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Literature
Palindromes
Sotades invented palindromes in Greek-ruled Egypt, back in the 3rd century BC. In fact, palindromes were once known as "Sotadic verses." He was thrown into the sea (wrapped in lead) by King Ptolemy II, for insulting the king in one of his verses.
They were quite popular in the 1800's, but have not shared much popularity since around the 1930's.
Palindrome comes from the Greek words "palin" (again or back) and "dramein" (to run). So if you read that backwards, it translates loosely into "to run back."
The palindrome simply reads the same forwards and backwards, usually with a central focal point from where it begins to read backwards. There are several ways to write palindrome poems, three are presented here, along with examples.
1. It can be read backwards, with the same words, such as the example below.
Example:
Love/Hate Relationship
by Paula Brown
Love
Mimics hate:
Passionate always, forging forward.
Unquiet rage screams
Poetry.
Tangled mercilessly;
Emotion
—mirrors—
Emotion,
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Literature
Ottava Rima
Ottava Rima is an eight-line form, originally Italian, having either eleven syllables per line or a line of iambic pentameter—the commonly accepted English use of the form being iambic pentameter.
The rhyme scheme is A-B-A-B-A-B-C-C, which is a moderately rigorous rhyme scheme.  This makes ottava rima an excellent stepping-stone toward writing sonnets.
The earliest known use of ottava rima is in the works of Giovanni Boccaccio, who wrote several minor poems in the form and then used it as a stanza form in several of his longer works.  This act propelled ottava rima to the primary form for epic poetry in Italy for roughly two centuries.
Ottava rima is relatively unpopular in English literature ;  several works have been produced by Romantic poets such as Shelly and Lord Byron.
We shall leave you to your writing after an example from Don Juan by Lord Byron :
    "Go, little book, from this my solitude!
   &
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Literature
The Glosa
The glosa is an early Renaissance form that was developed by poets of the Spanish court in the 14th and 15th centuries. In a glosa, tribute is paid to another poet. The opening quatrain, called a cabeza, is by another poet, and each of their four lines are imbedded elsewhere in the glosa.
The opening quatrain is followed by four stanzas, each of which is generally ten lines long, that elaborate or "glosses" on the cabeza chosen. Each ending line (10th line) of the four following stanzas is taken from the cabeza.
The usual rhyme scheme of a glosa is final word rhyming of the 6th, 9th and the borrowed 10th lines.
Example
Irish Pride and Prejudice
(Glosa verse by Darren Anderson)
In the deserts of the heart
Let the healing fountain start,
In the prison of his days
Teach the free man how to praise.
W.H. Auden
In memory of W.B. Yeats

A putrid scene of civil conflict
returns without regret,
festering in dead hearts,
lacking the fortitude to forgive.
Waiting, we long for
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Literature
Bref Double
The Bref Double
The bref double is a French form. It is similar to the sonnet, but it need not be written in iambic pentameter (it can be in tetrameter, hexameter, or any other meter you prefer). The rhyme scheme is also different from a sonnet. The bref double contains three quatrains (four-line stanzas) followed by a final couplet.
a/x/b/c
x/a/x/c
a/x/a/b
a/b
The x standing for a line that doesn't rhyme with any of the other lines.
An example:
Road Closed...
With crystal rain, the sky is filled
with diamond flakes that swirl and dance
to tunes that they alone may know,
unheeded by the ears of man.
The northern winds play havoc with
mere mortal plans, as drifts now build
their buttresses of pristine white
as if to mark some hidden plan.
This land is decorated, chilled,
and sealed for all to gaze with joy;
see all the children laugh, so thrilled
to witness Mother Nature's show!
Though my intent lies thwarted, killed,
my smile grows broad at so much snow!
Copyright soulsea
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Literature
Rondel, Rondel Prime
* A note: In my studies of these forms (Rondeau, Rondel, Rondelet, Roundel, Rondine, etc) it becomes increasingly clear that there is little accurate information. To the best of my knowledge, this is accurate although I had to wade through acres of mislabeled works and forms to accumulate this much. Keep in mind that most definitions of these forms are rather broad and ambiguous due to the fact most people think the forms are all interchangeable or there is only one or two forms for all these different names. The truth, as I have discovered it, is rather drastically different.
