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The Roman Empire, AD 125
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By Undevicesimus   |   Watch
Published: May 20, 2014
© 2014 - 2019 Undevicesimus

753 BC
Founding of Rome (according to Varro) – Beginning of recorded time for the Romans (ab urbe condita) – The (legendary) rule of the Seven Kings begins: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullus, Tarquinius Superbus

c. 510 BC
Establishment of the Roman Republic – Rome’s first international treaty: Carthage’s trade monopoly in the western Mediterranean is recognised, on condition that Carthage refrains from attacking Rome and its allies

498 – 493 BC:
First Latin War
Rome becomes the dominant power in Latium and forces the Latin cities into a military alliance, in exchange for recognition of their political autonomy

450 BC
The Law of Twelve Tables (leges duodecim tabularum) is constituted as the fundament of Roman law

396 BC
Rome captures the Etruscan city Veii and begins its territorial expansion

390 BC:
Battle of the Allia
The Roman army is decisively defeated by a Celtic invasion, leaving Rome vulnerable to attack

387 BC
The Celtic invaders largely sack Rome

380 BC
The reconstruction of Rome begins

358 BC
Rome re-establishes its alliances with the Latin cities

343 – 341 BC:
First Samnite War
Rome takes over Capua

340 – 338 BC:
Second Latin War
Rome smashes a revolt of the Latin cities

326 – 304 BC:
Second Samnite War
Rome annexes all of Campania and secures footholds in southern Italy, thus surrounding Samnium and crippling its expansion

298 – 290 BC:
Third Samnite War
A coalition of the Samnites, Celts, Etruscans, Lucanians, Sabines and Umbrians is smashed by Rome at the Battle of Sentinum (295 BC): Rome controls central Italy

282 – 272 BC: Rome goes to war against Tarentum, the last major city on the Italian peninsula to resist the Romans
+ 280 BC: Tarentum calls on Pyrrhus of Epirus for help, resulting in a stalemate with Rome after two Pyrrhic victories at Heraclea (280 BC) and Asculum (279 BC)
+ 272 BC: Rome captures Tarentum and controls the Italian peninsula almost up to the Po Valley

264 BC – 241 BC:
First Punic War
+ 264 BC: Rome accepts Messana’s call to arms against Carthage (and Syracuse) and invades Sicily
+ 260 BC: Rome narrowly defeats Carthage at the naval Battle of Mylae
+ 256 BC: a close victory at the naval Battle of Ecnomus allows the Romans to invade the Carthaginian motherland in Africa
+ 255 BC: Carthage defeats Rome at the Battle of Tunis but Rome has by now conquered most of Sicily and allied with Hiero II of Syracuse
+ 241 BC: a decisive Roman victory at the naval Battle of the Aegates Islands marks the end of the war

241 – 238 BC
Rome takes control of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica and establishes its first provinces: Sicilia and Corsica et Sardinia

229 BC:
First Illyrian War
Roman fleets combat Illyrian piracy

226 BC:
Ebro Treaty
Rome recognises Carthage’s dominance south of the Ebro

222 BC
Rome defeats the Insubres in the Po Valley at the Battle of Clastidium and tightens its hold on northern Italy

220 – 219 BC:
Second Illyrian War
Rome diminishes the power of the Illyrian tribes and forces Demetrius of Pharus to flee to Macedon

