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Palaeontography & Anatomy
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juvenile P. engelhardti by theropod1, visual art

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Artist // Student // Traditional Art

Favourite Visual Artist
Scott Hartman, Greg Paul, John Conway, Emily Willoughby, Mark Witton
Favourite Movies
Alien, The Lord of the Rings
Favourite TV Shows
Game of Thrones, The Expanse, Babylon 5, Carnival Row, Battlestar Galactica
Favourite Bands / Musical Artists
Howard Shore, John Williams, James Newton Howard, Alexandre Desplat
Favourite Books
Harry Potter, The Hunger Games, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, 1984
Favourite Writers
George Orwell, J.R.R. Tolkien, J.K. Rowling
Tools of the Trade
pencil, colored pencil, ink, inkscape (software)
Other Interests
Zoology, Paleontology, Comparative and Functional Anatomy, Woodcraft/Survival

Comments 145

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Thanks a lot for the watch! I really do appreciate it :D

And thanks for the faves on =)

Plateosaurus mix
Plateosaurus Soft Tissue Sketch

You’re very welcome, they were very well-deserved!

Are you from Carnivora
This may be quite a really, really stupid question, but I've been wondering about it.

Let's say a cat or bear grappled onto the neck of an equal-sized predatory theropod (of what clade (carnosaurs, tyrannosaurids, megalosaurids, etc.) you decide). Would the latter's cervical flexibility and cranial flexibility from the atlas be sufficient for it to turn its head/neck to the side and bite down on the carnivoran's forelimb (theropod necks were particularly flexible, right?)? Would some with powerful necks have the power and flexibility to free themselves through vigorous shaking?

I'm so sorry. Spending >4 years debating on animal vs. animal forums can make you think a little hard about this stuff.
First of all, depends on the theropod in question, they aren't that similar across the ranks in that regard. Some had more flexible necks than others. And of course it depends on what angle the opponent would be relative to the theropod.

So rather than giving you an overgeneralized answer to that question, here’s a very helpful visualisation from Snively et al. 2013:…

Shown (3) is the maximum lateral range of motion of the head and neck of Allosaurus.
A couple of things to note: Of course Allosaurus is considered one of the large theropods with a rather high degree of cervical flexibility. I don’t know much about Megalosaurs in this regard. A derived tyrannosauroid would almost certainly be less flexible, but of course it would also have a shorter neck to make up for that, which would make grappling it even more difficult.
As you see the individual joints, including the craniocervical articulation, aren’t all that flexible, but if you add up the angles over several you end up able to flex that neck quite a bit rather quickly. So it’s very important to take into consideration where that hypothetical grappling animal has its hold on the neck, and how much of its length is still free to move. That’s of course also relevant because grappling more anteriorly would give the grappler much better leverage and make escaling its grasp much more difficult.
So perhaps theropod flexibility was sufficient for what you describe, perhaps not, depending on where the attacker is standing compared to the theropod and what theropod we are talking about.

As for shaking vigorously, there are certainly theropods I could see doing that, though of course the neck is a vulnerable region and doing so would be risky. But again, depending on the attacker I suppose it could work in some cases.
"As you see the individual joints, including the craniocervical articulation, aren’t all that flexible"

Yeah, I find that puzzling. I read that the large articular surfaces of theropod zygapophyses promoted neck flexibility; I imagined it would be by making the individual joints flexible. The opisthocoelus morphology of carnosaur cervicals should also have helped with this. Lastly, Snively's reconstruction doesn't look like the cranium is flexed all that much from the atlas, but theropods had more or less spherical occipital condyles, allowing for great mobility at the joint.

Did these things just really not help that much to make the individual joints flexible in absolute terms?