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Ruyangosaurus giganteus Mk-II by Paleo-King Ruyangosaurus giganteus Mk-II :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 92 40 Argentinosaurus huinculensis Mk. II by Paleo-King Argentinosaurus huinculensis Mk. II :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 135 96 Futalognkosaurus dukei Mk. X (Calvo edition) by Paleo-King Futalognkosaurus dukei Mk. X (Calvo edition) :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 90 19 Futalognkosaurus dukei Mk. IX by Paleo-King Futalognkosaurus dukei Mk. IX :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 81 7 Giraffatitan brancai rigorous skeletal by Paleo-King Giraffatitan brancai rigorous skeletal :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 81 15 Giraffatitan brancai - Imperial German edition! by Paleo-King Giraffatitan brancai - Imperial German edition! :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 97 33 Ruyangosaurus giganteus - forgotten giant # ??? by Paleo-King Ruyangosaurus giganteus - forgotten giant # ??? :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 118 80 Paluxysaurus jonesi hi-fi skeletals by Paleo-King Paluxysaurus jonesi hi-fi skeletals :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 74 24 Brachiosaur comparison by Paleo-King Brachiosaur comparison :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 90 33
Literature
List of Biggest Dinosaurs
The largest dinosaur in terms of mass and volume is probably some sort of titanosaur. As of now.....
Here's how the biggest titanosaurs rank out in first-last place:
1. Tie between Alamosaurus (referred Mexican fibula + Fowler & Sullivan's neck centrum), Puertasaurus (1 cervical, 1 dorsal, 2 unpublished caudals) and Patagotitan a.k.a. the "Chubut Monster" (majority of skeleton from at least six specimens). All of of these animals appear to top out around 120+ ft. long and probably 100 tons.
2. Tie between Argentinosaurus and the "MLP Monster" (briefly mentioned by GSP, 1988 with estimate measurements, and lost to history since). Both of these animals were probably pushing 110+ ft. long and 80-90 tons
3. Tie between Ruyangosaurus (cervical rib, anterior and posterior dorsals, additional unpublished dorsals, dorsal rib, upper femur, tibia), Notocolossus (dorsal and caudal vertebrae, foot, and limb elements) and "Argyrosaurus" sp. (the larger
:iconPaleo-King:Paleo-King
:iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 34 123
Supersaurus vivianae by Paleo-King Supersaurus vivianae :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 100 35 So you want to draw Huanghetitanids? by Paleo-King So you want to draw Huanghetitanids? :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 77 49
Literature
Our March - 'Die Paleo-Kompanie'
(The new anthem of the Paleo-Nazis - to be sung to the tune of "Die Braune Kompanie" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYYDffIKC3k  any time you get trolled by "awesomebros" or other living Godwin's Law exhibits)
I still am young on years of life,
I still am far from death;
But I have witnessed “awesomebros”
attempt to choke our breath.
And though my luck does raise me up,
I give first thanks to thee:
I pledge to you my loyalty, O Paleo Company!
I pledge to you my loyalty, O Paleo Company!
Already some have been ripped off
From our Paleo-Korps
The bells of victory, now clang,
my arm and brush, exhort!
I swear and I renew that Oath
that Paleo-King did sing -
“I pledge to you my loyalty, O Paleo Company!”
“I pledge to you my loyalty, O Paleo Company!”
So struggle forth like dinosaurs,
til Fraudsters' whining shall end;
Accuracy and copyrights,
with tooth and claw defend!
And Araucarias be strewn
Upon our victory!
Serve you, I shall, in loyalt
:iconPaleo-King:Paleo-King
:iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 13 7
Brachiosaur Death's Head by Paleo-King Brachiosaur Death's Head :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 25 14 Giraffatitan brancai UNCENSORED! by Paleo-King Giraffatitan brancai UNCENSORED! :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 115 45 Brachiosaurid skull comparison by Paleo-King Brachiosaurid skull comparison :iconpaleo-king:Paleo-King 94 14

