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The Brachiosaur Parade by Paleo-King The Brachiosaur Parade by Paleo-King
2009 Paleo-King

Featured on The Paleo King [link] and SV-POW [link] - it's the Big Bad Brachiosaur Parade!

The fourteen best-known brachiosaur genera as of mid-2009 (before Abydosaurus and Qiaowanlong were described - sheesh, I wish they'd been discovered and described a few months earlier!). All brachiosaurs drawn to scale with the largest known T. rex specimen (MOR 008, not Sue) and labeled for easy reference 8-)

Here's the lineup:

Volkheimeria
Lapparentosaurus
Daanosaurus
Bothriospondylus
Lusotitan
Brachiosaurus

"the Archbishop"
Pelorosaurus
Pleurocoelus
Cedarosaurus
Sonorasaurus
Sauroposeidon
Breviparopus
Europasaurus



The footprints at the bottom are those of Pleurocoelus and Breviparopus.

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Note: The "Brachiosaurus" shown here was B. brancai, which is now formally known as Giraffatitan (though the alternate name has been used since 1988, first and foremost by Gregory Paul). However, the type species B. altithorax was of similar average size.

The entire sequence is roughly in order from the earliest brachiosaurs to the last, with the exception of the basal dwarf brachiosaur Europasaurus.
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:iconcadrophemus:
Cadrophemus Featured By Owner Aug 22, 2018
Beautiful! Wish we had more conclusive proof of the existence of Breviparopus, though
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:iconmajestic-colossus:
Majestic-Colossus Featured By Owner Jan 15, 2018
Any plans on updating this someday? By the way, this is the best dinosaur size comparison there is, in my opinion. 
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jan 17, 2018  Professional Traditional Artist
I may update it, but overall not much would change apart from the sizes of a few of these species, and a few proportion changes with Lapparentosaurus and the other basal ones. I'm surprised how well this thing has aged.
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:iconcruzzwnt:
cruzzwnt Featured By Owner Jul 5, 2017
Are you did compare size to Spinosaurus version.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jan 17, 2018  Professional Traditional Artist
Spinosaurus would be about half a head longer than the T. rex.

I put T. rex in there because that's just about everyone's favorite "standard" demarcation line for determining which dinosaurs are true giants and which are merely large.
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:iconevodolka:
Evodolka Featured By Owner Feb 23, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
archbishop is actually a very fitting name for a sauropod i think of the long chess piece :D
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jul 27, 2017  Professional Traditional Artist
LOL the chess piece with the huge hat... imagine if they find its skull and the crest turns out to be twice as tall as Giraffatitan's. :XD:
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:iconevodolka:
Evodolka Featured By Owner Jul 28, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
that would be interesting, though i thought you were going to say
"imagine if it had a crest like a bishop hat"
THAT would be more interesting :XD:
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Aug 2, 2017  Professional Traditional Artist
That's a very weird crest indeed... A bishop hat would require a deep notch in the nasal bone itself... like a v-curve in a heart monitor. LOL that would be the day ... :P

Though we might see a brachiosaur with a crest of comparable height to a bishop hat. That's if you're talking about those super-tall catholic bishop mitres. If it's the eastern orthodox church, there's already a whole family of dinosaurs that resemble their bishops' hats. Pachycephalosaurs.
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:iconevodolka:
Evodolka Featured By Owner Aug 3, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
"BREAKING NEWS paleontologists find a bishop hat on top of a sauropod skull"
i really do hope that happens now :XD:

wait it's already a thing?
i was thinking the chess piece
i actually know very little pachycephalosaurs
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Aug 3, 2017  Professional Traditional Artist
Well pachycephalosaurs have a dome, like the shape of eastern orthodox bishop hats (russian church, greek church, etc.). they wear a domed crown not a miter. Mycocephale REALLY looks like those hats.

Miters (tall pointy hats with the notch) like you see on the chess piece are mainly catholic bishops and a few other western churches. No dinosaur has a head that shape... that we know of.
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:iconevodolka:
Evodolka Featured By Owner Aug 4, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
oh i think i know who you mean now, yeah i can see it :D

