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The Crusader States to 1291



+ March 1095: Byzantine emperor Alexius II sends pope Urban II a plea for military help against the Seljuk Turks
+ 27 November 1095: pope Urban II urges western Christians to come to the aid of their eastern counterparts in an enthusiastically received sermon ('Deus vult' – God wills it) at the Council of Clermont

+ 20 April 1096: Peter the Hermit and his followers set out on the so-called People's Crusade
+ May 1096: Many Jewish communities in the Rhineland are massacred by mobs of the People's Crusade
+ 21 October 1096: the People's Crusade is crushed by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Civetot in Anatolia

1096-1099: First Crusade
+ August 1096: crusader armies set out under the leadership of Godfrey of Bouillon, Robert of Normandy, Baldwin of Boulogne, Robert II of Flanders, Raymond of Toulouse, Bohemond of Taranto and Tancred of Taranto
+ May-June 1097: Byzantine-crusader victory over the Seljuk Turks at the Siege of Nicaea
+ 1 July 1097: Seljuk Turks are defeated at the Battle of Dorylaeum
+ 21 October 1097: the crusaders begin the Siege of Antioch
+ March 1098: Christians of Edessa surrender the city to Baldwin of Boulogne – County of Edessa founded
+ 3 June 1098: Antioch is taken by the crusaders – Principality of Antioch founded
+ 7 June 1099: the crusaders reach Jerusalem
+ 15 July 1099: Jerusalem is taken
+ 22 July 1099: Godfrey of Bouillon is declared 'Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre' – Kingdom of Jerusalem founded
+ 12 August 1099: crusader victory at the Battle of Ascalon

County of Tripoli founded after capture of Tortosa – Siege of Tripoli begins

+ 27 August 1105: the Fatimids are defeated at the Battle of Ramla, the last major Fatimid attempt at retaking the Holy Land from the crusaders

+ 12 July 1109: Tripoli is taken by the crusaders

+ 13 May 1110: Beirut falls to the crusaders

Knights Hospitaller recognised by the pope Paschal II

Knights Templar founded

+ 7 July 1124: Tyre falls to the Crusaders

+ 11 October 1138: an earthquake destroys Aleppo

Krak des Chevaliers is granted to the Knights Hospitaller, who strengthen its fortifications

Edessa is captured by the Muslims – County of Edessa ceases to exist

1145-1149: Second Crusade
+ December 1145: in response to the fall of Edessa, pope Eugene III calls for a new crusader effort in his bull 'Quantum praedecessores'
+ March 1146: the Second Crusade is preached by St. Bernard of Clairvaux
+ June 1147: two crusader hosts set out under the leadership of the French king Louis VII and German king Conrad III – pope Eugene III extends crusader status to Germans campaigning against the pagan Wends in Pomerania, an effort known as the Wendish Crusade
+ 1 July 1147: a crusader contingent from England en route to the Holy Land stops to help the Portuguese in their Siege of Lisbon against the Moors
+ September 1147: the Byzantines defeat the German crusaders at the Battle of Constantinople
+ 24 October 1147: Lisbon is taken
+ 25 October 1147: Seljuk victory over the German crusaders at the Battle of Dorylaeum
+ 6 January 1148: Seljuk victory over the French crusaders at the Battle of Mount Cadmus
+ 24-29 July 1148: aided by the Kingdom of Jerusalem and still led by Louis VII and Conrad III, the Franco-German crusaders attempt but fail to siege Damascus

Kurdish general Saladin comes to power in Egypt and quickly expands into the Near East, establishing the Ayyubid dynasty

+ 4 July 1187: at the Battle of Hattin, Saladin obliterates the army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and captures its king Guy of Lusignan
+ 2 October 1187: Saladin takes Jerusalem – Kingdom of Jerusalem ceases to exist

1189-1191: Third Crusade
+ May 1189: Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa sets out at the head of a crusader host said to number close to 100,000
+ August 1189: Guy of Lusignan, former king of Jerusalem and recently released from captivity, begins the Siege of Acre after being denied control of Tyre by Conrad of Monferrat
+ 18 May 1190: decisive crusader victory over the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Iconium
+ 10 June 1190: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns while crossing the Saleph, causing most of his army to return home – The remaining crusaders continue under the leadership of Frederick's son Frederick IV of Swabia
+ July 1190: Philip II of France and Richard I the Lionheart of England join the crusade
+ 20 April 1191: Philip II arrives at Acre
+ May 1191: Richard the Lionheart conquers Cyprus
+ 8 June 1191: Richard the Lionheart arrives at Acre
+ 12 July 1191: Acre falls to the crusaders
+ 31 July 1191: Philip II returns to France, leaving Richard the Lionheart in command of the crusade
+ August 1191: Richard the Lionheart leads the crusader army south from Acre along the coast
+ 7 September 1191: Saladin attacks the crusaders at Arsuf but is defeated
+ April 1192: Cyprus revolts
+ 8 August 1192: decisive crusader victory at the Battle of Jaffa
+ 2 September 1192: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin agree to the Treaty of Jaffa which includes a three year truce, free passage of Christians to Muslim-held Jerusalem and Christian control of a coastal strip reaching from Tyre to Jaffa

