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ARTIST'S AND INTELLECTUALS MEMORIAL
Part Six: WORLD WAR TWO - (1941 -1942)
'One crowded hour of glorious life, is worth an age without a name.'

Neil Davis, Australian combat cameraman, after Thomas Osbert Mordaunt.


... we are the kings subjects: if his cause be wrong, our obedience to the king wipes the crime of it out of us... But if the cause be not good, the king himself hath a heavy reckoning to make, when all those legs and arms and heads, chopped off in battle, shall join together at the latter day and cry all 'We died at such a place;' some swearing, some crying for a surgeon, some upon their wives left poor behind them, some upon the debts they owe, some upon their children rawly left. I am afeard there are few die well that die in a battle; for how can they charitably dispose of any thing, when blood is their argument? Now, if these men do not die well, it will be a black matter for the king that led them to it...

The Life of King Henry the Fifth by William Shakespeare

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'...If such things really do happen on this earth, you have to witness them with your own eyes because no one will believe it otherwise or they will prefer, out of laziness or a desire not to get involved, to respond with indifference. And yet, in the end, knowledge of the deepest abysses of the human psyche is an absolute, vital necessity, for the path out of the lowest depths can only lead upwards...'

Lucie Adelsberger (1895-1971) 'Auschwitz A Doctor's Story' p 50 North-eastern University Press Boston 1995

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First they came for the Communists,
and I didn't speak up,
because I wasn't a Communist.

Then they came for the Jews,
and I didn't speak up,
because I wasn't a Jew.

Then they came for the Catholics,
and I didn't speak up,
because I was a Protestant.

Then they came for me,
and by that time there was no one
left to speak up for me.

Rev. Martin Niemoller, 1945

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_th…...

www.hoboes.com/html/FireBlade/…

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'...there is no higher happiness than to be able to crawl on one's stomach, out of the camp, blind, one's legs amputated, and to die in freedom, even if only ten yards from the cursed barbed wire.'

'...only one form of retribution is visited upon an executioner - the fact that he looks upon his victim as something other than a human being and thereby ceases to be a human being himself, and thereby executes himself as a human being. He is his own executioner...'

Vasily Semyonovich Grossman: Forever Flowing

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'Stop All The Clocks'

Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone,
Prevent the dog from barking with a juicy bone,
Silence the pianos and with muffled drum
Bring out the coffin, let the mourners come.

Let aeroplanes circle moaning overhead
Scribbling on the sky the message He Is Dead,
Put crepe bows round the white necks of the public doves,
Let the traffic policemen wear black cotton gloves.

He was my North, my South, my East and West,
My working week and my Sunday rest,
My noon, my midnight, my talk, my song;
I thought that love would last for ever; I was wrong.

The stars are not wanted now: put out every one;
Pack up the moon and dismantle the sun;
Pour away the ocean and sweep up the wood,
For nothing now can ever come to any good.

W. H. Auden 1936

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funeral_…

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WARNING: Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are warned respectfully that the names of deceased people are listed in this document.

DISCLAMER: This is not a partisan document. I am not taking sides in any conflict past or present. If I find a crime I will document it here. I don't care who did it or why. If you think I am being biased for listing atrocities from only 'one side' of a specific conflict, then by all means give me some examples from the 'other side'.

IMPORTANT NOTE: This memorial lists CREATIVE artists only. It does not list any person who used an artform to breach the spirit of the International Declaration of Human Rights. In other words a certain German leader during World War Two may have been a writer; he may have been a public speaker and movie actor; but he does not belong here and neither does anyone else like him.
In some cases I have avoided mentioning infamous criminals associated with the artist and intellectuals listed here because this is not intended to be a memorial to their memory.
Right wing political activists and religious extremists are the traditional enemies of artists and intellectuals. If anyone on deviant ART argues that Neo Nazis and racists have a right to be a part of this web site, just refer them to this memorial list.

DEEPEST APPOLOGIES if any incorrect information causes distress to anyone.

