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Prehistoric Beasts - Titanoboa - Biggest Snake ,

IntroductionHi, welcome to Enchiridion. I am honored to share with you these facts on the legendary Titanoboa!Throughout history, humans have always feared giant snakes, which symbolize death, evil, and destruction. From the famous snake in the garden of Eden to Jormungandr, the Viking sea serpent to the Leviathan from the Book of Job, massive snakes have formed a staple part of feared historical creatures, producing feelings of dread, fright, horror, and terror. Titanoboa was a very large snake that lived in what is now La Guajira in northeastern Colombia. They could grow up to 42 feet, or 12.8 meters long and reach a weight of 2,500 pounds, or 1,135 kilograms. Fossils of Titanoboa have been found in the Cerrejón Formation, and date to around 58 to 60 million years ago. This giant snake lived during the Middle to Late Paleocene epoch, a 10-million-year period immediately following the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event. The only known species is Titanoboa cerrejonensis, the largest snake ever discovered, which surpassed the previous record holder, Gigantophis.DiscoveryIn 2009, the fossils of 28 (twenty-eight) individuals of Titanoboa cerrejonensis were found in the Cerrejón Formation of the coal mines of Cerrejón in La Guajira, Colombia. Prior to this discovery, few fossils of Paleocene-epoch vertebrates had been found in ancient tropical environments of South America. The snake was discovered on an expedition by a team of international scientists led by Jonathan Bloch, a University of Florida vertebrate paleontologist, and Carlos Jaramillo, a paleobotanist from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama. HabitatTitanoboa inhabited the first recorded tropical forest in South America. It shared its ecosystem with large crocodylomorphs and turtles. The paleogeography of the Late Paleocene was a sheltered paralic, or coastal swamp area, sheltered by the emerging later Guajira hills in the west and the slowly rising present-day Serranía del Perijá in the east, with an open connection to the proto-Caribbean in the north. In this environment, the tropical aquatic ferns of the genus Salvinia flourished, as evidenced by fossils found in Cerrejón, the Bogotá Formation and the Palermo Formation. DescriptionHow Big was Titanoboa and Why Did It Grow So Large?When first described in 2009, Titanoboa was estimated to have been about 42 feet, or 12.8 meters long. This meant that in terms of length, Titanoboa was larger than the previous record holder for the largest-ever snake, Gigantophis, by a significant margin. Later modelling shown as part of the Smithsonian documentary Titanoboa: Monster Snake suggested a total length of about 47.9 feet, or 14.6 meters, a figure that has since been commonly rounded off to 49.2 feet, or 15 meters by others.PaleobiologyGrowth Due To Higher TemperaturesReptiles are typically believed to grow in accordance with the available ambient temperature of a climate. This is the case because higher temperatures that remain fairly constant throughout the year with very little seasonal variation allow ectothermic, or cold-blooded animals to maintain an optimum metabolism for longer periods of time. The size of Titanoboa cerrejonensis has also provided clues as to the earth’s climate during its existence; largely because snakes are ectothermic, or relying on environmental heat sources. This means that bodily functions like respiration, digestion, and circulation, among others, all become drastically more efficient, and a greater amount of energy can be set aside for other areas like growth. In reference to the larger size of Titanoboa, this could suggest that sixty (60) million years ago, global temperatures, specifically at the equator yet quite possibly further away, were considerably higher than those we know today. The discovery implies that the tropics, the creature’s habitat, must have been warmer than previously thought, averaging about 90 degrees Fahrenheit, or 32 degrees Celsius. This is the case because today, the largest known snakes which live close to the equator can commonly attain sizes of 16.4 to 19.7 feet, or 5 (five) to 6 (six) meters in length, with rarer individuals approaching 21.3 to 23 feet, or 6.5 (six and a half) to 7 (seven) meters in length. In other words, the warmer climate of the Earth during the time of Titanoboa cerrejonensis allowed cold-blooded snakes to attain much larger sizes than modern snakes. Nowadays, larger ectothermic animals are found in the tropics, where it is hottest, and smaller ones are found farther from the equator. Disagreement With Climate EstimateOther researchers disagree with the previously mentioned climate estimate. For instance, a 2009 study in the Journal Nature applying the mathematical model used in the aforementioned study to an ancient lizard fossil from temperate Australia predicts that lizards currently living in tropical areas should be capable of reaching 33 to 46 feet, or 10 to 14 meters in length, which is not the case.In another critique published in the same journal, Mark Denny, a specialist in biomechanics, noted that the snake was so large and was producing so much metabolic heat that the ambient temperature must have been 4 (four) to 6 (six) degrees cooler than the current estimate, or the snake would have overheated. DescriptionDubious Sensationalized SizesTitanoboa is usually credited as being around 42.7 to 49.2 feet, or 13 (thirteen) to 15 (fifteen) meters long, though it must be considered that as a genus, very little fossil remains of Titanoboa are currently known. It isn’t inconceivable that Titanoboa may have possibly been even larger, yet we must be cautious because reconstructions should always be based upon existing fossil material. In comparison to modern snakes that are alive today, the largest snake by body weight is the Green Anaconda (Eunectes murinus), which is credited as attaining a length of just over 21.3 feet, or 6.5 (six and a half) meters. Nonetheless, the largest snake by body length is the Reticulated Python (Python reticulatus) which is credited as approaching 23 (twenty-three) feet, or 7 (seven) meters in length for the largest individuals. Historical Eyewitnesses Of Giant Snakes and Confusing SizesOn an additional note, the Green Anaconda and Reticulated Python are both commonly cited as being larger than these figures, but by how much can vary greatly by source, with ten different sources giving you ten different estimates. There have also been many eyewitness accounts, especially dating back to the 18th (eighteenth) and 19th (nineteenth) centuries of far larger anacondas and pythons that would have been bigger than Titanoboa. Nonetheless, there is no proof of these monster snakes, and even many modern estimates have since been proven to be invalid. A problem is that most large snakes reported to science are usually dead, and when being preserved, snake skin can stretch by a surprising degree, with the skin from a 16.4 feet, or 5 (five) meter long snake feasibly being capable of being stretched out to 24.6 feet, or 7.5 (seven