219 BC
Rome accepts Saguntum’s call for help against Carthage, despite the Ebro Treaty

218 – 201 BC:
Second Punic War
+ 218 BC: Carthaginian commander Hannibal leads his army across the Alps into Italy, rallies the Celtic tribes there and defeats the Romans at the Battle of the Trebia
+ 217 BC: Hannibal smashes the Romans at the Battle of Lake Trasimene and advances south
+ 2 August 216 BC: a crushing Carthaginian victory at the Battle of Cannae leaves over 50,000 Romans killed
+ 215 BC: Hannibal allies with Philip V of Macedon (Beginning of the First Macedonian War, until 205 BC) – Syracuse betrays Rome and sides with Carthage
+ 212 BC: Rome takes Syracuse, reconquers Sicily and allies with Syphax of Numidia and the Aetolian League – Carthage conquers Tarentum – Most of southern Italy switches sides to Hannibal
+ 211 BC: Rome reconquers Capua
+ 209 BC: Publius Cornelius Scipio conquers Carthago Nova
+ 206 BC: Rome finishes the conquest of Carthaginian territories in Spain (started in 217 BC)
+ 204 BC: Scipio invades Africa from Sicily
+ 203 BC: a Roman victory at the Battle of Tunis forces Carthage to call Hannibal back home
+ 202 BC: Scipio decisively defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama
+ 201 BC: Carthage surrenders to Rome – the Carthaginian Empire is dissolved

200 – 190 BC
Rome conducts successful campaigns against the Celts in northern Italy

200 – 197 BC:
Second Macedonian War
Rome comes to the aid of Pergamum, Rhodes and Athens and breaks the power of Philip V of Macedon at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC

197 BC
Rome establishes the provinces of Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior, securing major footholds in Spain

196 BC
Rome declares ‘freedom’ for the Greek cities and leaves Greece by 194 BC

192 – 188 BC
Antiochos III of the Seleucid Empire allies with the Aetolian League and invades Thessaly (Greece) – Rome defeats both Antiochos III and the Aetolian League and becomes the dominant power in the eastern Mediterranean

171 – 168 BC:
Third Macedonian War
Macedon is irreversibly defeated at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC

168 BC:
Third Illyrian War
Though allied with Rome, the Illyrian king Gentius switches sides to Macedon during the Third Macedonian War and attacks the Roman settlements at Apollonia and Dyrrhachium – Rome defeats Gentius and creates the new province of Illyricum in his erstwhile kingdom

149 – 146 BC:
Third Punic War
Rome utterly destroys the city of Carthage and turns its remaining territory into the province of Africa

146 BC
Rome destroys Corinth after a revolt of the Achaean League and formally annexes all of Greece into the province of Macedonia

136 – 132 BC:
First Servile War
Slave uprisings on Sicily result in the crucifixion of c. 20,000 slaves

133 BC
Rome burns down Numantia, defeating the Celtiberian tribes and ending the Numantine War (started in 143 BC) – Attalus III of Pergamum leaves his kingdom to Rome by testament

129 BC
Rome turns Pergamum into the province of Asia

133 – 121 BC
The reformatory movement of the Gracchi brothers, aimed at a distribution of patrician lands to the plebeians, is crushed by the Senate

123 BC
Rome conquers the Balearic Islands

121 BC
Rome gains its first footholds in southern Gaul

113 – 101 BC
Migratory invasions of the Teutones and Cimbri are crushed by the legions of Gaius Marius at the Battles of Aquae Sextiae (102 BC) and Vercellae (101 BC) – Marius’ legions are the first to be organised by a commander instead of the Senate (Marian Reforms since 107 BC)

111 – 105 BC:
Jugurthine War
Rome deals a defeat to Numidia

104 – 100 BC:
Second Servile War
Rome crushes another slave uprising on Sicily

96 BC
Apion of Cyrenaica dies and bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans, who merge it with the island of Crete into the province of Cyrenaica et Creta in 66 BC

91 – 89 BC: Social War
Rome’s Italian allies and subject states break away and form the new state of Italia with its capital at Corfinium – Rome grants all the Italic peoples the full Roman citizenship and regains their loyalty

88 BC:
Vespers of Ephesus
Approximately 80,000 Romans are murdered in Asia Minor on the instigation of King Mithridates of Pontus

88 – 84 BC:
First Mithridatic War
Roman forces led by Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeat Mithridates at the Battles of Chaeronea (86 BC) and Orchomenus (85 BC), before concluding the Treaty of Dardanus

88 BC
Marius and his supporters repress senatorial power in Rome while Sulla is away

86 BC
Marius dies during his seventh consulship

83 – 81 BC:
Second Mithridatic War
Rome compels Pontus to fulfil the conditions of the earlier Treaty of Dardanus

