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Speculative Bruhathkayosaurus

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Bruhathkayosaurus. (Pencil Drawing touchups in photoshop)

The original description of Bruhathkayosaurus described the remains as a theropod. Various DML messages and blog posts on the web suspect Bruhathkayosaurus to be a sauropod; if so probably a titanosaur. The description is thought to be of very poor quality and doesn't show the remains well. There is some debate as to the validity of this dinosaur and there are rumours the original material has been lost!

The tibia of Bruhathkayosaurus is apparently 2m long, which implies a huge Sauropod.

This image is highly speculative; it assumes that Bruhathkayosaurus is a titanosaur and the 2m tibia is actually a tibia and not something else. The other unknown leg proportions are based on other Titanosaur reconstructions and measurements suggested by palaeontologists at the Dinosaur Mailing Lists.

The neck, tail, and torso lengths are completely speculative, these vary a lot between different sauropod species. The skull is also speculative. Titanosaur skulls vary from more boxy Malawisaurus like to longer Rapetosaurus like.

Please note, this image is not meant to be taken too seriously this animal has been poorly described and is very fragmentary. This image is just to give a vague idea of its possible size.

Some DML posts on this creature:

dml.cmnh.org/1999Mar/msg00516.…

dml.cmnh.org/2001Jun/msg00665.…

dml.cmnh.org/2004Sep/msg00073.…



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An original version of this image is now here: i208.photobucket.com/albums/bb…

Update: 2/8/09: I have changed the angle of the neck and tweaked some other things. This version is now here: i208.photobucket.com/albums/bb…

Update: 31/12/11: The previous versions have had a more horizontal posture, with the shoulder blades high up on the ribcage, which is probably unlikely considering the limb proportions I have used. The previous version looked a little bit like Saltasaurus, which is an unusually short-necked titanosaur with a horizontal back posture. Most titanosaur reconstructions seem to have an upward slope to the back because of the length of the forelimbs.

Update 31/8/15. Slight improvements to make it more in line with other more recent titanosaur restorations.
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Majestic-Colossus's avatar
I guess you wouldn't need to edit this too much to get a Patagotitan or Argentinosaurus out of it... very nice work!
Steveoc86's avatar
Thanks! Yeah, I've thought about doing that at some point; I might wait until Patagotitan is better described/illustrated.

Because Bruhathkayosaurus is so questionable, I deliberately tried to keep it quite generic looking. It has been through several iterations; it started off more horizontal based on dodgy titanosaur reconstructions that were around at the time of initially drawing it. In the last 5 years or so, better titanosaur reconstructions surfaced and I started to edge it towards Alamosaurus a little. I aired on the side of caution with the neck length, but with Futalognkosaurus, Alamosaurus, Dreadnoughtus, and Patagotitan all showing long, robust necks, if I were to update this I'd probably lengthen, and beef up the neck. I'd also give it proper osteoderms. 
Majestic-Colossus's avatar
By the way, I saw your Patagotitan chart, and it looks amazing! However, I have one question: why is the neck posture so conservative? Your Dreadnoughtus and Alamosaurus sure look different.

Also, why don't you post charts on Deviantart? 
Steveoc86's avatar
Thanks! Just looking at the shape of the vertebra and their large spines (Assuming they are illustrated correctly), I'm skeptical that it would've had a large vertical range of motion. I could certainly be wrong. I'd rather pose it in a pose that is definitely possible and try not to introduce a pose that might be impossible. Maybe if at some point I get a better look at the cervicals I'll adjust the pose. One advantage is that it's easier for the viewer to gauge length with a more horizontal pose.

That said, my Patagotitan is currently based on Carballido et. al. Fig 1, whose reconstruction is questionable, others on DA have shown that it's neck has probably been restored too long and Hartman has stated reasons why the tail is most certainly too long.  I suspect it will come out looking quite different when more is described and other artists do a better job of restoring it. It will definitely get shorter.

It's frustrating illustrating for Wikipedia when the literature is wrong; you either have to show something wrong but easily verifiable or more correct but could potentially come off as original research (which Wikipedia rightfully doesn't allow).

Another reason why my Dreadnaughtus and Alamosaurus look different is that they are based on reconstructions that have steeply inclined dorsal columns. Their neck poses are also quite conservative but becuase of the angle of the dorsal column, they appear more upright.

A potentially dodgy area in the Carballido et. al reconstruction is they have restored the tibia as being quite long in relation to the femur. From what I can gather, the tibia is incomplete and it hasn't been illustrated yet. I suspect that if the tibia can be restored shorter, it would help rotate the dorsal column upward more which, in turn, would raise the neck into a less horizontal position. This is how others on DA have restored it.

