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Magnificence by Robert-Eede Magnificence by Robert-Eede
:iconyouareplz::iconallowedplz:

You are very welcome to a free download, if you like my work I would very much appreciate a favourite! Thank you so much! :)

This beautiful bird was photographed at Wingham wild life park

Peafowl are three Asiatic species of flying bird in the genus Pavo of the pheasant family, Phasianidae, best known for the male's extravagant eye-spotted tail, which it displays as part of courtship. The male is called a peacock, the female a peahen, and the offspring peachicks. The adult female peafowl is grey and/or brown. Peachicks can be between yellow and a tawny colour with darker brown patches. The term also embraces the Congo Peafowl, which is placed in a separate genus Afropavo.


As with many birds, vibrant iridescent plumage colours are not primarily pigments, but structural colouration. Optical interference Bragg reflections, based on regular, periodic nanostructures of the barbules (fiber-like components) of the feathers produce the peacock's colours. Slight changes to the spacing result in different colours. Brown feathers are a mixture of red and blue: one colour is created by the periodic structure, and the other is a created by a Fabry–Pérot interference peak from reflections from the outer and inner boundaries. Such structural colouration causes the iridescence of the peacock's hues, since unlike pigments, interference effects depend on light angle.
Colour mutations exist through selective breeding, such as the leucistic White Peafowl and the Black-Shouldered Peafowl.
Evolution and sexual selection
Charles Darwin first theorized in On the Origin of Species that the peacock's plumage had evolved through sexual selection. This idea was expanded upon in his second book, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex.
The sexual struggle is of two kinds; in the one it is between individuals of the same sex, generally the males, in order to drive away or kill their rivals, the females remaining passive; whilst in the other, the struggle is likewise between the individuals of the same sex, in order to excite or charm those of the opposite sex, generally the females, which no longer remain passive, but select the more agreeable partners.


A peacock in flight, Tamil Nadu, India


An Indian peacock displaying its plumage
Work concerning female behaviour in many species of animals has sought to confirm Darwin’s basic idea of female preference for males with certain characteristics as a major force in the evolution of species. Females have often been shown to distinguish small differences among potential mates, and to prefer mating with individuals bearing the most exaggerated characters. In some cases, those males have been shown to be more healthy and vigorous, suggesting that the ornaments serve as markers indicating the males’ abilities to survive and, thus, their genetic qualities.
The peacock is perhaps the best-known example of traits believed to have arisen through sexual selection, though in recent years this theory has become the object of some controversy. It is known that male peafowl erect their trains to form a shimmering fan in their display to females. Marion Petrie tested whether or not these displays signaled a male’s genetic quality by studying a feral population of peafowl in Whipsnade Wildlife Park in southern England. She showed that the number of eyespots in the train predicted a male’s mating success, and this success could be manipulated by cutting the eyespots off some male’s tails. Females lost interest in pruned males and became attracted to the untrimmed ones. Further testing revealed that males with fewer eye spots, and thus with lower mating success, were more likely to suffer from greater predation.

Even more interestingly, she allowed females to mate with males that had variable numbers of eyespots, and reared the offspring in a communal incubator to control for differences in maternal care. Chicks fathered by more ornamented males weighed more than those fathered by less ornamented males, an attribute generally associated with better survival rate in birds. When these chicks were released into the park and recaptured one year later, those with heavily ornamented fathers were found to be better able to avoid predators and survive in natural conditions. Thus, Petrie’s work has shown correlations between tail ornamentation, mating success and increased survival ability in both the ornamented males and their offspring.

Furthermore, peafowl and their sexual characteristics have been used in the discussion of the causes for sexual traits. Amotz Zahavi used the excessive tail plumes of male peafowls as evidence for his “Handicap Principle”.Considering that these trains are obviously deleterious to the survival of the individual due to the more brilliant plumes being highly visible to predators and the longer plumes making escape from danger more difficult, Zahavi argued that only the most fit males could survive the handicap of a large tail. Thus, the brilliant tail of the peacock serves as an indicator for females that highly ornamented males are good at surviving for other reasons, and are therefore more preferable mates. This theory may be contrasted with Fisher’s theory that male sexual traits, such as the peacock’s train, are the result of selection for attractive traits because these traits are considered attractive.