and a half) meters in length, giving the false impression to later viewers that a snake was half as big than it actually was. This is why only measurements of live snakes taken by those who are experienced in handling and measuring snakes are paid any attention by the scientific community. Size By GenderPrior to moving on to the next section, I want to clarify Titanoboa’s size by gender. There is an observable pattern amongst snakes in that females usually grow larger than males. Although remains of Titanoboa are still too few to conclusively illustrate a difference between male and female Titanoboa, it would actually be unusual if female Titanoboa were not larger than males. When and Where Did Titanoboa Live? Titanoboa fossils are so far only known from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia in South America. The Cerrejón Formation represents what is currently the earliest-known occurrence of Neotropical rainforests, or rainforests of Central and South America. The area of the Cerrejón Formation that the Titanoboa holotype fossils are known from has been established as going back to the Selandian of the Paleocene. This means that Titanoboa are known to have lived about 60 (sixty) million years ago give or take a few million years, and approximately five million years after the KT extinction which marks the end of the Mesozoic and the disappearance of the dinosaurs. During this time, Titanoboa would have lived and hunted in low-lying rainforests that had an extensive system of rivers that criss-crossed over the landscape. PaleobiologyHow Did Titanoboa Kill? Snakes are typically what you would term generalists that will tend to eat whatever they can catch. This is especially true for constrictors that don’t rely upon venom to subdue prey, and therefore have no reliance upon working venom which may have different effects on different types of creatures or prey. Anyhow, by constricting, the method of killing is asphyxiation from the prey having its lungs squeezed by the muscular coils of a snake such that the lungs can’t expand to take in fresh oxygenated air. ConstrictorsWhereas constrictors don’t have fangs for injecting venom, they still have rows of teeth that grow in rows within the upper and lower jaws. These teeth are typically very thin yet pointed sharp like needles, and are adapted for puncturing soft tissues and holding prey in place. A specific adaptation to this purpose is that these teeth are usually strongly recurved. This means that the teeth bend like curved hooks so that the points of the teeth actually project to the rear of the mouth and the opening of the throat. Due to the shape, when these teeth hook into the flesh of a prey animal, there is no way for that animal to pull itself free. For instance, if a constrictor like an anaconda or python ever latched on to something like your hand, the worst thing that you could do is immediately try to pull it out because you would only drive the snake’s teeth deeper into your own flesh. Instead, you would first have to push your hand deeper into the snake’s mouth, and then open the jaws before you were able to pull your hand free. Probably Recurved TeethThough only partial skull and jaw bones have been discovered, Titanoboa would still be expected to have had rows of recurved teeth within the mouth. In the first instance, the teeth would have been used to dig into the flesh of a prey animal. In turn, this would enable the head to gain a secure hold onto the prey so that no matter how hard the prey struggled, there was no way for the prey to pull itself free by brute force. With a secure hold, the Titanoboa could then coil its massive body around the body of the prey and simply squeeze. With a body made mostly of muscle, even a moderately sized Titanoboa would have been capable of inflicting severe pressures against the body and most importantly the lungs of its prey with very little effort on its own part. Great Range Of Movement For The MouthMaking an actual kill could actually have only taken a matter of minutes for a Titanoboa, yet the actual eating of the prey would have been considerably longer. The known skull and jaw remains of Titanoboa show that it would have had a similar head construction to other constrictor snakes like anacondas, meaning that the lower jaws would have extended past the back of the skull to allow for an even greater range of movement for opening the mouth. In addition to that, the lower jaws would have not only been unfused at the front, they were also capable of independent movement to one another, meaning that not only could the lower jaws come apart for an even greater opening, but that the snake could have moved up one jaw, then the other, in a fashion that would allow the mouth to ‘walk’ over the body of its prey. Again, the recurved teeth would have been a great benefit, because one side could anchor the head in position while the other part moved along, and vice-versa. DigestionOnce the body of the prey was within the stomach of the Titanoboa, stomach acids would have dissolved all parts of the animal, from soft flesh to hard bone. How long it takes to digest an animal will of course depend upon the size of the prey, with bigger animals that have more mass taking longer, simply because there is just more to dissolve. Metabolism is also a factor, and the closer a snake comes to its optimum temperature, the more efficient the digestion process. Hunting BehaviorIn terms of actual hunting behavior, the sheer size of a large Titanoboa would mean that it would have been incapable of moving through the tree canopy like numerous smaller forms, and so Titanoboa probably spent their time slithering around trees as opposed to trying to climb them. The large size of a Titanoboa body, particularly the associated weight, would also mean that a Titanoboa would have been physically cumbersome when moving over the land. Nonetheless, when lurking within the undergrowth, a Titanoboa would have still been capable of initiating a lightning fast ambush strike at a passing prey animal while hidden within the undergrowth. Titanoboa In The WaterTitanoboa would have been at their most dangerous when in the water. When in the water, body weight means very little because the buoyancy of the water would counteract the effects of gravity upon the body, which is also the same reason why marine animals like whales grow to such massive sizes. This would mean that even a large Titanoboa would have been very quick when moving through the water as well as expending comparatively little energy to do so than what it would have had to do if on land. Another advantage of hunting in the water is that the sheer bulk of the body of Titanoboa would have been hidden by the water. When striking animals that were on or near the surface, the surface sheen of the water would have hidden any approach from a Titanoboa submerged under the surface, while the Titanoboa would have been able to lock on to the silhouette of its targeted prey. Additionally, Titanoboa would have been capable of lurking upon the bottom of a body of water and holding its breath for a considerable amount of time, waiting for other animals swimming