NOTE ON SPELLING. Many eastern European names use special characters. I apologise to, John Huss et al for the substitution of these characters, but my computer is not able to handle them.

Please post additions and corrections here:

<forum.deviantart.com/community…

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Part Six: WORLD WAR TWO - (1941 -1942)
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Wifredo Lam - visual artist

Born 1902, Sagua la Grande, Cuba. Moved to Spain 1923 to further his artistic education.

Lam remained in Spain until 1938. Toward the end of his lengthy stay in Spain he joined the republican side in the Spanish civil war.

The turmoil in Spain finally drove Lam to France. He arrived in Paris in 1938.

FLED NAZI OCCUPIED PARIS IN 1940 and hid in Marseilles.

FORCED INTO EXILE FROM VICHY FRANCE TO UNITED STATES 1941 with the assistance of Varian Fry, along with three hundred intellectuals aboard the Capitaine Paul Merle en route to Martinique.

Died 1982, Paris

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

www.cubanet.org/lee/lam2.html

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Franz Werfel - novelist, playwright, poet and pacifist

Born 10 September 1890, Prague, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire

Famous for his chilling novel The Forty Days of Musa Dagh (1933), which first drew world attention to the Armenian genocide at the hands of the Turks.

EXPERIENCED THE HORRORS OF WORLD WAR ONE. Served in the Austro-Hungarian army on the Russian front and in the press office, but was charged with treason for his vocal pacifism.

FORCED TO FLEE AUSTRIA FOR FRANCE 1938, after the Anschluss

FORCED INTO EXILE FROM VICHY FRANCE TO UNITED STATES 1941. With the assistance of the American Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee in Marseille, he and his wife narrowly escaped the Nazi regime.

Died 26 August 1945, Los Angeles. His body was interred in Rosendale Cemetery. However, it was later exhumed and returned to Vienna for reburial in the Zentralfriedhof.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

www.maurice-abravanel.com/werf…

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_We…

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Marc Chagall, alias Moishe Segal alias Mojsa Zacharavic Sahalau, Mark Zakharovich Shagalov - visual artist, Maxist Revolutionary and political activist

Born 7 July 1887, Vitebsk, Belarus, then part of the Russian Empire.

Among the most celebrated painters of the 20th century, he is associated with the modern movements after impressionism.

JAILED BRIEFLY Circa 1907. For being a Jew residing in St. Petersburg without a permit.

FORCED TO RETURN FROM PARIS TO RUSSIA WITH THE ONSET OF WORLD WAR ONE. In 1914, he returned to Vitebsk.

WITNESSED THE HORRORS OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
Chagall became an active participant in the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Soviet Ministry of Culture made him a Commissar of Art for the Vitebsk region, where he founded an art school.

EXPERIENCED THE HORRORS OF THE RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR, in which counter-revolutionary elements; funded by the United States and Japan; sort to destroy the Soviet Union. Was trapped in Russia for two years because of the war.

FORCED TO FLEE FROM RUSSIA TO FRANCE 1923. He did not fare well politically under the Soviet system. He became a French citizen in 1937.

ESCAPED VICHY FRANCE TO THE UNITED STATES 1941. With the German occupation of France during World War Two, and the deportation of Jews and the Holocaust, the Chagall and his family fled Paris. He hid at Villa Air-Bel in Marseille and American journalist, Varian Fry assisted his escape from France to the United States via Spain and Portugal.

HIS WIFE, BELLA ROSENFELD CHAGALL DIED FROM A VIRAL INFECTION 2 September 1944

Died 28 March 1985

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chagall

Aleksandr Kamensky, Marc Chagall, An Artist From Russia, Trilistnik, Moscow, 2005 (In Russian)

Aleksandr Kamensky, Chagall: The Russian Years 1907-1922., Rizzoli, NY, 1988 (Abridged version of Marc Chagall, An Artist From Russia)

Nikolaj Aaron, Marc Chagall., (rororo-Monographie) Reinbek 2003 (In German)

Benjamin Harshav, ed. Marc Chagall on Art and Culture, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003

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Jaques Lipchitz - sculptor

Born 1891, Druskieniki, Lithuania

EXPERIENCED THE HORRORS OF WORLD WAR TWO

FORCED INTO EXILE FROM LITHUANIA TO PARIS 1939

FORCED INTO EXILE FROM VICHY FRANCE TO UNITED STATES 1941. Escaped Nazi Europe with the assistance of Varian Fry to the United States via Martinique.