I'm not really sure why I don't post my charts here, It's probably to do with them usually being more reliant on the work of others.
Majestic-Colossus's avatar
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentin… 

Is this your work? That's amazing! Probably the best Argentinosaurus restoration to date.
Steveoc86's avatar
Thanks! The original image is by Nobu Tamura, who is an incredibly prolific artist. Unfortunately he isn't active on Wikipedia at the moment. The image had aspects that I really liked, such as the colours, but our understanding of titanosaurs had gotten better, so I decided to update it. Obviously Argentinosaurus is still full of uncertainties but hopefully this version is a step in the right direction.
Majestic-Colossus's avatar
The fact that many of these giants are so incomplete can be both exciting and frustrating. What is the best restoration today might be dismissed in the future.

By the way, I really like your Paralititan diagram!
Majestic-Colossus's avatar
Thank you for the extensive reply! Your reasons are understandable. But anyways, it is still over 10m tall, which is impressive, although this may reduce if the neck turns out to have been shorter than that.
Skull-Island-Master's avatar
lets say bruhatkayosaurus is a theropod, how big would he be ??
Steveoc86's avatar
Not sure, I haven't really ever looked into it. It would most probably be bigger than any T.rex or Giganotosaurus. Their tibia are in the 1.30m-ish range (If I remember correctly). The problem with having only one bone, you can produce a huge range of estimates.

On a side note, I saw a reconstruction of a titanosaur that has very long shin bones. If Bruhathkayosaurus was proportioned like that, it wouldn't be as big as my reconstruction above.
Paleo-King's avatar
Wow nice drawing! Really smooth with the shading. Though this preliminary version hardly looks like it could be the "biggest" dinosaur IMO.

It's about the same size as Argentinosaurus, Andesaurus, Argyrosaurus, and a half-dozen other gigantic titanosaurs - if not a bit smaller. They're ALL huge, no doubt, but if Bruhathkayosaurus is anything like what you've illustrated, it's not significantly bigger than any of the others.

I've seen it illustrated elsewhere (though rather crudely) as a legendary monster that towered over Argentinosaurus, and whose wrists were higher than a man's head... though again both interpretations are equally good or bad until somebody writes a much better article on the remains (with more precise measurements and scaled photographs instead of the lousy crude line sketches the authors provided).

Though I do notice he's a bit short-bellied and thin for a titanosaur (a big one anyway). The legs are really good, but Argentinosaurus had a very long and deep torso, and I'd guess this fella did too.
Steveoc86's avatar
Thank you for the kind words,
I wouldn't call it preliminary, probably nonsence is better. ;)
I drew it before I had seen Greg Paul's Argentinosaurus, which as you say, has a longer torso. Also his has an upward sloping back which would increase the height of the shoulder etc.
With the exceptions of the limbs dientions, which are based on what was speculated on the DML, I scaled it based on other titanosaur reconstructions and kinda ''averaged'' them out. But I'm certain what I have here is larger than most large sauropods (inlcuding Pauls argentinosaurus) but it's quite a bit smaller than estimates for Amphicoelias.
Paleo-King's avatar
Yeah, Greg Paul's version is a good approximation. The high shoulders and long neck make sense Argentinosaurus was a basal titanosaur, and it is already known to share some skeletal features with the brachiosaurs so a roughly similar shape was likely. Though Paul's version is still a bit too conservative in terms of size... (he made up for this by giving it a long whip-like tail that's not all that titanosaurian)

Ken Carpenter's giant titanosaurs on the other hand are downright horrible. He restores Argentinosaurus, Paralititan, etc. like scaled up carbon copies of the not-so-basal Saltasaurus (no artistic effort required, just cut, enlarge, and paste!) - a fallacy considering they are about as similar as Guanlong and T.rex!

Carpenter's version results in (not surprisingly) a much smaller Argentinosaurus due to the more "dwarfed" proportions. And a short Saltasaur neck didn't make much sense for such a huge creature. It wasn't even a Lithostrotian, and even some Lithostrotians, like Rapetosaurus, still had quite long necks! The main problem with drawing titanosaurs is that they are an incredibly diverse group, and yet so few of them are well known, so the results are anything but consensus-based.

Ahh, but that is a problem I WILL dare to crack.
Tharos222's avatar
*good details :D
Steveoc86's avatar
Thanks! and thanks for the other favs! :)
Tharos222's avatar
Bran-Artworks's avatar
woa¡¡¡¡amazing
RSNascimento's avatar
Wow, amazing details!
Steveoc86's avatar
Thank you, Its probably not very correct however as its so imcomplete, oh well :)
RSNascimento's avatar
Yes, but you gave uns a good idea how it may have looked.
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