through the water which it could then strike at from below. What Did Titanoboa Eat? Snakes are typically generalists, even species which may display a preference for certain types of animals through specific patterns of hunting behavior, will attempt strikes on other animals if they think they have an opportunity for a meal. In determining what Titanoboa ate, we have to look to the other known fauna of the Cerrejón Formation. Some animals that immediately stand out are crocodiles, specifically the genera Cerrejonisuchus, Acherontisuchus and Anthracosuchus. Although crocodiles are fearsome predators in their own right, it is a known scientific fact that they can become prey to large snakes that will think nothing of attacking and consuming them. This behavior has been independently witnessed, photographed, and recorded in modern snakes like anacondas, and by extension it seems perfectly plausible that a snake like Titanoboa, known to be much bigger than modern snakes, could have been attacking and eating crocodiles, some of which were comparable in size to modern forms. Prehistoric crocodiles and giant snakes were not the only reptiles present in the Cerrejón Formation, large freshwater turtles much bigger than those we know today were also living there during the Paleocene. These genera include Carbonemys and Puentemys, and both of these turtles are known to have grown so large that it is perhaps highly unlikely that even a Titanoboa could have swallowed them whole. This might in fact be part of the reason why these turtles grew such large shells in the first place, with them being so big, they may have effectively taken themselves off the menu. It could be argued that a large Titanoboa could have crushed a turtle shell with its coils and broken it up, yet this would have taken substantially more effort than just squeezing air out of the lungs, and while snakes are capable of digesting bone and shell, it takes far longer to digest than more ‘fleshy’ prey like crocodiles. Thus, while it might have been possible for Titanoboa to hunt turtles, particularly smaller juveniles, they may have had a preference towards ‘easier’ prey. PiscivorousWhile initially thought to have been an apex predator of the Paleocene ecosystem in which it lived, analysis of the cranial elements of Titanoboa has revealed that it had unique features relative to other boids, or boas. These features include high palatal and marginal tooth position counts, low-angled quadrate orientation, and reduced palatine-pterygoid and ptery. This has pointed to the genus being dominantly piscivorous, or a fish-eater; a trait unique to Titanoboa among all boids, or boas.Fish As Possible PreyThus, a third prospect for Titanoboa prey that still takes people by surprise is large fish. Fish are known to be eaten by snakes, including constrictors like anacondas, and the remains of particularly large lungfish that may have grown to as much as 9.8 feet, or 3 meters long are known from the Cerrejón Formation. A Titanoboa would have certainly been capable of striking at a large fish, yet killing a lungfish may have been a challenge. As long as water passes over the gills you can’t drown a fish like you could a crocodile, and you can’t suffocate a lungfish just by removing it from the water. What makes a lungfish a lungfish is its ability to breath out of water. A Titanoboa could have still killed a lungfish by constriction, such as by closing gill openings under the water, or may have begun swallowing the fish while still alive, and then relied upon that process to asphyxiate the fish. A Titanoboa may have been able to hold onto a lungfish for some time as long as the glottis, the opening in the lower mouth, was not obstructed so that the Titanoboa itself could still breathe. Cannibalism Another subject to cover includes cannibalism. Snakes in the wild are known to eat other snakes, including those of their own species if they spot an individual that is particularly smaller than themselves. If Titanoboa were like other constrictors, then females would have been substantially larger than males, so much so that a male would have been an easy meal for a large female. Female upon male predation has been recorded in modern anacondas.Destroyed FossilsWhat was previously mentioned was speculation based upon the known fauna of the Cerrejón Formation. Other types of animals like birds and mammals were also probably present in the same environment and we simply have not found any fossils for these yet. It is worth noting that not every animal gets fossilized, and in the case of the Cerrejón Formation being a working coal mine, it is almost certain that an uncomfortable number of fossils unknown to us have already been destroyed. ExtinctionWhy Did Titanoboa Go Extinct? In simple terms, no one knows for sure, yet there are two main theories. The first is global temperature change. Today, we can establish a clear correlation between reptile size and ambient climate temperature. The hotter the climate, the larger reptiles seem to get. Those in temperate locations and/or with a strong seasonal variance between hot and cold seem to stay fairly small. However, as you get near the equator, average temperatures rise and seasonal variation is almost non-existent due to the simple fact that daylight exposure to the sun is at a constant. By contrast, extreme north or south latitudes experience extended or reduced daylight hours depending on how the Earth tilts on its rotation as it orbits the sun on its yearly cycle.Declining Average Global TemperaturesBecause temperatures near the equator are more constant, it is easier for reptiles to exploit that ambient temperature. The ambient temperature is also near optimum for reptiles, so that their metabolism is operating as it should, something which many researchers believe allows reptiles living closer to the equator to attain larger sizes because they do not have to be concerned with a high variance in local temperatures. Titanoboa being so large has been taken as an indication that the planet had a higher average global temperature during the Paleocene than previously thought. It is also thought however that average global temperatures were very slowly declining, something that is thought to have contributed towards a global shift from dense forests to open grasslands during later epochs going on towards the Miocene.Replaced By Smaller SnakesOne idea is that Titanoboa may eventually have not been able to maintain their metabolisms due to falling temperatures in their ecosystems, something which may have seen them replaced by smaller snakes that could still operate optimally in the lower temperatures. Other giant snakes like Madtsoia and Gigantophis in other parts of the world are known to have been around until the mid-Eocene period roughly some 20 (twenty) million years after the disappearance of Titanoboa. The presence of these snakes later in the fossil record proves that giant snakes did not vanish overnight, yet since the fossil evidence at the time of the creation of this video indicates that these snakes were smaller than Titanoboa, then they may actually support the theory of steadily declining