Died 1973

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

www.artnet.com/Galleries/Artis…

www.anewleafgallery.com/links/…

www.artnewsonline.com/issues/a…

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Andre Masson - visual artist

André-Aimé-René Masson

Born 4 January 4, 1896, Balagny-sur-Thérain, France. Brought up in Belgium

EXPERIENCED THE HORRORS OF WORLD WAR ONE. Fought for France and was seriously injured.

DEEPLY EFFECTED BY THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR. Made a number of paintings in reaction to the conflict.

CONDEMNED BY THE NAZIS AS DEGENERATE ARTIST 1940, after the German occupation of France during World War two

FORCED INTO EXILE FROM VICHY FRANCE TO UNITED STATES 1941. Escaped Nazi Europe with the assistance of Varian Fry to the United States via Martinique.

HIS EROTIC ARTWORK CONDEMED AND DESTROYED AS PORNOGRAPHY BY US CUSTOMS OFFICIALS. Upon arrival in New York City, U.S. customs officials inspecting Masson's luggage found a cache of his erotic drawings. Denouncing them as pornographic, they ripped them up before the artist's eyes.

Died 28 October 28, 1987

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

www.connectotel.com/masson

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%…

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Max Ernst- visual artist, experimentalist, art theorist, set designer and polemicist

Born 2 April 1891, Brühl, Germany

Died 1 April 1976

EXPERIENCED THE HORRORS OF WORLD WAR ONE. Served in the German army.

Invented a graphic art technique called frottage in 1925, which uses pencil rubbings of objects as a source of images.

Pioneered grattage with Joan Miró 1926 in which he troweled pigment from his canvases.

PROVOLKED CONTROVERSY IN 1926 with his painting The Virgin Spanking the Christ Child before Three Witnesses: André Breton, Paul Éluard, and the Painter.

In Montparnasse he was a central figure in the birth of Surrealism, an art movement rejecting logical presentation of subject matter in favor of free association and the whims of the psyche. After a period with the Surrealists, Ernst left the movement due in part to Breton's desire to ostracize Ernst's friend Éluard.

In 1927 he married Marie-Berthe Aurenche. It is said that 'his relationship with her may have inspired the erotic subject matter of this painting and others of this year.'

DETAINED IN FRANCE AS AN ENEMY ALIEN 1940.

ESCAPED VICHY FRANCE TO THE UNITED STATES 1941. With the assistance of the American journalist Varian Fry, he escaped France with Peggy Guggenheim, Marcel Duchamp and Marc Chagall to New York City. There Ernst helped inspire the development of Abstract expressionism.

Wrote the treatise 'Beyond Painting' in 1948 before visiting Europe in 1950 and returning to Paris permanently in 1953.

Died on 1 April 1976, Paris and was interred at the Père Lachaise Cemetery.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

www.guggenheimcollection.org/s…

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André Breton - writer, poet, editor and visual art theorist.

Born 18 February 1896 - Tinchebray (Orne) in Normandy, France

His writings include the Surrealist Manifesto of 1924, in which he defined surrealism as pure psychic automatism. Under Breton's direction, surrealism became a European movement that influenced all domains of art, and called into question the origin of human understanding and human perceptions of things and events.

He first studied medicine and psychiatry. During World War I he worked in a neurological ward in Nantes.

Joined the French Communist Party in 1927, but was expelled in 1933.

ESCAPED FROM VICHY FRANCE TO THE UNITED STATES AND THE CARIBBEAN 1941.