83 BC
Sulla returns to Italy

82 BC:
Battle of the Colline Gate
Sulla decisively defeats the Marian faction while his general Pompey clears Marian forces from Sicily and Africa

82 – 79 BC
The dictatorship of Sulla is marked by political repression of the Marian faction and renewed senatorial power

78 BC
Sulla dies after having voluntarily abdicated his dictatorship one year earlier

77 – 71 BC:
Sertorian War
Pompey defeats the Marian forces of Quintus Sertorius

74 – 64 BC:
Third Mithridatic War – Led by Lucius Licinius Lucullus, Roman forces attack Pontus and Armenia
+ 68 BC: Lucullus is recalled by the Senate after a mutiny in his army
+ 66 BC: Pompey is given command of Rome’s forces in Asia Minor, after having destroyed piracy in the Adriatic Sea in 67 BC
+ 64 BC: Pompey’s campaigns in the East result in a complete victory for Rome – Fall of Pontus and the Seleucids – The Armenian and Hasmonean kingdoms become Roman vassals – The provinces of Bithynia et Pontus, Cilicia and Syria are established

73 – 71 BC:
Third Servile War
A slave uprising led by Spartacus cuts a bloody swathe through southern Italy, but is ultimately crushed by the legions of Marcus Licinius Crassus

70 BC
Consulate of Pompey and Crassus

63 – 62 BC:
Conspiracy of Lucius Sergius Catilina
An alleged attempt to overthrow the Republic is exposed and eliminated by Cicero

62 BC
Pompey returns to Italy in triumph and disbands his legions with the promise of a land distribution, which is refused by the Senate

60 BC
The First Triumvirate is concluded: a private agreement of mutual political support and cooperation between Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar

59 BC
Pompey and Crassus get Caesar elected as consul – Caesar authorises a provincial tax reform and Pompey’ land distribution – Caesar becomes governor of the provinces Gallia Cisalpina (northern Italy), Gallia Narbonensis and Illyricum for five years

58 BC
The Romans take over the island of Cyprus

58 – 51 BC:
Roman conquest of Gaul by Caesar’s legions
+ 58 BC: the Romans smash the Helvetii at the Battle of Bibractes and the Suebi near the Rhine
+ 57 BC: the Belgic tribes are subdued
+ 56 BC: successful Roman campaigns against the tribes in Armorica and Aquitania
+ 55 BC: attacks by the Germanic Tencteri and Usipetes are repelled – Roman forces cross the Rhine for the first time – Roman forces reach the British Isles for the first time
+ 55 BC: consulate of Pompey and Crassus – The Triumvirate divides up Rome’s proconsular provinces; Pompey receives Spain, Caesar receives Gaul and Crassus receives Syria
+ 54 BC: Caesar invades the British Isles in full force and is victorious against the Britons led by Cassivellaunus before returning to Gaul – Uprising of the Eburones, Nervi and Treveri
+ 53 BC: Caesar ruthlessly destroys the revolting Belgic tribes and pursues the survivors across the Rhine
+ 52 BC: major Gallic uprisings led by Vercingetorix end in a Roman victory at Alesia – Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar and is brought to Rome, where he is executed in 46 BC
+ 51 BC: Caesar finishes the conquest of Gaul