global temperatures driving a shift into the dominance of smaller snake forms. Habitat ChangeThe other theory that explains the extinction of Titanoboa is habitat change. Around 60 (sixty) million years ago the Cerrejón Formation was a low-lying coastal plain, covered with lush rainforests that had an extensive system of numerous rivers running across the landscape. In stark contrast to this ancient depiction, the Cerrejón Formation is today the largest coal mine in Colombia, and is situated much higher above sea level than it was during the Paleocene. The Cerrejón FormationThe coal of the Cerrejón Formation is essentially the fossil remains of all the plants and trees that once formed the lush rainforests that would have been present in the time of Titanoboa. This has preserved numerous fossils of plants, as well as many animals, yet it also proves that the specific habitat that Titanoboa lived in is now gone. However, it is of course plausible that Titanoboa may have had a wider geographic and temporal distribution than what we know about, we just don’t know about the fossils yet. NamingTitanoboa means “titanic boa”. Named ByIt was named by Head in 2009. Scientific ClassificationTitanoboa belongs to the Kingdom Animalia, the Phylum Chordata, the Class Reptilia, the Order Squamata, the Suborder Serpentes, the Family Boidae, the Genus Titanoboa, and the Type Species Titanoboa cerrejonensis. Species The only species within the Genus is the Type Species, Titanoboa cerrejonensis. The species epithet cerrejonensis refers to the Cerrejón coal mine and the Cerrejón Formation, in which the fossils have been found. Diet Titanoboa was a carnivore, and most probably a piscivore, or fish-eater, as evidenced by numerous anatomical features. Size and WeightIt was between 42 and 48.6 feet, or 12.8 and 14.8 meters long. At the thickest part of the body, it was up to 3.3 feet, or 1 meter wide. Nonetheless, comparisons between the sizes and shapes of its fossilized vertebrae with those of extant snakes have estimated the largest individuals of Titanoboa cerrejonensis had a total length of around 42 feet, or 12.8 meters and weighed about 2,500 pounds, or 1.12 long tons, 1.25 short tons, and 1,135 kilograms. Known LocationsTitanoboa has been discovered in the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia, South America. Time PeriodIt lived during the Selandian of the Mid-Late Palaeocene, 58 to 60 million years ago. Fossil RepresentationTitanoboa fossils include remains of twenty-eight (28) individuals described so far. Popular CultureFollowing what were at the time recent and awe-inspiring discoveries, there was an explosion of Titanoboa in popular culture. On March 22, 2012, a full-scale model replica of a 48 foot, or 14.6-meter-long and 2,500 pound, or an 1,135 kilogram Titanoboa was displayed in the Grand Central Terminal in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, New York. It was a promotion for a TV show on the Smithsonian Channel called Titanoboa: Monster Snake which aired on April 1, 2012. The life-sized model is an exhibit in the Smithsonian Museum. Titanoboa was also featured in one of the episodes of Primeval: New World, where it attacked a pair of scientists on a boat, in Dino Dana, where one even licks Dana, and in the 2016 PBS Documentary Secrets of the Dead: Graveyard of the Giant Beasts. It appears in Jurassic Park Builder as a gold creature in the Glacier Park, in the Cenozoic Park section of Jurassic World: The Game, in ARK: Survival Evolved with an inaccurate frill, in Jurassic World: Alive, and in The Stomping Land prior to the cancellation of the game. ConclusionSome prehistoric creatures grow to massive sizes, be it the mosasaurs, crocodyliforms, theropods, and of course the massive sauropods and titanosaurs. Titanoboa was no exception, the largest snake to have ever dwelled on Earth, measuring roughly 42 feet, or 12.8 meters in length in Colombia, South America, amongst the tropical forests along with other large turtles and crocodylomorphs. It was most probably piscivorous as evidenced by an array of features, and was an omen of death for anything that crossed its path or it ambushed. A massive body coiling to suffocate you slowly yet surely, and an almost assured death. You would never want to cross paths with such a beast! Although there are currently divisions as to the exact paleobiology of Titanoboa, further research may shed light on these ideas to explain such a phenomenon with greater clarity. A record-holder, a heavy snake, and particularly thick, Titanoboa: lengthy, constricting, and possibly cannibalistic. OutroAnd with that, thank you for joining me in this Prehistoric Beasts episode! This video was quite extensive and was supplemented greatly by Darren Pepper’s analysis at Prehistoric Wildlife, which is a source of further information and general paleontology information I highly recommend. I’ve always wanted to make a documentary on Titanoboa so it’s great I had the opportunity to do so. Titanoboa, Sarcosuchus, and Argentavis are some of my favorite Prehistoric Beasts, and stay tuned for more Dinosaurs Unearthed episodes on prominent dinosaurs, they will be out soon! As always, thank you for watching! This is Enchiridion, see you next time. #Enchiridion #PrehistoricBeasts #TitanoboaTable of Contents:0:00 - Introduction1:12 - Discovery1:47 - Habitat2:23 - Description; How Big Was Titanoboa and Why Did It Grow So Large?2:56 - Paleobiology; Growth Due To Higher Temperatures4:36 - Disagreement With Climate Estimate5:14 - Description; Dubious Sensationalized Sizes6:01 - Historical Eyewitnesses Of Giant Snakes and Confusing Sizes7:04 - Size By Gender7:27 - When and Where Did Titanoboa Live? 8:14 - Paleobiology; How Did Titanoboa Kill? 8:42 - Constrictors 9:36 - Probably Recurved Teeth10:20 - Great Range Of Movement For The Mouth11:12 - Digestion11:37 - Hunting Behavior12:16 - Titanoboa In The Water13:18 - What Did Titanoboa Eat? 15:10 - Piscivorous 16:41 - Cannibalism17:07 - Destroyed Fossils17:34 - Extinction; Why Did Titanoboa Go Extinct? 18:20 - Declining Average Global Temperatures19:04 - Replaced By Smaller Snakes19:48 - Habitat Change20:14 - The Cerrejón Formation 20:42 - Naming20:46 - Named By20:50 - Scientific Classification21:08 - Species21:21 - Diet21:29 - Size and Weight22:02 - Known Locations22:09 - Time Period22:16 - Fossil Representation22:21 - Popular Culture23:33 - Conclusion24:38 - Outro_____Sources:How Titanoboa, THE 40-foot-long SNAKE, was found. (2012, April 01). Retrieved April 25, 2021, from, R. (2009, February 04). Scientists find world's biggest snake. Retrieved April 25, 2021, from (2021, April 20). Retrieved April 25, 2021, from (n.d.). Retrieved April 25, 2021, from, D. (n.d.). Titanoboa. Retrieved April 25, 2021, from, E. (2021, February 10). Titanoboa – THIRTEEN Metres, one tonne, largest Snake ever. Retrieved April 25, 2021, from, Amna. “Life Cycle Assessment of Titanoboa and Its Activities.” R. N.p., 2012. Web. 25 Apr. 2021. <>. Undergraduate Research.Head, J., Bloch, J., Hastings, A. et al. Giant boid snake from the Palaeocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures. Nature 457, 715–717 (2009).
