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Short-Crested Parasaurolophus by ScottHartman Short-Crested Parasaurolophus by ScottHartman
The more poorly known short-crested specimen of Parasaurolophus. There is still some debate as to whether it is a different species, or simply an immature individual (with the crest presumably growing later in life), or perhaps a female specimen. It's noteworthy that this specimen is actually larger than the specimens with long head crests.

Edit 11/30/18: Another part of Hadrosaur Overhaul 2018. Several updates to this one. You can read about it on my blog post if you're interested: www.skeletaldrawing.com/home/t…
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:iconcoolislandsong:
CoolislandSong Featured By Owner Dec 1, 2018
There was a poster at SVP last year that said the length and shape of the crest is related to ontogeny.
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:iconpackofkoolz:
packofkoolz Featured By Owner Dec 1, 2018  Student Digital Artist
"It's noteworthy that this specimen is actually larger than the specimens with long head crests."
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:iconcoolislandsong:
CoolislandSong Featured By Owner Dec 2, 2018
like i said it was just a poster, and i didn't see it since it was on a different day then when i was there. We'll have to wait for the paper to see what they make  of this.


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:iconscotthartman:
ScottHartman Featured By Owner Dec 3, 2018  Professional Digital Artist
To some degree the length of the crest has to be based on ontogeny (i.e. they weren't born with large crests, as 'Peanut' demonstrates). But whether that explains this specimen is less obvious (e.g. the crest shape isn't the same as P. walkeri - even if it grows longer). But hopefully more specimens and more analyses will tell.
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:iconmistingwolf:
MistingWolf Featured By Owner Nov 30, 2018  Hobbyist General Artist
I know there's lots of speculation as to whether or not this is a subspecies or even a female, but what if it's simply deformed?
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:iconolofmoleman:
olofmoleman Featured By Owner Dec 2, 2018   Digital Artist
While Parasaurolophus is quite a rare Hadrosaur, there are several specimens of both short and long crested variants. It seems the three valid species are also from different areas and ages. So while we could use more specimens to get better more accurate information, right now it seems unlikely that there is sexual dimorphism or that one variant is deformed.
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:iconmistingwolf:
MistingWolf Featured By Owner 13 hours ago  Hobbyist General Artist
Ohhh, that does explain a lot. Thank you for the new info; it shall go into my mental library.  ^,^
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:iconcoolislandsong:
CoolislandSong Featured By Owner Dec 1, 2018
There was a poster at SVP last year that said the length and shape of the crest is related to ontogeny.
Reply
:iconmistingwolf:
MistingWolf Featured By Owner 13 hours ago  Hobbyist General Artist
Sounds cool! Wish I could see it. :D (too broke to go places, haha)
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:iconthedinodrawer66:
TheDinoDrawer66 Featured By Owner Nov 30, 2018  New Deviant Hobbyist Digital Artist
Nice job on the Ornithopods. 
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:iconscotthartman:
ScottHartman Featured By Owner Dec 3, 2018  Professional Digital Artist
Thanks! Something had to feed the theropods... ;)
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:iconthedinodrawer66:
TheDinoDrawer66 Featured By Owner Dec 3, 2018  New Deviant Hobbyist Digital Artist
Indeed fine sir.
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:iconaceoftailclubs:
AceofTailClubs Featured By Owner Jul 8, 2015
Really nice reconstruction of this species. I've been wondering, what do you think of Gregory S.Paul's reconstructions? As I have a question in regard to his reconstructions of lambeosaurines that I don't fully understand. 
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:iconscotthartman:
ScottHartman Featured By Owner Jul 8, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
Greg does solid work. I don't agree with all of his biomechanical and soft-tissue interpretations, and when our skeletals differ it's obviously because I think it's different, but he also set the standard originally, and I take all of his skeletals as worthy of serious consideration, even if I end up disagreeing with him.
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:iconaceoftailclubs:
AceofTailClubs Featured By Owner Jul 8, 2015
Well, one thing about his lambeosaurine reconstructions I've never understood, nor have I ever seen in the art from others, was how he has direct skin attachments from the neural spines above the shoulders to the base of the skull, and in some species with larger crests, attached to the crests themselves. I've never seen the explanation for this reconstruction, and while I personally find it hard to believe due the lack of mobility it must cause, I am really curious as to why he gave them this feature. 
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:iconscotthartman:
ScottHartman Featured By Owner Jul 9, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
I actually wrote a paper on this, although it was for a conference at a small regional museum (the Tate Geological Museum in Casper. WY) and I'm not sure the proceedings volume is available anymore :( Anyhow, the orientation of the neural spines on the back appears to be an osteological correlate with neck depth (this works in extant animals as well), but over the years Greg has made several changes to how deep he interprets that. For his life reconstructions he thinks that there were fleshy skin crests along the back and neck in some lambeosaurs that made the neck look even deeper and attached to the crest (in particular he interprets the AMNH Corythosaurus mummy as exhibiting this). 

