Jobs plan, though this could end up going the way of the old New Deal Coalition with social conservatives and liberals becoming divided against eachother in their own party.
Whatever the case may be, what we have right now are factions within factions, and parties with no real coalitions to speak of.