Rondel:
          The Rondel is a French style of lyrical poetry that is made up of two quatrains followed by a quintet. This gives us a total of 13 lines (that can be of any length) to contain the two rhymes that follow a scheme of: ABba abAB abbaA where A and B are the refrains.
          The following is an exam
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Literature
The Conachlonn
The conachlann is a simple bardic form of chain verse. The last word of one line, starts as the first word of the next line. You have a bit of slight leeway, as you will see in the examples. This is a medieval Irish poetic form.
Amergin's invocation of Ireland is a very famous conachlann.
Ailim iath n-erend
Ermac muir motach
Motach sliab sreatach
Sreatach coill ciotach
Ciotach ab eascach
Easach loc lindmar
Lindmar tor tiopra
Tiopra tuath aenach
Aenach righ teamra
Teamair tor tuatach
Tuata mac milead
Mile long libearn
Libearn ard Ere
Ere ard diclass
Eber dond digbas
Diceadal ro gaet
Ro gaet ban breissi
Breissi ban buaich
[Be nadbail heriu]
Herimon or tus [hir]
hir Eber ailseas
Ailim iath n-erend

(The poem translated, translator was unattributed on the web)
I invoke the land of Eire:  
much coursed by the fertile sea.  
Fertile is the fruit-strewn mountain  
fruit strewn by the showery wood showery is the river of waterfalls  
of waterfa
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Literature
Rannaicheacht Ghairid
Irish Poetry -- Background and Information
The bard's spoken language lent itself to the natural rhythm and rhyme, and  alliteration, consonance and repetition were very important to the Irish poet.  Until the 5th Century, the only written form of Irish was Ogham, used only for carving into trees and gravestones. Therefore, poetry was oral, and based on sound structures so they would be easy to remember. When crafting medieval Irish poetry, remember that it is cyclical and the last line should end with the first syllable word or the complete line or thought, bringing it around again to the beginning.
Praise poetry was commonly practiced by the poets and there were various meters used, such as dán díreach ("straight or strict verse"). Poems were often sung to musical accompaniment. Some thought the bards had supernatural powers that came with their words. Satire, not to be confused with the modern form of satirical humor, was a poetic practice greatly feared. It was used to ridic
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Literature
Sapphic Verse
Sapphic Verse
Made famous by the greek poetess Sappho of Lesbos, c 600 BC - the Sapphic stanza is a metric poetic form spanning 4 lines.
The form has 3 hendecasyllabic lines - Each consisting of the following metric feet: trochee, trochee, dactyl, trochee, trochee
The fourth, concluding line has a Dactyl followed by a Trochee - this last line is known as the Adonic or Adonean line.
A brief note on the metric feet used in Sapphic Verse -
A Trochee is a two syllable foot, which follows a 'DAH-dah' rhythm
e.g 'TRO-chee'
A Dactyl is a three syllable foot, which follows a 'DAH-dah-dah' rhythm
e.g 'DAC-tyll-ic'
An example:
'Sapphics' by Algernon Charles Swinburne
Saw the white implacable Aphrodite,
Saw the hair unbound and the feet unsandalled
Shine as fire of sunset on western waters;
Saw the reluctant. . .
to show the metric pattern -
SAW the / WHITE im- / PLACable / APHro- / DIte
SAW the / HAIR un- / BOUND and the / FEET un- / SANDalled
SHINE as / FIRE of / SUNset on / WESTe
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Literature
The Acrostic
An acrostic poem is created by arranging the first letter of each line so that they flow in alphabetical order, or form a word or phrase. Rhyme and meter aren't issues in this style of poetry, which causes some to consider it not poetry at all. Also, the only set length is that of what you choose to represent with the first letters. However, it's been around for thousands of years. This style was common among the Greeks and derived from the Greek words akros, "at the end," and stichos, "line". It was used by Latin playwrights and Medieval monks; it was popular in the Middle High German and Italian renaissance periods. If it please ya, learn more from the links below.
An example:
Mounting the sky, higher and higher;
Oblivious to we who dwell below;
Only she feels the warmth of the sun
Now that he has set.
The subject of this poem is the "moon", as indicated by the bolded letters.
Links:
http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Figures/A/acrostic.htm
http://members.fortunecity.com/mrk/help/acr
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