Favourites

Upper Shishugou fauna chart by Megalotitan Upper Shishugou fauna chart :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 92 31 Barbosania by Vitor-Silva Barbosania :iconvitor-silva:Vitor-Silva 165 16 Its JWFK but its accurate by RizkiusMaulanae Its JWFK but its accurate :iconrizkiusmaulanae:RizkiusMaulanae 161 133 Tyrant Care - Daspletosaurus by Vitor-Silva Tyrant Care - Daspletosaurus :iconvitor-silva:Vitor-Silva 347 65 Gryposaurus monumentensis by Olorotitan Gryposaurus monumentensis :iconolorotitan:Olorotitan 318 9 Brachytrachelopan mesai skeletal reconstruction by SpinoInWonderland Brachytrachelopan mesai skeletal reconstruction :iconspinoinwonderland:SpinoInWonderland 105 32 BRACHIOSAURUS (WIP) by IlyaYungin1991 BRACHIOSAURUS (WIP) :iconilyayungin1991:IlyaYungin1991 49 4 Alamosaurus render by Paleop Alamosaurus render :iconpaleop:Paleop 167 24 Lameta Formation by Shaochilong66 Lameta Formation :iconshaochilong66:Shaochilong66 29 4 Tendaguru Formation by Shaochilong66 Tendaguru Formation :iconshaochilong66:Shaochilong66 29 7 Mega-duckbills by GetAwayTrike Mega-duckbills :icongetawaytrike:GetAwayTrike 106 31 Super edmontosaur by GetAwayTrike Super edmontosaur :icongetawaytrike:GetAwayTrike 82 23 Whales of the Mediterranean sea - POSTER by namu-the-orca Whales of the Mediterranean sea - POSTER :iconnamu-the-orca:namu-the-orca 2,094 468 Alamosaurus sanjuanensis  by RavePaleoArt Alamosaurus sanjuanensis :iconravepaleoart:RavePaleoArt 215 20 The Gorgon by Atan The Gorgon :iconatan:Atan 280 10 Rativates evadens by Olorotitan Rativates evadens :iconolorotitan:Olorotitan 629 55

Activity


Recently we have this new species of titanosaur from Egypt which helps fill in some HUGE gaps.

Egypt is of course famous for much mythology and lore surrounding the raising of obelisks and pyramid keystones or capstones. Now we can add to that list, the "holy grail" or "keystone" of titanosaur evolution - Mansourasaurus shahinae.

Image result for mansourasaurus    https://media.springernature.com/lw582/springer-static/image/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41559-017-0455-5/MediaObjects/41559_2017_455_Fig2_HTML.jpg

Mansourasaurus shahinae is not all that large by titanosaur standards (the published skeletals shows it at about 8.5m, but I suspect that the neck was a good bit longer than they illustrated, as well as having more than the mere 13 vertebrae drawn here, so more like a total length of 10.5 or 11m at least), but enough of it was recovered to give us valuable info about one of the most obscure and murky parts of sauropod evolution - the not-too-taxonomically-stable family of titanosaurs called Argyrosauridae. So far this family includes Argyrosaurus, Paralititan, Quetecsaurus, and probably Lirainosaurus and the "Cooper" titanosaur from Australia. None of these animals are known from complete skeletons, and most are not even known from a well-rounded sampling of both limb and backbone elements. However, now we can see an argyrosaur with both.

www.nature.com/articles/s41559…

media.springernature.com/lw582…
                                                                  
You can see here that the shoulder resembles Dreadnoughtus, which in some ways is the most "argyrosaur-like" of the longkosaurs. It also has a rough proportional resemblance to that of Muyelensaurus, which may be either an argyrosaur or a trigonosaur. The biggest cervical vertebra they found has the same compacted proportions and oddly shaped "Phrygian" neural spine as the one known from Quetecsaurus, and the humerus is extremely wide and flat, with the lower condyles spaced far apart - the classic "surfboard" shape found in both Argyrosaurus and Paralititan, and to a lesser extent in Quetecsaurus. There is also a partial lower jaw including the chin. The curve of the jaw shows this animal had the standard rounded mouth of a high-browser, hinting that its neck was probably longer than in the paper's skeletal. It also shows that argyrosaurs did not have the square mouth of antarctosaurs, which is a critical difference in feeding niches as the two families are closely related.

This article, unfortunately, is behind a paywall. Nature Ecology & Evolution is a journal owned by Springer, which is charging an insane $99 for access to just this one paper. I'm not encouraging anyone to pirate, but I won't shed any tears over Springer's loss if someone does. Springer's current fee-gouging model certainly is encouraging them!