There do appear to be some really deep-necked hadrosaurs, and others with more horse/camel musculature (in terms of depth, not as a literal placement of the individual muscles) - so hadrosaurs show a bit of a range, which probably shouldn't be surprising, since extant ungulates do the same thing. 
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:iconaceoftailclubs:
AceofTailClubs Featured By Owner Jul 9, 2015
Huh... That is actually really interesting, I've always found those deep neck reconstructions a tad odd, as they seem as though they would inhibit vertical movement of the neck, though I guess that goes to show how little I know about anatomy. I wasn't even aware that some ungulates do this as well. Which modern ungulates have this feature? This is feature is mostly present in lambeosaurines, correct? As I haven't seen hadrosaurines with similar reconstructions. 
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:iconscotthartman:
ScottHartman Featured By Owner Jul 11, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
"Restriction" can be a good thing - e.g. some ungulates actively have to use their ventral neck muscles to oppose their nuchal ligaments if they want to put their heads down to the ground to drink, etc., But then the neck raises with ease as that stored elastic energy helps pull it back up. So maximizing efficiency really depends on what sort of routine posture they adopt, and how frequently they change it when feeding, etc.
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:iconcelestial-rainstorm:
Celestial-Rainstorm Featured By Owner May 10, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
I think the females had longer crests, but still much shorter than the males. This could just be a different variation, or even a juvenile. 
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:iconscotthartman:
ScottHartman Featured By Owner May 11, 2014  Professional Digital Artist
This specimen is actually larger than the specimens with long tubes, so it's unlikely to have been a juvenile.
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:iconpedrosalas:
PedroSalas Featured By Owner Apr 30, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
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:iconrandomdinos:
randomdinos Featured By Owner Dec 26, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
It's head looks proportionally, smaller than that of P.walkeri to me.
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:iconthemorlock:
TheMorlock Featured By Owner Sep 10, 2013  Student General Artist
Do you think it's likely that this is a female? I've been asked to design dinosaurs for a video game,  and I'm trying to decide whether or not to base the females on "P. cyrtocristatus".
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:icondotb18:
DOTB18 Featured By Owner Jun 11, 2013
Is it possible that P. cyrtocristatus is different enough from P. walker and P. tubicen to warrant its own genus?
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:iconscotthartman:
ScottHartman Featured By Owner Jun 11, 2013  Professional Digital Artist
It may be, but remember that calibrating a "generacometer" is basically an act of capriciousness.
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:iconthedilophoraptor:
TheDilophoraptor Featured By Owner Dec 5, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
i originally thought this was a female Parasaurolophus
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:iconscotthartman:
ScottHartman Featured By Owner Dec 6, 2012  Professional Digital Artist
So did some researchers in decades past, but it doesn't appear to be correct.
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:iconrajaharimau98:
RajaHarimau98 Featured By Owner Apr 19, 2012  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Interesting, never knew P. cyrtocristatus (wow, I spelled that right) was larger than P. walkeri and P. tubicen. How much bigger was it?
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:iconatumsobekra:
ATUMSOBEKRA Featured By Owner Apr 28, 2011
I WOULD LOVE TO SEE A COPY OF THAT PAPER--AND ANY OTHE PAPER ON THE NECK MUSCLE/TENDON/LIGAMENT STRUCTURES OF HADROSAURS.
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:iconpinkbazooka:
pinkBAZOOKA Featured By Owner Aug 19, 2009  Student General Artist
Perhaps with the crests its simply a question of genetics. Maybe there was a recessive gene in Parasaurolophus that generated smaller crests? Some house cats don't have tails while others do, but despite that all house cats come from the same species, felis catus Granted, that's not the best possible analogy, since a nasal/head crest is a different kind of beast all together from tail vertebrae, and there might be some skeletal differences between this specimen and other Parasaurolophus specimens that I'm missing (aside from the mentioned size factor.) But maybe that's the deal with the head crest - just a recessive gene.
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:iconslammalamma:
Slammalamma Featured By Owner Mar 22, 2007
I have a question, and I was wondering if you could clear this up.

When I was growing up, hadrosaurs like this were drawn with thin, graceful necks. Recently, though, I've seen a lot of people draw hadrosaurs and ornithopods with a really thick neck that makes the back of the neck completely flat. Look up "ornithopods" on Wikipedia and take a look at J. Conway's illustration if you don't know what I mean.
Do you know what caused people to re-think the hadrosaurian neck? I know it's a petty issue, but I've always been curious.

Great service you're doing here with the skeletals, my friend.
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:iconscotthartman:
ScottHartman Featured By Owner Apr 5, 2007  Professional Digital Artist
Stephen Czerkas and Craig Derstler where the first in recent times to (independently, to my knowledge) suggest that some ornithopods may have had deeper musculature and/or nuchal ligaments that would have thickened up their necks. I myself published a paper (sadly not readily available any more...I should make a pdf):

Hartman, Scott. 2002. Estimating nuchal ligament depth in hadrosaurid dinosaurs: The return of the pencil-necked hadrosaurs? Tate 2002 Field Conference Guide.

In it I showed that there are osteological correlates in the neck of modern mammals and hadrosaurs that let you predict relative thickness. My hypothesis has so far been forn out byt he depth of the neck musculature in Leonardo, the mummified Brachylophosaurus. In short, some hadrosaurs had quite stocky necks, while others seem to have had thinner necks. This really shouldn't be suprising, as extant ungulates also show a wide range of neck adaptations, depending on their foraging behavior.
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:iconolofmoleman:
olofmoleman Featured By Owner Nov 7, 2010   Digital Artist
There are also two Edmontosaurus mummies, Leonardo and Dakota, if I'm not mistaking one of them still had some neck muscles preserved. This could perhaps be the source of the thick neck for Hadrosaurids.
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:iconjconway:
jconway Featured By Owner Jan 11, 2008
I would like a copy of your paper if you ever do make a PDF.
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