53 BC:
Battle of Carrhae
Crassus’ invasion of Parthia ends with a humiliating Roman defeat and his death

52 BC
Pompey is elected consul without colleague (consul sine collega) after riots in Rome

50 BC
Caesar refuses the Senate’s demand to disband his armies and crosses the Rubicon (“alea iacta est”)

49 – 45 BC: Civil war of Caesar against Pompey and the Pompeian faction in the Senate
+ 49 BC: Caesar takes Rome and conquers Italy – Pompey and much of the Senate flee to Greece – Caesar turns around and invades Spain within a month, defeating Pompeian forces at the Battle of Ilerda 
+ 9 August 48 BC: a decisive Caesarian victory at the Battle of Pharsalus, Pompey flees to Egypt and is assassinated by order of Ptolemy XIII
+ 48 – 47 BC: Caesar enters Egypt, defeats Ptolemy XIII and gives the Ptolemaic realm to Cleopatra VII under Roman protection – Caesar and Cleopatra have a child, Caesarion
+ 47 BC: Caesar defeats Pharnaces of Pontus at the Battle of Zela (“veni, vidi, vici”)
+ 46 BC: the Battle of Thapsus ends in a decisive Caesarian victory – Caesar becomes dictator and praefectus moribus
+ 45 BC: Caesar defeats the last Pompeian forces at the Battle of Munda in Spain and becomes dictator perpetuus, imperator and pontifex maximus – Caesar authorises an enlargement of the Senate to 900 members, a census of Roman citizens, municipial reforms in Italy, provincial reforms, a calendar reform (Julian calendar) and land distributions for veterans

15 March 44 BC
A senatorial conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius assassinates Caesar on the Ides of March

43 BC
The Second Triumvirate is concluded between Caesar’s former generals Antony and Lepidus and Caesar’s grand-nephew and heir Octavian

42 BC
Antony and Octavian defeat Brutus and Cassius at the twin Battles of Philippi

40 BC
The Treaty of Brundisium divides the Roman world between the Triumvirs: Antony in the east, Octavian in the west, Lepidus in the south with Italy as joint territory (but de facto under Octavian)

38 BC
The Second Triumvirate is renewed for five years

36 BC
Antony marries Cleopatra VII and allegedly plans to build a Roman-Egyptian empire – Octavian and his able general Vispanius Agrippa defeat Sextus Pompey on Sicily – Lepidus is made pontifex maximus and thus politically removed from the Triumvirate

32 – 30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic – Rome (pro-Octavian) declares war on Ptolemaic Egypt (pro-Antony)
+ 2 September 31 BC: Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium
+ 1-3 August 30 BC: Octavian enters Alexandria – Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide
+ Rome annexes Egypt

27 BC
+ 13 January: Octavian nominally returns power to the Senate and restores the Roman Republic
+ 16 January: Octavian is given the honorary title of Augustus by the Senate and begins establishing the Principate – The ‘end’ of Republican Rome and beginning of Imperial Rome under Augustus as ‘emperor’ (princeps, ‘first citizen’)
+ The bulk of Roman holdings in Spain is turned into the new province of Hispania Tarraconensis
+ The provinces of Epirus and Achaea are created out of Macedonia

25 BC
Galatia becomes a Roman province

22 BC
Augustus and Agrippa reorganise Caesar’s Gallic conquests into three new provinces; Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Lugdunensis and Gallia Belgica – The island of Cyprus is made into a province of its own

20 BC
Augustus reaches an agreement with the Parthian Empire by which the legionary eagles lost by Crassus at Carrhae in 53 BC are returned

19 BC
Augustus finishes the conquest and pacification of Spain

17 BC
Augustus declares ‘world peace’ (pax Augusta)

16 – 15 BC
Roman forces led by Augustus’ stepsons Tiberius and Drusus establish the provinces of Raetia and Noricum

14 BC
Most of the western Alps are brought under Roman control by the creation of the provinces of Alpes Maritimae and Alpes Poeninae

13 BC
The provinces of Hispania Lusitania and Hispania Baetica are created, finishing the administrative reorganisation of Spain

13 – 9 BC
Agrippa and Tiberius subdue the Pannonians

12 BC
Agrippa, Augustus’ favourite general and would-be heir, dies

12 – 9 BC
Drusus subjugates the Frisii, Batavi and Chauci, drives off the Quadi and Marcomanni and successfully advances to the Elbe, where he dies

8 – 6 BC
Tiberius takes up command of the Roman armies in Germania and advances to the Elbe

7 BC
Augustus reorganises the administration of Italy

4 BC
Augustus adopts Tiberius and appoints him as heir to the Principate

AD 4
Tiberius begins constructing roads and legionary camps in Germania, in anticipation of its annexation as a Roman province