However, some disagreement has arisen in recent years concerning whether or not female peafowl do indeed select males with more ornamented trains. In contrast to Petrie’s findings, a seven-year Japanese study of free-ranging peafowl came to the conclusion that female peafowl do not select mates solely on the basis of their trains. Mariko Takahashi found no evidence that peahens expressed any preference for peacocks with more elaborate trains, such as trains having more ocelli, a more symmetrical arrangement or a greater length. Takahashi determined that the peacock’s train was not the universal target of female mate choice, showed little variance across male populations, and, based on physiological data collected from this group of peafowl, do not correlate to male physical conditions.

Adeline Loyau and her colleagues responded to Takahashi’s study by voicing concern that alternative explanations for these results had been overlooked and that these might be essential for the understanding of the complexity of mate choice. They concluded that female choice might indeed vary in different ecological conditions.
It has been also suggested that peacocks' display of colourful and oversize trains with plenty of eyespots, together with their extremely loud call and fearless behaviour, have been formed by the forces of natural selection (not sexual selection), and served as an aposematic warning display to intimidate predators and rivals.

Behaviour

Peafowl are forest birds that nest on the ground but roost in trees. They are terrestrial feeders. Both species of peafowl are believed to be polygamous. However, it has been suggested that peahens entering a green peacock's territory are really his own juvenile or sub-adult young and that green peafowl are really monogamous in the wild.


Diet

Peafowl are omnivorous and eat most plant parts, flower petals, seed heads, insects and other arthropods, reptiles, and amphibians. In common with other members of the Galliformes, males possess metatarsal spurs or "thorns" used primarily during intra-specific fights.

Cultural significance

In Hindu culture, peacock is the mount of the lord Karthikeya, the God of war. A demon king Surapadman was split into two by Karthikeya and the merciful lord converted the two parts as an integral part of himself, one becoming a peacock (his mount) and another a rooster adorning his flag. The peacock displays the divine shape of Omkara when it spreads its magnificent plumes into a full-blown circular form.
In Babylonia and Persia the Peacock is seen as a guardian to royalty, and is often seen in engravings upon the thrones of royalty. The monarchy in Iran is referred to as the Peacock Throne. Melek Taus (ملك طاووس - Kurdish Tawûsê Melek), the 'Peacock Angel', is the Yazidi name for the central figure of their faith. The Yazidi consider Tawûsê Melek an emanation of God and a benevolent angel who has redeemed himself from his fall and has become a demiurge who created the cosmos from the Cosmic egg. After he repented, he wept for 7,000 years, his tears filling seven jars, which then quenched the fires of hell. In art and sculpture, Tawûsê Melek is depicted as a peacock. However, peacocks are not native to the lands where Tawûsê Melek is worshipped.

In 1956, John J. Graham created an abstraction of an eleven-feathered peacock logo for American broadcaster NBC. This brightly hued peacock was adopted due to the increase in colour programming. NBC's first colour broadcasts showed only a still frame of the colourful peacock. The emblem made its first on-air appearance on May 22, 1956. NBC later adopted the slogan "We're proud as a peacock!" The current version of the logo debuted in 1986 and has six feathers (yellow, orange, red, purple, blue, green). A stylized peacock in full display is the logo for the Pakistan Television Corporation.
In some cultures the peacock is also a symbol of pride or vanity, due to the way the bird struts and shows off its plumage.

Gastronomy

During the Medieval period, various types of fowl were consumed as food, with the poorer populations (such as serfs) consuming more common birds, such as chicken. However, the more wealthy gentry were privileged to more exotic foods, such as swan, and even peafowl was consumed. On a king's table, a peacock would be for ostentatious display as much as for culinary consumption.