thanks for the info
now you got me thinking of chess and how i really want to make dinosaur chess pieces :XD:
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:iconjokerz-1824:
Jokerz-1824 Featured By Owner Aug 18, 2016
What about Giraffatitan?  That guy was enormous, too.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Aug 18, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
The "brachiosaurus" in this image is actually Giraffatitan. This was made before the name Giraffatitan became official. Speaking of which.... check this out: paleo-king.deviantart.com/art/…
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:iconrandomdinos:
randomdinos Featured By Owner Edited Jul 13, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I know this is quite old, but is it relatively certain that the footprints are those of Pleurocoelus and not of some larger species from the same time and place? Most estimates online seem to put it at 60 feet long or less, though I don't know what they're based after.
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:iconcall-me-dawn:
Call-Me-Dawn Featured By Owner Apr 11, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
love this
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Apr 12, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
Thanks!
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:iconmacrocanthrosaurus:
Macrocanthrosaurus Featured By Owner Jan 21, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
What about Amphicoelias fragillimus?  Isn't that the biggest one?
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jan 24, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
That's a diplodocoid, not a brachiosaur. This is the brachiosaur parade. If this were a diplodocoid parade then perhaps I would include Amphicoelias fragillimus. Or maybe not, as it's only known from a single bone which was either lost or destroyed more than a hundred years ago.
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:iconmikebrownsound:
mikebrownsound Featured By Owner Dec 11, 2015
Inc wich country did they find these footprins they named Breviparopus ?   Nice chart btw.
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jan 13, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
Morocco.
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:iconbricksmashtv:
bricksmashtv Featured By Owner Dec 12, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Morocco
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:iconmikebrownsound:
mikebrownsound Featured By Owner Dec 12, 2015
Sweet.  That would be enormous.  Bigger than Argentinosaurus i can imagine.
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:iconbricksmashtv:
bricksmashtv Featured By Owner Dec 12, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Well, taller and longer, but not heavier. Brachiosaurs were way lighter than Titanosaurs of similar size, but still heavier than Diplodocoids of the same size [85 feet long: 45 Tons (Titanosaur)>35 Tons (Brachiosaurs)>15 Tons (Diplodocoid)].
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:iconmikebrownsound:
mikebrownsound Featured By Owner Dec 13, 2015
AH i see.   But that largest brachiosaurus must have been way more heavier than the regular brachiosaur we always  seen in books and movies.   I love it !!    Crazy how big they were!
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:iconbricksmashtv:
bricksmashtv Featured By Owner Dec 14, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Yeah the largest probably reached something around 50 to 55 tons. Crazy big, possibly 95 to 100 feet long, maybe 55 feet tall.
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:iconacrocanthosaurusa:
AcrocanthosaurusA Featured By Owner Nov 27, 2015
So how did you get to Breviparopus"s size?  If you found the size of giraffatitans footprint I'd like to know it's size. 
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jan 13, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
Breviparopus' size was calculated using its footprints and the general proportions of Giraffatitan.
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:iconacrocanthosaurusa:
AcrocanthosaurusA Featured By Owner Jan 13, 2016
And the proportions were?
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jan 13, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
What you see here. I don't have the footprint length-body length ratio off the top of my head.
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:iconbricksmashtv:
bricksmashtv Featured By Owner Dec 12, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
The Berlin Giraffatitan's prints are 70cm, while Breviparopus' prints are 115cm.
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:icontheamazingkopout:
TheAmazingKopout Featured By Owner Sep 9, 2015
Brachiosaurs are the best sauropods!
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:iconleopold002:
Leopold002 Featured By Owner Jan 14, 2015  Hobbyist Writer
Interesting presentation. Information well organized and understandable.
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:iconkarotcake:
Karotcake Featured By Owner Dec 29, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
I got 1 question, 
how do this giant lizards hearts pump blood all the way to their heads?
wouldnt they just pass out?
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Sep 10, 2015  Professional Traditional Artist
Well (1) they're not giant lizards, they're dinosaurs which is evolutionarily more along the croc/bird line. Dinosaurs are actually separated from lizards by many evolutionary steps and nodes, many more than you will ever see in a school textbook.

And (2) they would not pass out because they had a big enough chest to accommodate the large heart that all the mathematical models say would be necessary. As well as they may have had specializations like one way valves (though some experts doubt this, strictly based on modern animals) or a different (non-linear) arrangement of the arteries to compensate for gravity effects. Also most mathematical models don't take into account the power of capillary action, or that their necks were basically full of air sacs which would also put pressure on the vessels, like a gigantic vaccum suit, so getting the blood up to the brain wasn't as difficult as it looked.