AD 6
Rome establishes the province of Iudaea

AD 6 – 9
A revolt of the Pannonians is crushed

AD 9: Battle of Teutoburger Forest (Clades Variana)
Led by Arminius, the Cherusci ambush and destroy three Roman legions – Rome abandons Germania and retreats to the Rhine

AD 10
The province of Illyricum is split up into the new provinces of Pannonia­ and Dalmatia

AD 14
+ 18 August: Death of Augustus
+ 18 September: Tiberius is declared the new emperor

AD 14 – 16: Tiberius’ nephew Germanicus leads Roman reprisals against the Germanic tribes for the Teutoburg defeat
+AD 14: Germanicus’ legions are victorious against the Marsi, Bructeri and Usipetes
+ AD 15: Germanicus drives the Chattii from their lands and destroys their capital Mattium
+ AD 15: Roman forces enter the battlefield at Teutoburg and bury the Roman dead still lying there
+ AD 16: Arminius’ horde is crushed by the Romans at the Battle of the Weser
+ AD 16: Germanicus recaptures the legionary eagles lost at the disaster of Teutoburg, retreats to the Rhine and is recalled to Rome by Tiberius, where he is given a triumph

AD 17
Rome creates the province of Cappadocia

AD 19
Germanicus dies in Syria, Tiberius loses his favoured general and would-be heir

AD 26
Tiberius goes to live on the island of Capri, embittered and disillusioned (tristissimus hominum)

AD 26 – 29
Tiberius’ Praetorian Prefect Sejanus seizes Tiberius’ retirement from Rome to further his own ambitions – Countless public trials, executions and forced suicides happen at Sejanus’ instigation

AD 31
Sejanus plots to assassinate Tiberius, but is himself executed first – Tiberius orders the infamous treason trials: anyone associated with Sejanus must be arrested and killed

AD 37
+ 16 March: Tiberius dies, leaving his teenage grandson Tiberius Gemella and his adoptive grandson Gaius Caesar Germanicus as joint-heirs
+ 24 March: Gaius Caesar Germanicus, better known by his childhood nickname Caligula (‘little soldier boot’), becomes the new emperor – Caligula stops the treason trials and recalls senators exiled by Tiberius
+ October: Caligula nearly dies of illness, possibly poisoning, but recovers (at least physically)

AD 38
Caligula returns the right to elect the magistracy to the Roman people – Caligula’s sister Drusilla dies, further embittering the already unstable emperor

AD 38 – 39
Caligula works to turn the semi-republican Principate into an oriental Hellenic monarchy after Alexander the Great and the Achaemenids and liquidates any who might oppose him

AD 40
Caligula annexes the vassal kingdom of Mauretania after executing its king Ptolemy

24 January AD 41
Caligula is assassinated by Praetorian and senatorial conspirators – His uncle Claudius is proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard

AD 43
Claudius begins a Roman invasion of the British Isles – The new province of Britannia is established and gradually expanded (finished by AD 78)

AD 44
Claudius splits up Mauretania into the new provinces of Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis

AD 46
Claudius establishes the province of Thracia

13 October AD 54
Claudius is murdered by his fourth wife Agrippina – Agrippina’s son (Claudius’ adopted son) Nero becomes the new emperor

AD 58 – 63
War with the Parthian Empire over Armenia ends in a compromise peace

AD 59
Nero has his mother Agrippina murdered

AD 61
Rome crushes a Briton revolt

AD 62
Nero reintroduces trials presided over by the emperor, uses excessive violence against any who oppose him but focuses on enacting decrees and reforms popular with the masses

AD 64
The Great Fire of Rome starts on 18 July: over the course of several days, Rome largely burns down – Nero organises rescue efforts, provides shelter and food to those rendered homeless – Nero blames the fledgling Christian community for the fire and orders the first persecutions of Christians – Nero orders the construction of the Golden House (Domus Aurea) on the Palatine Hill in Rome