Dinosaurs Unearthed - Carcharodontosaurus ,

IntroductionHi, welcome to Enchiridion. I’m happy to share with you these facts on Carcharodontosaurus!Carcharodontosaurus was a large carcharodontosaurid theropod dinosaur that existed during the Cenomanian stage of the mid-Cretaceous Period in Northern Africa. It is currently known to include two species: Carcharodontosaurus saharicus and iguidensis, which are among the largest theropods, nearly as large or even larger than Tyrannosaurus, Giganotosaurus, and Spinosaurus. Serrated, Knife-Like TeethWith serrated, knife-like teeth, Carcharodontosaurus could slice through the flesh of prey. These teeth were essential to the hunting strategy of Carcharodontosaurus because when these teeth are arranged in a mouth the size that Carcharodontosaurus had, they would create a massive open wound. It is this wound that would effectively incapacitate the prey as blood loss would be so great that shock would quickly set in. This would cause the prey to become lethargic and disoriented, allowing Carcharodontosaurus to easily close in and finish it off. Falsely Dubbed As The ‘African T-Rex’Carcharodontosaurus is often falsely dubbed the ‘African T-Rex’, something which has misled many people into believing that they are the same. In reality, the only similarities that they share are that they are both theropod dinosaurs, and with this analogy you may as well call Carcharodontosaurus the ‘African Velociraptor’, it would be no more true or false than calling it the ‘African T-Rex’. The difference between Carcharodontosaurus and Tyrannosaurus is immediately clear by looking at just the teeth. Carcharodontosaurus has laterally compressed, or flattened teeth that slice through flesh. In contrast, Tyrannosaurus has round conical teeth for crushing bone. Include other differences like size and shape of the skull and overall body proportions, and it’s clear that the two are completely unrelated.DiscoveryInitial Naming and FindingsIn 1924, two teeth were discovered in the Intercontinental Intercalaire of Algeria, showing what were at the time unique traits. These teeth were described by Depéret and Savornin in 1925 as representing a new taxon, which they named Megalosaurus saharicus and later categorized in the subgenus Dryptosaurus. Some years later, paleontologist Ernst Stromer described the remains of a partial skull and skeleton from Cenomanian aged rocks in the Bahariya Formation of Egypt, named by Stromer in 1931; originally excavated in 1914, the remains consisted of a partial skull, teeth, vertebrae, claw bones and assorted hip and leg bones. The teeth in this new finding matched the characteristics of those described by Depéret and Savornin, which led to Stromer conserving the species name saharicus yet finding it necessary to erect a new genus for this species, Carcharodontosaurus, for their strong resemblance to the teeth of Carcharodon, or the Great White Shark. Naming and Wastebasket TaxonAlthough Carcharodontosaurus was named as its own genus by Ernst Stromer in 1931, it was actually known to science four years earlier. Nonetheless, when it was first described in 1927 it was described as a species of Megalosaurus. Although Megalosaurus is still one of the best-known dinosaur names today, back in the early days of paleontology it and many others were used as ‘wastebasket taxons’ where material was assigned upon the grounds of superficial similarity. Destroyed Remains in WWIIEven back then, it was clear that Carcharodontosaurus was most probably slightly bigger than Tyrannosaurus, the dinosaur that was hailed as the biggest meat-eater for the best part of a century. The main reason for the relative obscurity of Carcharodontosaurus throughout most of the twentieth century is that its only remains were destroyed in an allied bombing raid on Munich in 1944 during World War II (2), an event that destroyed other fossils like the first Spinosaurus remains, and the skull of the giant crocodyliform Stomatosuchus. Nonetheless, a new, more complete skull was found in the Kem Kem Formation of Morocco during an expedition led by paleontologist Paul Sereno in 1995, near the Algerian border and the locality where the teeth described by Depéret and Savornin, in 1925, were found. The teeth found with this new skull matched those described by Depéret and Savornin in 1925 and Stromer in 1931; the rest of the skull also matched that described by Stromer. The new skull was designated as the neotype by Brusatte and Sereno in 2007 who also described a second species of Carcharodontosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis from the Echkar Formation of Niger, differing from Carcharodontosaurus saharicus in aspects of the maxilla and braincase. TaxonomyThe taxonomy of Carcharodontosaurus was discussed in Chiarenza and Cau in 2016 who noted that the neotype of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus was similar yet distinct from the holotype, which is problematic because the holotype of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus is more closely related to the holotype of Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis than the neotype, SGM-Din 1. The authors also identified the referred material of Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis as belonging to Sigilmassasaurus and a non-carcharodontosaurine, and therefore chose to limit Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis to the holotype pending future research. Renewed Interest in CarcharodontosaurusInterest began to rise in Carcharodontosaurus in the mid 1990s with the discovery of new Carcharodontosaurus material resulting in the naming of the second species Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis in 2007. Additionally, another dinosaur named Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis was suggested as a junior synonym by Paul Sereno et al. in 1998 based upon strong similarities between it and Carcharodontosaurus. Nonetheless, a study in 2005 by Novas et al. has cast doubts upon this claim, pointing out several differences between the associated Sigilmassasaurus material and that of Carcharodontosaurus. Even if Sigilmassasaurus is confirmed to be its own genus, the new fossil material of Carcharodontosaurus is enough to once again reconstruct this ancient predator as well as confirm its slightly larger size than Tyrannosaurus. The resurgence of interest in Carcharodontosaurus can still be seen today with its almost mandatory inclusion in dinosaur books, appearances in video games and increasing appearances in dinosaur documentaries like the BBC series Planet Dinosaur. DescriptionSize, Weight, and Skull SizeCarcharodontosaurus includes some of the longest and heaviest known carnivorous dinosaurs, with numerous scientists proposing length estimates for the species Carcharodontosaurus saharicus ranging between 39 and 44 feet, or 12 and 13.3 meters and weight estimates between 6.2 to 15.1 metric tons, or 6.8 to 16.6 short tons. In 2016, Molina-Pérez & Larramendi gave a length of 42 feet, or 12.8 meters and a weight of 7.8 metric tons, or 8.6 short tons for the neotype of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, and a length of 36 feet, or 11 meters and a weight of 5.2 metric tons, or 5.7 short tons for a referred tooth of Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis. Carcharodontosaurus were carnivores, with enormous jaws and long, serrated teeth up to 8 inches, or 20 centimeters long. A skull length of about 4.7 feet, or 1.42 meters has been restored for the neotype