If the authors want to help the free flow of scientific data and also give this dinosaur the benefit of comparative research with other titanosaur experts (and I'm fairly sure they do), they should consider submitting future papers to open-access journals - it's too late for this paper as Springer already holds the copyright now. Instead, it's best to submit to PeerJ, Facets, PloS One, APP, Paleo-Electronica, any of them. They all respect author's copyright and do not charge the authors for digital copies. Springer, along with other corporate conglomerate journal owners like Elsevier, Wiley, Taylor & Francis, Bentham, etc., has never been a good choice, as it is restricting the free flow of taxpayer-funded research despite having no involvement with the grants process or the organization of the dig, gouging both professor and student alike, and not paying the authors a penny for the (unethical) privilege. And they're mostly bean-counters, not scientists. Until they start paying royalties to the authors of papers, this is a rotten deal all the way round. Dump Springer, move to Facets.

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Paleo-King
Nima
Artist | Professional | Traditional Art
United States
Current Residence: A dinosaur museum/bone bed near you
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Skin of choice: mammalian, watertight, preferably soft, hairless and well-insulated
Personal Quote: "It must be new or bust!"

Yes, this is the DA page of the original, REAL Paleo King - NOT one of the imitators, this is the real deal.
I am a Paleo-Artist and Independent Paleontologist. I aim for both accuracy and elegance in my visual time-travel back to the Mesozoic, as is the case we observe in nature today. I have been featured in blogs, twitter, and even in a few very good books.

- THE PALEONTOLOGY AND PALEO-ART FIELD SPEAKS:

" It should be obvious to all right-thinking people that this [Nima's Brachiosaur Parade] is the single greatest piece of artwork ever executed by anyone, anywhere, at any time in history." - Dr. Michael P. Taylor, PhD svpow.com/2009/11/24/more-out-…

"If I may say so, I feel Nima has cleaned up in the reconstruction category. (Love those voluminous bodies). " - David Maas blogevolved.blogspot.com/2009/…

"Just wanted to say this, you possess one (or perhaps the best) galleries of paleoart on DA." - Xenomorphia-Master66 comments.deviantart.com/20/139…

"Your fondness for sauropods is delightful, and your skills are formidable!" - Heatherbeast comments.deviantart.com/20/139…

"The prettiest skeletal aesthetic I've seen" - Pedro Fonseca comments.deviantart.com/1/6854…

"Your works were my first notion of "titanosaur roundness" some years ago, and indeed, the first reaction was a shock :D
Nowadays it is indeed a much more known and popular concept, and you for sure have credit for it" - José Vitor da Silva comments.deviantart.com/1/6526…

"Only Nima Sassani and Thomas Holtz are allowed to do science" - Jiddu veterufreak.deviantart.com/

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All images are my own copyrights unless explicitly noted otherwise. If you are interested in commissioning work or using any of my images in a paper, book, presentation or website, drop me a line at paleoking13@gmail.com.

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Comments


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:iconteratophoneus:
Teratophoneus Featured By Owner Jun 24, 2018
I´d really love to have your opinion on this :) Argentinosaurus huinculensis by Teratophoneus
Reply
:iconroninwolf1981:
Roninwolf1981 Featured By Owner Jun 3, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
I do have a question, regarding your profession.  Are you exclusively a dinosaur artist, or do you also do artwork of other prehistoric creatures, such as Paleozoic and Cenozoic fauna?
Reply
:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Jun 13, 2018  Professional Traditional Artist
Mostly dinosaurs and a bit of Paleozoic is my focus.
Reply
:iconamphurious:
Amphurious Featured By Owner Edited Apr 18, 2018  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Oh dear. Jack Horner's at it again, this time with a wacky Triceratops restoration for a VR game he's consulting on:

youtu.be/RsrDeGnqWeY?t=1958

Bright yellow keratin mask with a red rooster comb around the frill, with a bright blue body. Display is great and all, but don't animals need to, uh, camouflage? So they can survive to adulthood without being spotted by predators? He draws an analogy to birds but all large ground dwelling birds, the closest analogy we have to dinosaurs alive today, are more conservatively coloured; even Cassowaries are mostly black, with just a little splash of red and blue on the head. He's also pushing a feathered T. rex close to a year after this was discredited by Bell et all.
Reply
:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Edited Apr 25, 2018  Professional Traditional Artist
Nice! More nutty Hornerisms!