(3) also because sauropods in general had small brains, they didn't need much blood up there anyway. Although the nose probably needed a good bit in brachiosaurs. Also they were "brainier" than most other sauropods, so this may be a moot point for brachiosaurs.... Giraffatitan (known from teenage skulls) had a brain at least 500cc (likely a bit larger than this for the adults) which is in the Chimpanzee range, surprisingly enough.
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:iconmacrocanthrosaurus:
Macrocanthrosaurus Featured By Owner Jan 21, 2016  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Also, they think that just moving that neck would have put enough pressure on the arteries to force the blood up there
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jan 21, 2016  Professional Traditional Artist
that's possible too but I suspect the fact that the neck was so heavily pneumatized with air sacs created almost a vacuum effect around the arteries in the neck as the dinosaur exhaled, which pulled more blood up into the neck.
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:iconkarotcake:
Karotcake Featured By Owner Sep 10, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Alright that explains alot thanks!
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:icononigojira:
OniGojira Featured By Owner May 2, 2015
Trees pump water just fine up to their tops. Obviously the two living things are nothing alike but if plants figured out a way with out exploding themselves from the pressure, I'm sure so could Dinosaurs.
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:iconcelestial-rainstorm:
Celestial-Rainstorm Featured By Owner May 9, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Fantastic illustration. I grew up thinking Brachiosaurus was the tallest dinosaur. But now.....wow! Just look at the size of these beasts! 

And little Europosaurus XD I'd ride her to school. 
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner May 18, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
Yes Europasaurus is pretty cute. But it's not the smallest brachiosaur anymore, apparently. The Croatian Dwarf is even smaller.

There are a number of dinosaurs that were taller than Brachiosaurus (or at least its holotype specimen, which died before reaching full size). Sauroposeidon, Puertasaurus, Daxiatitan, and a whole host of other vertical-necked high browsers. However few dinosaurs were both taller AND heavier. Perhaps only the really big titanosaurs like Puertasaurus and Alamosaurus.

Breviparopus was apparently also outclassed by "Brachiosaurus" nougaredi, a species that needs its own genus and was NOT a form of Brachiosaurus, although it probably was from the same family. This beast is known mainly from an imcomplete sacrum, but probably approached 130 feet assuming it had similar proportions to Giraffatitan.
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:iconcelestial-rainstorm:
Celestial-Rainstorm Featured By Owner May 18, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Good lord, and to think our planet was once blessed with these creatures. 
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:iconforbiddenparadise64:
ForbiddenParadise64 Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2014
Great graph. I based my graph on yours :) 
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
Thanks! :D
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:iconforbiddenparadise64:
ForbiddenParadise64 Featured By Owner Sep 21, 2014
Wait, regarding your tyrannosaurus, I've heard that MOR 008 was smaller than sue and just had an unusually elongated skull. What's your view on this? 
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Sep 21, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
Since I don't know of any postcranial remains for MOR 008 (far as I know it's just the skull) I can't make that kind of judgment.

The real problem is that it's a fragmentary skull, and all the big T. rex skulls are roughly similar in size. But with varying proportions. Whether MOR 008 ends up reconstructed bigger or smaller than Sue's skull depends on the prophetions you give to the missing parts. Restore it like Sue or Wankel (long upper jaw, deep cranium region, big overbite) and it's bigger than Sue. Just like Jack Horner did it (one of the few things I agree with him on). But if you try to reconstruct it like the AMNH specimen or Stan, it comes out a bit smaller than Sue.

Of course MOR 008 isn't just along skull, it's also a thick and deep one. So the whole "it's a younger animal with a more gracile skull" rumor simply isn't true. It's possibly the most mature and robust T. rex skull on record. The rugose nasal bone indicates an even older and gnarlier-looking animal than Sue.

My view is since its morphology is more like Sue than any of the other T. rexes, it is probably most correct to restore it like Sue, in which case it comes out bigger. There's a tendency to the most conservative estimates possible that is popular among many paleoartists nowadays, which I think sometimes goes too far (i.e. people restoring titanosaurs with thin rib cages like diplodocids, based on crushed and deformed rib fossils that don't fit with the wide hip shape - nobody bothered to reconstruct their uncrushed life appearance.)
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:iconforbiddenparadise64:
ForbiddenParadise64 Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2014
Of course my infinicollid graph is nowhere near as good as your work and more deta
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:iconpeteridish:
PeteriDish Featured By Owner Feb 19, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
How much fossil material is there of breviparopus? The size seems borderline insane! XD
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:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Feb 19, 2014  Professional Traditional Artist
There are only footprints. But these, at nearly 1m wide, are still much smaller than the bigger sauropod prints that have been found. The tracks at Plagne, Frange, and those of Parabrontopodus distercii are pushing 2m wide.

Breviparopus is not alone even among brachiosaurs. "Brachiosaurus" nougaredi is known from a partial sacrum that when complete, was probably up to 60% longer than that of the Brachiosaurus altithorax holotype. So we're talking about a creature that may have topped 120ft. long. The largest Giraffatitan specimens, HMN XV2 and HMN Fund no, appear to be from individuals in the 90-100 foot range. And apparently based on the scaled quarry maps of Abydosaurus, its adult individuals approached 100 feet long as well. paleo-king.deviantart.com/art/…
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:iconpeteridish:
PeteriDish Featured By Owner Feb 20, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Wow... O.O
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