AD 64
The province of Alpes Cottiae is created

AD 65: Conspiracy of Piso
An attempt to eliminate Nero fails

AD 66 – 73: First Jewish-Roman War – Religious tension and resistance to taxation spark a Jewish revolt against Rome
+ AD 66: Jewish rebels overtake the Roman garrison of Jerusalem after the Romans execute thousands of Jews
+ AD 66: Jewish rebels deal a crushing defeat to the Romans at the Battle of Beth Heron
+ AD 67: Nero sends future emperor Vespasian to deal with the Jewish revolt – Roman forces systematically destroy Galilee to isolate the rebels in Jerusalem – The Romans besiege and destroy Yodfat
+ AD 68 – 69: infighting in Jerusalem severely weakens the Jewish rebels
+ AD 69: Vespasian journeys to Rome to become emperor, leaving his son Titus in command of the war
+ February AD 70: Roman legions under Titus surround and besiege Jerusalem – Infighting and starvation continue to weaken the defenders
+ August AD 70: Titus’ legions break into Jerusalem, burning nearly the entire city (including the Temple of Herod) and killing most of its inhabitants
+ AD 71: Titus returns to Rome but a few pockets of Jewish rebellion continue to resist
+ AD 72 – 73: Rome begins the Siege of Massada, the last Jewish centre of resistance
+ 16 April 73 AD: the defenders of Massada commit mass suicide as the fortress falls to the Romans

AD 68
Gaius Julius Vindex (governor of Gallia Lugdunensis), Marcus Salvius Otho (governor of Hispania Lusitania) and Servius Sulpicius Galba (governor of Hispania Tarraconensis) rebel against Nero – Nero flees Rome and ultimately commits suicide – End of the Julio-Claudian dynasty

AD 69
Year of the Four Emperors (Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian) – The Batavian Revolt breaks loose, but is crushed by AD 70

21 December AD 69
Vespasian is proclaimed emperor by the Senate – Beginning of the Flavian dynasty

AD 74
Rome incorporates the region between the Rhine and Danube (agri decumates)

AD 79
+ 23 June: Vespasian dies and is succeeded by his son Titus
+ 24 August: Mount Vesuvius erupts and destroys the cities of Pompeii, Stabiae and Herculaneum – Titus visits Pompeii shortly after and personally compensates the survivors

AD 80
A fire ravages Rome for three days and nights: Titus again pays for reparations and compensations to the afflicted – The Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium) is finished and inaugurated

13 September AD 81
Titus dies and is succeeded by his younger brother Domitian

AD 83
Domitian organises the provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior and orders the construction of the limites in the Rhine-Danube frontier region

AD 84
Significant Roman incursions into Scotland

AD 85 – 89
Rome goes to war with the Dacian tribes led by Decebalus after a Dacian invasion of Moesia – Decebalus becomes a Roman client king, in return for financial support – Domitian creates the provinces of Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior

18 September AD 96
Domitian is assassinated by a conspiracy between the Praetorian Guard and imperial freedmen – Marcus Cocceius Nerva is declared emperor – Beginning of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty

AD 97
Nerva adopts Trajan as his heir

AD 98
Nerva dies after a fifteen month rule – Trajan becomes the new emperor

AD 101 – 102, AD 105: Roman-Dacian Wars
Trajan’s legions cross the Danube and subdue the Dacian tribes

AD 106
The province of Dacia is established – Most of Nabataea is turned into the province of Arabia

AD 107
Trajan devaluates the Roman denarius to increase his funds

AD 114
Trajan is given the title Optimus by the Senate – Roman forces occupy the Kingdom of Armenia, turning it into the new province of Armenia

AD 115: Second Jewish-Roman War
Jews engage in uprisings in the provinces of Cyrenaica, Aegyptus, Cyprus and Iudaea but are defeated by AD 117

AD 115 – 116
Trajan leads the Roman invasion of the Parthian Empire and establishes the new provinces of Mesopotamia and Assyria – Roman forces sack the Parthian capital at Ctesiphon and reach the Persian Gulf