That Triceratops is actually a Torosaurus. Which makes it even funnier because he's giving it very pronounced frill studs, despite the fact that mature Torosaurus have them almost completely reabsorbed into the frill! (In fact this was one of his "reasons" for claiming that Torosaurus are all just really old Triceratops... a silly reason, given how they differ from Triceratops in nearly everything else from beak shape to frill shape, to horn shape, to being totally absent in the uppermost Maastrichtian layers where T. proorsus is found, to actually being younger and smaller-bodied animals than the biggest Triceratops specimens we know of).

Nice to see Horner has flip-flopped YET AGAIN and now is suddenly depicting his "Toroceratops" as a much younger animal with big pointy frill studs. He's making pure fantasy at this point - neither accurate to the fossil frills, nor even consistent with his own discredited theory.

Big birds are indeed conservatively colored, even the most starkly colored of them is the male ostrich, and still... "black and white" isn't a very colorful plumage.  And both Triceratops and Torosaurus were far larger, not feathered, and yes, needed camo to deal with far bigger and faster predators than we have today. Even if they did have bold patterns, these sorts of flashy neon colors are very unlikely - bright pigments in keratin (either scales or feathers) are EXPENSIVE, nutrient-wise. With small birds, finding enough high-nutrient food is simple (insects, rich fruits, etc.). But big herbivores like Troceratops and Torosaurus, had to make do with some very rough and low-nutrient food, and thus eat huge amounts of it just to "break even" as warm-blooded megafauna.

They probably did not have ruminating chambers in their stomachs (as no surviving bird or croc has them, and there's no evidence such a system ever evolved in any diapsids), and so would have had to eat for hours, considering they were chewers and did not have the scale of unchecked digestive pass-through that sauropods did. So they'd be constantly eating and chewing new food, due to their digestive system probably wasting a lot of nutrients, like a horse or an elephant (rather than like a cow). So it simply was not feasible for such animals to extract enough nutrients from low-grade ferns and grasses (yes, the Maastrichtian did have grasses) to supply such lavish neon colors over such a large skin surface. It's make-believe, not good science.

The feathered T. rex is yet another Horner flip-flop. In the '90s he was actually 100% dead-set against the idea - Horner was one of the LAST major dinosaur specialists to embrace the warm-bloodedness of dinosaurs. He was fighting tooth-and-nail to keep open the possibility of cold-bloodedness 20 years after Bakker discredited the theory, comparing T. rex to komodo dragons in 1993 rather than to birds... in the meantime other paleontologists had confirmed Bakker's histological findings of fast growth rates and warm-blooded harversian bone in dinosaurs. Horner also continued endorsing the theory of "gigantothermy" even though it has no living analogues and most realistic mathematical models of dinosaur metabolism do not leave any room for such a "middle ground". You're either endothermic or ectothermic. In reality mass-homeothermy is simply cold-bloodedness with a big body; it still cannot maintain stable temperatures, as even with basking sharks and leatherback turtles, their temperature still fluctuates with that of their surroundings, only with about a 5-10-degree celsius buffer.

Now Horner has gone the other extreme... making T. rex so "hot-blooded" that it has to have piles of feathers sprouting everywhere... except he STILL doesn't get it. Because being warm-blooded at T. rex's size, negates the need for insulation and actually makes it more of a burden than a blessing (due to body mass increasing exponentially as length and height increase arithmetically). Horner is trying to restore T. rex skin the way raptor feathers are restored. Even though he still (along with his fanboys like Carr and Hutchinson) portrays T. rex as much slower and less active than a raptor - basically as a sluggish (and possible still as a "gigantothermic") scavenger, with stiff elephant-like legs that don't even articulate properly.

At this point it looks like Horner is just trolling science itself. Arm-waving and then jumping ship, to "Jack" other people's theories and "Horn" them into something that should by all laws of physics fall off the planet. Flexed knees must be held straight like elephants, adult ceratopsians must be juveniles, Nano and Nedo must be growth stages of something more famous and marketable, "warm" must be both freezing cold and boiling hot, up must be down, black must be white, etc.... Where is that reverse-engineered chicken raptor he keeps promising?
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:iconandreof-gallery:
AndreOF-Gallery Featured By Owner Apr 7, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
What kind of Titanosaur do you think Choconsaurus was?

sci-hub.tw/10.5710/amgh.01.08.…
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:iconmigatte:
Migatte Featured By Owner Apr 1, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Your work is phenomenal!
Reply
:iconpaleo-king:
Paleo-King Featured By Owner Apr 2, 2018  Professional Traditional Artist
Thanks! I always look for time and opportunities to make more.
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