Ohayou gozaimasu / ohayou
Good morning (formal) / 'Morning (informal)
Often said until 11 AM
Often said from about 11 AM to 6 PM
Often said from about 6 PM and on
さようなら / じゃね、また / またね / バイバイ
Sayounara / ja ne, mata / mata ne / baibai
Good bye (formal) / Well, see you later (informal) / See you later (informal) / Bye bye (informal)
おやすみなさい / おやすみ
Oyasumi nasai / Oyasumi
Good night (formal) / 'Night (informal)
Said only when going to bed.
koko, soko, asoko, doko
Try not to confuse this group with the other two 'ko, so, a, do' groups. These words are used for places. They do, however, follow the same pattern as the other two as seen below:
ここ (koko) means 'here' and is used for places near the speaker.
Gakkou wa koko desu.
The school is here.
そこ (soko) means 'there' and is used for places near the recipient.
Ginkou wa soko desu.
The bank is there.
あそこ (asoko) means 'over there' and is used for places far from both the speaker and the recipient.
Otera wa asoko desu.
The temple is over there.
どこ (doko) means 'where' and has
x wa y desu.
This is the (most) basic sentence structure you will probably see. The "x" in that sentence is the subject of the sentence. "は/wa" is a particle which marks the subject of the sentence. Notice how the hiragana "ha" is used instead of the hiragana "wa". This won't be the only time a particle does something similar (I'll go more into particles at a later time). But please remember to write "ha" but pronounce "wa". The "y" in that sentence is most often the object of the sentence. "Desu" is the verb of the sentence that means "is/am/are" depending on the sentence.
Now, you might be wondering "why is the verb at the end of the sentence?" Well, the simplest answer is that the Japanese have a different sentence structure than we use in English. Verbs will always go at the end of the sentence (of course there are exceptions, but that's more advance, for now, just focus on this.) The good news is that the verbs will always stay the same no ma