9 August 117
Trajan dies, leaving the Roman Empire at its greatest extent ever – Hadrian, the governor of Syria, is declared emperor with the support of Trajan’s widow Pompeia

AD 118
Hadrian restores the Euphrates as Rome’s eastern frontier in return for peace with Parthia

AD 121 – 125, AD 126 – 129
Hadrian travels all across the empire to personally supervise its administrative and military conducts

AD 122
Hadrian orders the construction of his famous Wall in Britain

AD 123
Hadrian prevents a new war with Parthia through diplomacy

AD 125
The Pantheon in Rome is rebuilt by order of Hadrian

AD 130
Rome outlaws the execution of slaves without a trial

AD 131
Hadrian orders Jerusalem (essentially destroyed since AD 70) rebuilt as the Roman colony Aelia Capitolina

AD 132
The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens is finished after c. 630 years and dedicated by Hadrian

AD 132 – 135: Bar Kokhba Revolt (Third Jewish-Roman War)
Rome’s plan to rebuild Jerusalem as a Roman colony provokes the Jews of Judea to enter open revolt under the leadership of Bar Kokhba – Despite heavy losses, Rome overwhelms the Jewish rebels by AD 135 – By order of Hadrian, the Jews of Judea are systematically annihilated, Jerusalem is rebuilt and renamed as Aelia Capitolina and the Roman province of Iudaea is merged into Syria

AD 138
+ 25 February: Hadrian adopts Antoninus as his son and heir
+ 10 July: Hadrian dies of heart failure after a prolonged period of illness and is succeeded by Antoninus

AD 139
Hadrian’s ashes are given their final resting place in his own mausoleum (Mausoleum Hadriani), known today as the Castle of the Holy Angel in Rome

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Undevicesimus's avatar
UndevicesimusStudent Digital Artist
cdmonte's avatar
It 's a great and amazing work!!!
Undevicesimus's avatar
UndevicesimusStudent Digital Artist
Thank you! :bow:
Wartsila's avatar
AD122. Hadrian builds a big wall 77 miles long to defend against Scotland. Hadrian was defeated in Scotland three times. 7th and 9th legions were both lost without trace and many people are still looking for there remnants. Glen Coe area is most lightly where there last resting place was.
Undevicesimus's avatar
UndevicesimusStudent Digital Artist
Thanks :bow:
AdunaiSunfury's avatar
Oh my God, all those provinces with precise borders! And with dates! But are you sure that Tyra and Olbia were part of the Empire? Surely, they had Roman garrisons, but were they included in Moesia?
RD-DD1843's avatar
Very well done and great chronology of events.
Undevicesimus's avatar
UndevicesimusStudent Digital Artist
Thank you! :bow:
Wisplithe's avatar
WisplitheStudent Digital Artist
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UndevicesimusStudent Digital Artist
Taylor-Denna's avatar
Taylor-DennaStudent Digital Artist
How much research do you do!? This is so detailed and amazing!
Undevicesimus's avatar
UndevicesimusStudent Digital Artist
Well, alot of research ^^;
Thank you! :bow:
YamaLlama1986's avatar
YamaLlama1986 Digital Artist
An excellent highly detailed map. :) I've noticed the works done here to depict historical borders are often of better quality than maps in standard history books. Amazing.
Undevicesimus's avatar
UndevicesimusStudent Digital Artist
Thank you so much! :bow:
K-Haderach's avatar
Hey, I was just coming back to look at this awesome map (and to show it to a friend), and I noticed you added watermarks to all your maps. I can see why that is necessary, but is there any chance you could make non-watermarked versions available for your loyal fans, maybe just for a limited time? :)
grassa48's avatar
grassa48Hobbyist Writer
You do good work. Thank you.
Undevicesimus's avatar
UndevicesimusStudent Digital Artist
Tilebus7's avatar
Tilebus7Professional General Artist
That allot of history.
Do you make these yourself?
Undevicesimus's avatar
UndevicesimusStudent Digital Artist
Yes, of course.
Tilebus7's avatar
Tilebus7Professional General Artist
What a mind job
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