of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus. Currently, the largest-known theropod skull belongs to another massive carcharodontosaurid dinosaur, the closely related Giganotosaurus, with skull estimates of up to 6.4 feet, or 1.95 meters, yet this has been disputed. Gregory S. Paul estimates Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis at 33 feet, or 10 meters and 4 metric tons, or 4.4 short tons. New Fossil Material Allowing Detailed Studies Of The BrainThe discovery of new fossil material allowed for detailed studies into the brain of Carcharodontosaurus and how it may have lived and hunted. Carcharodontosaurus is often referenced as having a much-smaller brain than Tyrannosaurus even though it’s slightly larger, leading to the ungracious statement that it was much ‘dumber’. Nevertheless, such a statement is a grave misnomer, as brain size itself is not as important as the development of individual parts of the brain like senses, memory, and reasoning. For instance, an animal with greatly enlarged sensory areas like smell and vision would have a larger brain than another animal that was not as well adapted, yet was still no more intelligent because the brain tissue for those areas do not make an animal better at thinking about problem solving, just able to detect things.Brain and inner earIn 2001, Hans C. E. Larsson published a description of the inner ear and endocranium of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus. Starting from the portion of the brain closest to the tip of the animal’s snout is the forebrain, which is followed by the midbrain. The midbrain is angled downwards at a 45-degree angle and towards the rear of the animal. This is followed by the hindbrain, which is roughly parallel to the forebrain and forms a roughly 40-degree angle with the brain. Overall, the brain of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus would have been similar to that of a related dinosaur, Allosaurus fragilis. Larsson found that the ratio of the cerebrum to the volume of the brain overall in Carcharodontosaurus was typical for a non-avian reptile. Carcharodontosaurus also had a large optic nerve. The brain of Carcharodontosaurus exhibits features that hail back to the early archosaurs, with similarities being seen in other reptiles like turtles and crocodiles. However, the interesting thing is that the brain layout of Carcharodontosaurus is different to those of birds, and this reveals a growing evolutionary trend in dinosaurs that Carcharodontosaurus was not part of. The smaller brain size of Carcharodontosaurus was probably pre-determined by its archosaurian ancestry as many theropods of its ancestral line also have similar brain sizes meaning that while their bodies grew bigger, the brains remained the same, bringing a halt to further biological development. However, the coelurosaurian dinosaurs, which is a lineage that would include Tyrannosaurus and the transitional line to birds, developed their brains away from the older archosaurian form, allowing for the potential of greater reasoning. This could be part of the reason why predators along the Carcharodontosaurid lineage would eventually disappear before the end of the Cretaceous when the new forms were more dominant. Optic NervePredators rely greatly upon their sense of smell for tracking prey over distances, although it’s also probable that Carcharodontosaurus fed from carcasses of already dead dinosaurs when it was fortunate enough to find such an easy meal. When it came to killing its own prey, Carcharodontosaurus seems to have been a primarily visually oriented predator, evidenced by a large optic nerve, relying upon stereoscopic vision to provide depth perception to allow it to gauge distances between itself and prey. The three semicircular canals of the inner ear of Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, when viewed from the side, had a subtriangular outline. This subtriangular inner ear configuration is present in Allosaurus, turtles, lizards, yet not in birds. The semi-”circular” canals themselves were actually very linear, which explains the pointed silhouette. In life, the floccular lobe of the brain would have projected into the area surrounded by the semicircular canals, just like in other non-avian theropods, birds, and pterosaurs. PaleobiologyFeedingA study by Donald Henderson, the curator of dinosaurs at the Royal Tyrrell Museum suggests that Carcharodontosaurus was able to lift animals weighing a maximum of 935 pounds, or 424 kilograms in its jaws based on the strength of its jaws, neck, and its center of mass. PathologySGM-Din 1, a Carcharodontosaurus saharicus skull, has a circular puncture wound in the nasal and “an abnormal projection of bone on the antorbital rim”. NamingCarcharodontosaurus means “shark-toothed lizard”. The name Carcharodontosaurus is derived from the Carcharodon genus of sharks, a group famous for including the Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias). This name was chosen because the teeth are sharp and serrated in a similar manner to the Great White Sharks, something that meant they could slice through the flesh of prey like sharp knives. It is made up of the Greek karcharos meaning “jagged” or “sharp” and odon meaning “teeth” and the suffix -saurus meaning “lizard”. Named ByIt was named by Ernst Stromer in 1931. Scientific ClassificationIt belongs to the Kingdom Animalia, the Phylum Chordata, the Clade Dinosauria, Saurischia, and Theropoda, the Infraorder Carnosauria, the Family Carcharodontosauridae, the Subfamily Carcharodontosaurinae, the Genus Carcharodontosaurus, and the Type Species Carcharodontosaurus saharicus. The following cladogram after Apesteguía et al., 2016, shows the placement of Carcharodontosaurus within Carcharodontosauridae. CarcharodontosauridaeCarcharodontosaurus has been used to define its own group, the Carcharodontosauridae, which includes other large theropods like Giganotosaurus, Mapusaurus and Tyrannotitan. All of these predators have proportionately large skulls, large fenestra, or skull openings, and serrated slicing teeth designed for cutting flesh rather than crunching bone. The Carcharodontosaurids seem to have evolved from earlier theropods like Allosaurus, and again this would display a different lineage from the tyrannosaurids which evolved from a coelurosaurian lineage. The carcharodontosaurids were quite common at one time during the Cretaceous, being represented by Acrocanthosaurus in North America, Neovenator in Western Europe, and Shaochilong in China. Nonetheless, the carcharodontosaurids disappeared from the fossil record prior to the end of the Cretaceous, being replaced by tyrannosaurids in the north and abelisaurids in the south. SpeciesSynonyms include Megalosaurus africanus and Megalosaurus saharicus. Species include the Type Species, Carcharodontosaurus saharicus, and a second species, Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis. DietCarcharodontosaurus was a carnivore. SizeIt was between 39.4 to 42.7 feet, or between 12 and 13 meters long. Known LocationsCarcharodontosaurus has been discovered in a wide range of locations including the Continental Intercalaire Formation of Algeria, possibly the Alcantara Formation of Brazil, The Baharije and Mut Formation of Egypt, the Aoufous and Kem Kem Formation of Morocco, the Continental Intercalaire, Echkar, and Elrhaz Formation of Niger, and the Continental Intercalaire and Chenini Formation of Tunisia. Time PeriodCarcharodontosaurus lived during the Cenomanian of the Mid-Cretaceous, roughly 100.5 to 93.9 million years ago. Fossil