+ 4 March 1193: Saladin dies in Damascus

+ March 1198: originally German caretakers of a hospital at the Siege of Acre, the Teutonic Order is turned into a military organisation based in Acre
+ August 1198: Pope Innocent III calls for an attack on Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt

+ 6 April: Richard the Lionheart dies of a crossbow wound while besieging Châlus in France

1202-1204: Fourth Crusade
+ November 1202: crusaders take the port city of Zara from Hungary for Venice in exchange for being transported by the Venetian fleet – pope Innocent III excommunicates the crusaders and Venice
+ 1203: Byzantine prince Alexius IV offers the crusaders vast payments if they capture Constantinople and support his deposed father Isaac II's claim to the Byzantine throne – The Venetians, expelled from Constantinople since 1182, eagerly divert the crusade there
+ 6 April 1203: Constantinople is reached by the crusaders
+ 17 July 1203: Constantinople is taken for the first time by the crusaders – Isaac II and Alexius IV become Byzantine co-emperors
+ February 1204: the Byzantine nobility deposes Isaac II and murders Alexius IV
+ 12 April 1204: Constantinople is taken again and thoroughly sacked by the crusaders – Latin Empire founded with Baldwin of Flanders as emperor

Children's Crusade: two separate crusader movements, allegedly involving thousands of children, march through France and the Holy Roman Empire. The former, led by the twelve year old Stephan of Cloyes, is largely dispersed in Paris at the command of the French king Phillip II; the latter, led by one Nicolas of Cologne, crosses the Alps into Italy and reaches the Papal States, from where most participants are sent home at the behest of pope Innocent III. Another version of the Children's Crusade tells of a host of some 30,000 child crusaders attempting to reach the Holy Land by setting sail to Alexandria from Marseilles. Most participants are allegedly sold into slavery by the merchants commanding their ships.

1215-1221: Fifth Crusade
+ April 1215: Pope Innocent III calls for a new crusade in his bull 'Quia maior'
+ August 1217: led by Andrew II of Hungary and transported by the Venetians, a crusader army sets out to the Holy Land
+ October 1217: Andrew II reaches Cyprus, from where he sails for Acre
+ November-December 1217: Andrew II and his forces campaign fruitlessly against the Ayyubids
+ February 1218: Andrew II returns to Hungary
+ June 1218: a German crusader army arrives to besiege the Ayyubid port city of Damietta in Egypt
+ November 1219: Damietta falls to the crusaders – Crusader advance towards Cairo
+ November 1220: Damietta retaken by the Ayyubids

1228-1229: Sixth Crusade
Despite being excommunicated for not honouring his crusader vows, Holy Roman emperor Frederick II leads a host to the Holy Land and negotiates a treaty with the Ayyubids which leaves him in control of Jerusalem, Jaffa, Bethlehem, Nazareth and Sidon – Kingdom of Jerusalem restored

+ 11 July 1244: Jerusalem falls to Muslim control again – Kingdom of Jerusalem falls but formally continues to exist at Acre

1248-1254: Seventh Crusade
+ 1248: French king Louis IX and his crusader army set sail for Egypt
+ June 1249: the crusaders reach and take Damietta
+ November 1249: the crusaders begin marching towards Cairo
+ 11 February 1250: Ayyubid victory at the Battle of al-Mansurah
+ 6 April 1250: Ayyubid victory at the Battle of Fariskur

The Ayyubid sultan Turanshah is murdered by his slave general Aybak – Mamluks take over Egypt

Byzantine Empire is restored

Mamluks take Antioch – Principality of Antioch ceases to exist

1270: Eighth Crusade
French king Louis IX launches a crusade to take Tunis but dies soon after landing

Krak des Chevaliers falls to the Mamluks

County of Tripoli is conquered by the Mamluks

Mamluks take Acre – Crusader States effectively cease to exist in the Levant

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BricksandStones's avatar
Awesome map - well done!