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About Deviant NicholeFemale/United States Recent Activity
Deviant for 14 Years
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Statistics 5 Deviations 16 Comments 1,508 Pageviews

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black and white by ShatteredVisage black and white :iconshatteredvisage:ShatteredVisage 0 0 dead by ShatteredVisage dead :iconshatteredvisage:ShatteredVisage 1 1 drowning by ShatteredVisage drowning :iconshatteredvisage:ShatteredVisage 1 0 don't speak by ShatteredVisage don't speak :iconshatteredvisage:ShatteredVisage 0 5 me... by ShatteredVisage me... :iconshatteredvisage:ShatteredVisage 0 4


Behold My Longing... by Archaia Behold My Longing... :iconarchaia:Archaia 2,649 223 Stuffed Animal series 1 3 by DavidRaywood
Mature content
Stuffed Animal series 1 3 :icondavidraywood:DavidRaywood 70 30
Sleepless Hollow by Aziraphale1334 Sleepless Hollow :iconaziraphale1334:Aziraphale1334 38 8



United States
Current Residence: missouri


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kettlehandle Featured By Owner Oct 27, 2005
Kerosene lanterns burn petroleum oil to provide indoor light when electricity is unavailable. Lanterns, sometimes called lamps, largely replaced candles as the main source of interior light when kerosene became an alternative to other kinds of combustible oil. People continue to use kerosene lanterns for camping, ambience, or in case of emergency blackouts.

Kerosene oil has been distilled from petroleum, as is gasoline. Itís an alternative to oil from whales, fish, citronella, olives, beeswax, or nuts that people used to make primitive lamps. "Lamp" comes from a Greek word meaning "torch," lampas. Robert Edwin Dietz, as the father of the kerosene lantern, patented his lamp in 1840. It burned an unfamiliar oil to light train tracks criss-crossing the United States. Soon these portable, safe, weatherproof, and inexpensive lanterns were illuminating everything from one-room schoolhouses to police stations. Their fumes were not dangerous and they were less likely than candles to tip over and start a fire.

The parts of a kerosene lantern are the glass globe that surrounds the flame and keeps it steady; the handle, suspended from the body so it doesnít get hot; the wick, a round or flat woven cotton length; the burner, the metal dish holding the wick upright; a lever that controls the height of the wick above the burner; and the fount or reservoir that holds the oil.

A kerosene lantern uses the principles of carburetion and wicking. In the simplest kind of lamp, the dead flame lantern, open vents let in fresh air to allow the oil to burn. Hot air rises and escapes through the top. This basic form of carburetion provides oxygen to mix with the gaseous form of kerosene, since fire needs oxygen to burn. Capillary action works by drawing the kerosene out of the fount to the tip of the wick where the flame heats the oil to a gas and ignites it. Unlike propane lanterns, kerosene lanterns do not use mantles.

A more sophisticated method of carburetion can be found in hot blast or cold blast lanterns. These are tubular forms of the standard lantern, introduced by John Henry Irwin in 1869, to refine the way the vapor of kerosene oil mixes with fresh air to ignite. These lamps have side tubes running between outside air and the reservoir of oil. In cold blast types, fresh, oxygenated air circulates and makes a very bright flame. Hot blast lanterns circulate some fresh and some warmer, oxygen-poor air. This produces a softer flame, but conserves oil.
I love the sleepless hollow
very nice work
AngelOfBrokenDreams Featured By Owner Jan 5, 2005
Thanks for adding me to your friends' list :+devwatch:

I like the photo you've got in your gallery. Keep on with your work. :hug:
ShatteredVisage Featured By Owner Jan 6, 2005
no problem......your work is beautiful
AngelOfBrokenDreams Featured By Owner Jan 6, 2005
thanks, my dear :kiss: :hug:
Elaira Featured By Owner Jan 2, 2005
Hello buddy :love:
DavidRaywood Featured By Owner Jan 2, 2005
thanks for the fav hon!
xF0rtySixAndTwox Featured By Owner Jan 1, 2005   General Artist
hey lovely one with purple hair!
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