*Wiki [link]
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:iconb3ar-ch13f:
B3AR-CH13F Featured By Owner Jul 20, 2015  Hobbyist Artist
Peafrie Breedings by B3AR-CH13F
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:icon1kirawolf:
1KiraWolf Featured By Owner Sep 3, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
my peackock, Mr. Bird, is almost this big!!
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Oct 20, 2013
Who don't love Mr bird ? :)
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:iconkyrieglows89:
KyrieGlows89 Featured By Owner Mar 9, 2013
Wow, I love how that tail is angled!!!
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 9, 2013
Thanks so much!! :iconnorrisapprovedplz:
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:iconkingemocut:
Kingemocut Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013  Hobbyist Photographer
yo, dude, if ya want i could teach you HTML 5.0 (feels like a fool, 'cause he knows html off by heart, and is only 16. LOL)
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013
Wow, thanks for the offer but I feel it would go well over my head. Thanks though :D
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:iconkingemocut:
Kingemocut Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013  Hobbyist Photographer
oh, coolio. I can understand what you mean. LOL. i only use like 5 different types of commands anyway,lol. i use the ancher command Your DA

<h1>the</h1> <h2>different</h2> <h3>header</h3> <h4>types</h4>(there is 2 more headers, just too lazy to put them)

the image command <img src="[link]" alt="DA logo thing">

and a few other commands like line breaks

and header commands like

<head>
<title>[your title here]</title>
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013
CoOl but u gone way over my head!! :iconjcalrightythenplz:
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:iconkingemocut:
Kingemocut Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013  Hobbyist Photographer
oh,ok. :iconyunomemeplz: understand (don't answer that, just for lolz)
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:iconspunkysmudger:
spunkysmudger Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013
Wow... he's beautiful! What makes the feathers grow to such an incredible size?
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013
I don't know but find these beautiful birds just fascinating. The reason why I chose the title name was because that was all I kept saying to my self as I had the chance to photograph this magnificent bird . :)
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:iconveanil:
Veanil Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
tl;dr
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013
Hi, sorry but I don't know what you meant, but thank you :-)
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:iconveanil:
Veanil Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I said too long, didn't read...

That is a lovely picture you took, though! Well done.
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013
Oh , Sorry but I not very good at abbreviations lol . I am glad you liked it, Thank you for you're support. . :iconnorrisapprovedplz: :D
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:iconveanil:
Veanil Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
You're welcome! :iconamericafuckyeaplz:
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013
:iconinuclapplz: :icontwilightdanceplz:
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:iconveanil:
Veanil Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
:XD:
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:iconsomeguy987:
someguy987 Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2013
Damn dude I came here to look at a colorful bird not learn
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013
Well, I hope you found what you were looking for. You didn't have to read the description if you didn't want to! Thanks for your input. :-)
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:iconaquilla-whingate:
Aquilla-Whingate Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2013   General Artist
That was a read and an interesting one, but Darwin ideals were to be expected, and did not know that the peacock of the Congo was a separate genus. Same with the lot of thoughts, theories, and interpretation on the reasons peacock plumage evolved the way it has. In the end though, it all really comes down to what females want and what males will do to get a mate.
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2013
Thank you , I have to say that when I saw this I was really impressed with this bird. It was truly magnificent and I felt privileged to capture it in all it's glory. The things men do eh? :D
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:iconaquilla-whingate:
Aquilla-Whingate Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013   General Artist
Well not just limited to humans, but yes males will do at times anything to get into a persons pants (so to speak). Back to the bird though that was a lucky capture, and you were all to nice to write up a report about it, all that is missing is the source citations LoL.
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013
Ahh, Well I did put up an acknowledgement such as *Wiki , is that the done thing then? from now on I could post up a link. I hope that I am not being disrespectful! :/
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:iconaquilla-whingate:
Aquilla-Whingate Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013   General Artist
Well I just believe in credit where credit is due, so if you typed every word there. The only link you have to then post would have some statistics back up, till all, not disrespectful.
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 9, 2013
Oh, thank you. From now on I have given the source name but with the link too . :)
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:iconaquilla-whingate:
Aquilla-Whingate Featured By Owner Mar 10, 2013   General Artist
Well that is good, always nice to give some source when you make your findings.
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 10, 2013
Thank you for letting me know, in future all of my sources will have a name AND a link :)
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(1 Reply)
:iconrelhom:
relhom Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
:happybounce:
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 9, 2013
:icontngcar1plz: :icontngcar2plz: :icontngcar3plz:
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:iconrobert-eede:
Robert-Eede Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2013
:icontwilightdanceplz:
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Submitted on
March 7, 2013
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