RepresentationFossil representation includes initial remains destroyed in World War II (2), with further material, including enough to name a second species, since being found.Popular Culture Carcharodontosaurus has seen a prolific rise in popular culture throughout the years, appearing in the game, Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis, Jurassic Park Builder, ARK: Survival Evolved as a Jurassic Park mod, and in Jurassic World: Evolution as part of the Cretaceous dinosaur pack DLC. It has been featured in Monsters Resurrected losing to Spinosaurus, Lost World from Planet Dinosaur, in the Christmas TV special Toy Story That Time Forgot as a character named Reptillus Maximus, champion of the Battlesaurs, and in Dinosaur Train. ConclusionA North African Cretaceous dinosaur, among the largest theropods to ever exist, and almost as large or possibly even larger than Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus. Large. Packed with Knife-like Teeth. And an Archosaur-Like Brain. OutroThank you for joining me in this shorter episode of Dinosaurs Unearthed. The channel is rather near to the 1,000 subscriber mark so I have to thank you guys for your support, it has propelled me forward amid challenges along the way. I want to feature a few recent feats that are great. First, the Cryptid Case - Skunk Ape episode surpassed 1,000 views, the Dinosaurs Unearthed - Suchomimus episode surpassed 9,000 views, the Facts: Nurse Shark episode surpassed 3,000 views, the Facts: Torvosaurus surpassed 1,000 views and the Facts: Pikaia episode surpassed 1,000 views, so lots of good news, I have some really exciting projects for this summer so stay tuned for more and as always, thank you for watching! This is Enchiridion, see you next time! #Enchiridion #DinosaursUnearthed #CarcharodontosaurusTable of Contents:0:00 - Introduction0:31 - Serrated, Knife-Like Teeth1:04 - Falsely Dubbed As The ‘African T-Rex’1:54 - Discovery; Initial Naming and Findings 2:58 - Naming and Wastebasket Taxon3:26 - Destroyed Remains in WWII4:47 - Taxonomy 5:26 - Renewed Interest in Carcharodontosaurus 6:35 - Description; Size, Weight, and Skull Size8:06 - New Fossil Material Allowing Detailed Studies Of The Brain8:56 - Brain and inner ear10:45 - Optic Nerve11:48 - Paleobiology; Feeding12:07 - Pathology12:19 - Naming12:50 - Named By12:55 - Scientific Classification13:28 - Carcharodontosauridae 14:25 - Species14:39 - Diet14:42 - Size14:50 - Known Locations15:15 - Time Period15:26 - Fossil Representation15:36 - Popular Culture16:14 - Conclusion16:34 - Outro_____Sources:Carcharodontosaurus. (2021, April 25). Retrieved April 29, 2021, from, A., Vecchia, F., & Fabbri, M. (n.d.). Evidence of a NEW Carcharodontosaurid from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from, D., & Nicholls, R. (2015, May 06). Balance and strength-estimating the maximum prey‐lifting potential of the large predatory dinosaur carcharodontosaurus saharicus. Retrieved April 29, 2021, from new species of CARCHARODONTOSAURUS (dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Cenomanian of Niger and a revision of the genus. (n.d.). Retrieved April 29, 2021, from[902:ANSOCD]2.0.CO;, D. (n.d.). Carcharodontosaurus. Retrieved April 29, 2021, fromźwiedzki, Grzegorz, & Gerard Gierliński. "Isolated theropod teeth from the Cretaceous strata of Khouribga, Morocco." Geological Quarterly [Online], 46.1 (2002): 97-100. Web. 30 Apr. 2021
Prehistoric Beasts - Henodus - Shelled Placodont,

IntroductionHi, welcome to Enchiridion. I am glad to share with you these facts on Henodus!Henodus was a placodont of the Late Triassic period during the early Carnian age. Fossils of Henodus chelyops were found in Tubingen, Germany. It was around 3.3 feet, or 1 meter in length. Henodus is the only placodont thus far discovered in non-marine deposits, indicating that it may have lived in brackish or freshwater lagoons. Placodont ShellsIn spite of the fact that many of the placodonts had shells, only a small portion like Henodus and Placochelys had single shells that covered the entire body, while others like Cyamodus had two shells. Henodus has one of the most well-developed single shells of all placodonts made up by a fusion of a large amount of scutes with a covering of horn, and is almost as wide as it is long. Aside from being very tough, this shell was so large that most marine predators of the Triassic couldn’t get the shell of a fully grown adult between their jaws, perhaps suggesting an adaptation to predation. Nonetheless, this shell would have been even a greater obstacle when Henodus was on land and it may be that as a result, Henodus spent most of its life in the water except for laying eggs, and this is assuming that placodonts laid eggs. This is especially the case when you consider that Henodus had a lower shell, or plastron like a turtle, while the upper shell, or carapace, was actually fused to the spine. A Niche Specialist With A Square MouthHenodus differed from most other placodonts in that the mouth was broad and squared off as opposed to pointed. Henodus probably used this mouth to shovel through sediment to find shellfish that were buried just below the surface, while other placodonts with pointed mouths were better able to get shellfish wedged between rocks. Additionally, such feeding behavior would also make Henodus a niche specialist that allowed it to share ecosystems with other placodonts without competition with them. DescriptionLike all placodonts, Henodus had a superficial resemblance to a turtle. Like turtles, it had a shell formed from a plastron on the underside and a carapace on top. The carapace extended well beyond the limbs, and was made up of individual plates of bony scutes covered by plates of horn. Nonetheless, the shell was made up of many more pieces of bone than that of turtles, forming a mosaic pattern. The armor was fused to its spine, and its limbs were situated in normal positions, unlike the turtle, where they are located inside the ribcage. The weak limbs of Henodus suggest it spent little, if any time on land. Henodus also had a single tooth on each side of its mouth, though the remaining teeth were replaced by a beak. Additionally, it had baleen-like denticles along the jaws, which combined with a unique feature of the hyoid and musculature indicative of rapid jaw closing indicating a filter-feeding lifestyle. The head was squared-off at the front, just ahead of the eyes. NamingHenodus means “single tooth”. Named ByIt was named by Friedrich von Huene in 1936. Scientific ClassificationIt belongs to the Kingdom Animalia, the Phylum Chordata, the Class Reptilia, the Superorder Sauropterygia, the Order Placodontia, the Family Henodontidae, the Genus Henodus, and the Type Species Henodus chelyops. ClassificationRecently, it has been suggested that this placodont was an aquatic herbivore, scraping off vegetation from the bottom with its broad jaws. This suggestion had been brought up in a paper discussing the habits and morphology of Atopodentatus, another Mesozoic aquatic reptile formerly suggested to be a filter-feeder and bearing strongly convergent jaw adaptations, including a similar “hammerhead” jaw tips, though unlike Atopodentatus, it’s still believed that Henodus relied on filter feeding to obtain plant matter from the substrates. SpeciesThe single species within the genus is Henodus chelyops. DietIts diet consisted of tiny plant matter. SizeIt was 3.3 feet, or 1 meter long. Known LocationsIt has been discovered in Germany, Europe. Time PeriodIt lived during the Carnian of the Late Triassic, 237 to 227 million years ago, or roughly 235 to 220 million years ago. Fossil RepresentationFossil representation includes a well-preserved specimen. OutroAnd with that, thank you for watching! I want to highlight a recent feat: the channel surpassed 700 subscribers and is on track to surpassing 800 soon. Summer is incoming so I’m working to prepare short videos for the rest of the year and that’s why I reduced the frequency per week to one (1), to get ready for Summer and the incoming school year which I want to be fully immersed in. I will try to learn 3D modeling at college but I can’t give a solid estimate of when I will be ready to incorporate them into videos. As I previously mentioned, the models will be incorporated, simply much later than I foresaw. As always, thank you for watching! This is Enchiridion, see you next time. #Enchiridion #PrehistoricBeasts #HenodusTable of Contents:0:00 - Introduction0:27 - Placodont Shells1:26 - A Niche Specialist With A Square Mouth1:55 - Description2:54 - Naming2:59 - Named By3:04 - Scientific Classification3:20 - Classification3:55 - Species4:00 - Diet4:04 - Size4:09 - Known Locations4:13 - Time Period4:25 - Fossil Representation4:30 - Outro_____Sources:Henodus. (2021, March 14). Retrieved April 10, 2021, from monster PICTURES, henodus PHOTOS, Facts, Animals reports, News, info - National Geographic. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2021, from, D. (n.d.). Henodus. Retrieved April 10, 2021, from
Facts: Scaphognathus - Tub Jaw Pterosaur,

IntroductionHi, welcome to Enchiridion. I am very excited to share with you these facts on Scaphognathus. Scaphognathus was a pterosaur that lived around Germany during the Late Jurassic. It had a wingspan of 3 feet, or 0.9 meters. Mainly due to its robust snout construction, Scaphognathus acquired the unglamorous name of ‘Tub jaw’. Nonetheless, when first described, Scaphognathus was included into the pterodactyloidea due to the lack of a tail. In fact, the missing tail confused the original examiner which in reality didn’t fossilize with the rest of the specimen. A second individual specimen of Scaphognathus had the tail preserved and this discovery led to the revelation that Scaphognathus instead belonged with the basal rhamphorhynchoid pterosaurs.DescriptionIts skull is the key element that makes it identifiable, and across the top of the skull is a bony growth. Despite the fact that so far no crest has been found with any of the specimens, this bone may have been the support for a head crest in life. This doesn’t necessarily mean there was no crest in life, as had there been one it would probably have been made from soft tissue like keratin, which typically does not preserve well if at all. Apart from a few differences in the skull, Scaphognathus was morphologically similar to Rhamphorhynchus and Harpactognathus, particularly with a potential crest similarity to Harpactognathus. Scaphognathus is known from three specimens, all of which can be traced to the Kimmeridgian-age Solnhofen Limestone. Physically, it was very similar to Rhamphorhynchus, albeit with notable cranial differences. For one, Scaphognathus had a proportionally-shorter skull that was 4.5 inches, or 11.4 centimeters long, with a blunter tip and a larger antorbital fenestra. The teeth of Scaphognathus are arranged vertically and widely spaced. The traditional count of them held that eighteen (18) teeth were in the upper jaws and (10) ten in the lower. S. Christopher Bennett, studying a new third specimen, SMNS 59395, in 2004 determined there were only sixteen (16) teeth in the upper jaws, the higher previous number having been caused by incorrectly adding replacement teeth. LifestyleScaphognathus would easily have lived as an insectivore, yet other prey items aren’t discarded either. Comparisons between the scleral rings of Scaphognathus and modern birds and reptiles suggest that it may have been diurnal. This may also suggest niche partitioning with contemporary pterosaurs inferred to be nocturnal, like Rhamphorhynchus and Ctenochasma. NamingThe first known Scaphognathus specimen was described in 1831 by August Goldfuss who, as we mentioned earlier, mistook the tailless specimen for a new Pterodactylus species: Pterodactylus crassirostris. This specimen was an incomplete adult with a 3-foot, or 0.9-meter long wingspan recovered from the Solnhofen strata near Eichstätt, Germany. In 1858, Johann Wagner referred the species to Rhamphorhynchus. After distinguishing the specimen due to the different snout shape, Wagner, after prior failed attempts by Christoph Gottfried Andreas Giebel and Leopold Fitzinger, who used preoccupied names, in 1861 named a distinct genus: Scaphognathus. Scaphognathus means “tub jaw”. It is derived from Greek skaphe, meaning “boat” or “tub”, and gnathos, meaning “jaw”, in reference to the blunt shape of the lower jaws. In the early twentieth century, the “rhamphorhynchoid” nature of Scaphognathus crassirostris was recognized following the discovery of the second specimen in Mühlheiim, whose long tail was preserved. The second Scaphognathus specimen was more complete than its predecessor, but only half the size, with a twenty-inch wingspan, or almost 2 feet, or 50 centimeters. It also had partially ossified bones. These characters suggest that the second specimen was a juvenile. Named ByIt was named by Johann Wagner in 1861. Scientific ClassificationScaphognathus belongs to the Kingdom Animalia, the Phylum Chordata, the Order Pterosauria, the Family Rhamphorhynchidae, the Subfamily Scaphognathinae, and the Genus Scaphognathus. The cladogram, or family tree of rhamphorhynchids below is the result of a huge phylogenetic analysis published by Andres & Myers in 2013. SpeciesSynonyms are numerous, and they are listed here: Brachytrachelus crassirostris, Pachyramphus crassirostris, Pterodactylus crassirostris, Ornithocephalus crassirostris, Rhamphorhynchus crassirostris.Species include the type: Scaphognathus crassirostris. The specific name means “fat snout” in Latin. DietIt was probably an insectivore. SizeIt had an almost 3-foot-long, or 35-inch, or 90 centimeter wingspan. Known LocationsIt was discovered in the Solnhofen Limestone in Germany. Time PeriodIt lived during the Kimmeridgian of the Late Jurassic, 150.8 to 145.5 million years ago. Fossil RepresentationFossil representation includes three specimens. OutroAnd with that, thank you for watching! I’m currently making a human rights film for a video contest so I’ll be releasing a lot more shorts than usual. Sarcosuchus video is in the works! As always, this is Enchiridion, see you next time. #Enchiridion #PrehistoricBeasts #ScaphognathusTable of Contents:0:00 - Introduction0:47 - Description2:15 - Lifestyle2:38 - Naming4:03 - Named By4:08 - Scientific Classification4:32 - Species4:48 - Diet4:51 - Size4:57 - Known Locations5:02 - Time Period5:09 - Fossil Representation_____Audio Source:Walking with Dinosaurs OST, 11 - Jurassic ForestSources:Scaphognathus. (2021, March 14). Retrieved March 21, 2021, from, D. (n.d.). Scaphognathus. Retrieved March 21, 2021, from, C. (n.d.). Cranial morphology of a Scaphognathus-Like Pterosaur, Jianchangnathus robustus, based on a new fossil from THE Tiaojishan formation of Western Liaoning, china. Retrieved March 21, 2021, from new specimen of the pterosaur scaphognathus crassirostris, with comments on constraint of cervical vertebrae number in pterosaurs. (n.d.). Retrieved March 21, 2021, from crassirostris. (n.d.). Retrieved March 21, 2021, from
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