Breton returned to Paris in 1946, where he intervened against French colonialialism (for example as a signatory of the Manifesto of the 121 against the Algerian war).

Died 28 September 1966, buried in the Cimetière des Batignolles in Paris.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

André Breton: Surrealism and Painting - edited and with an introduction by Mark Polizzotti.

Manifestoes of Surrealism by André Breton, translated by Richard Seaver and Helen R. Lane. ISBN 0472061828

<en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%…>

<www.atelierandrebreton.com>

<www.geocities.com/lmc2124/bret…>

<www.lichtensteiger.de/methoden…>

<www.site-magister.com/nadja.ht…>

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Ismat Chughtai - Urdu writer, feminist

Born 1915 Badayun, Uttar Pradesh, India.

CHARGED WITH OBSCENITY 1941, for her short story 'The Quilt' ('Lihaaf' in Urdu) which dealt with lesbianism, among other issues. She was acquitted after her lawyer successfully argued that the story could not be a corrupting influence because the subject would only be understood by someone who has had a lesbian experience.

Died Bombay 1991.

Not forgotten.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ismat_Ch…

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Bronislaw Latawiec alias 'Lkar' - visual artist, political cartoonist

Born 4 April 1908 Majdan, Poland

Under the pseudonym Ikar, Latawiec published caricatures in several Polish periodicals, including Pocieglem and Wroblami na dachu.

ARRESTED IN CHARZEWICACH POLAND 21 January 1941 for some caricatures of Hitler that appeared in several Polish newspapers at that time.

IMPRISONED IN MONTELUPIC PRISON, KRAKOW

TORTURED AND ENSLAVED after January 1941 by the Nazis in Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Camp, Oswiecim, Poland, where he was assigned prisoner number 11995 and placed in barrack 5.

No further information is currently available.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Archives at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oswiecim.

lastexpression.northwestern.ed…

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Sam Robertson - journalist working for Canadian Press

Born Canada

He was the London news manager for his wire service.

KILLED IN ACTION April 1941. Drowned when the ship in which he was returning to Europe from Canada was torpedoed off the Irish coast.

Not forgotten.

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Wincenty Gawron - visual artist, calligrapher, stained glass window designer, resistance fighter and Holocaust survivor.

Born 28 January 1908, Stara Wies, Poland

Joined an underground Polish resistance organization 1939

ARRESTED 18 January 1941 Tarnow, Poland

TORTURED AND ENSLAVED 5 April 1941 by the Nazis in Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Camp, Oswiecim, Poland. Received prisoner number 11237.

Work Assignments at Auschwitz
He was assigned to various labour details at Auschwitz, that included clearing rubble and working in the cabinetmaker and sculpture workshop.

Art Produced at Auschwitz
Gawron produced letter openers, ornamental boxes, landscape woodcuts, caricatures, and portraits of SS officers in addition to more private images on scraps of paper and cardboard.

Secured a transfer to the subcamp at Harmense 1942, where he arranged a stay in the prisoner infirmary and made notes about the brutal conditions, high mortality rates, and murders of Polish and Jewish inmates at Auschwitz. In gratitude for the medical help received at the infirmary, Gawron produced portraits of two prisoner physicians who helped him during his time there.

Escaped from Harmense 16 May 1942, with fellow prisoner Stefan Bielecki He took with him his own drawings, caricatures, and diary, along with the works of two other Auschwitz prisoner artists, Stanislaw Gutkiewicz and Leon Turalski. Gawron also carried the notes on Auschwitz made in the Harmense infirmary for the United Military Organization (Zwiazek Organizacji Wojskowej), the camp resistance organization that had assisted his flight and in which he and Bielecki were Lieutenants,.

Organized a division of the Home Army Spring 1943, Kicznia, Poland

FOUGHT IN THE 1944 WARSAW UPRISING

Died 25 August 1991, Poland

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Archives at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oswiecim.

Gawron, Wincenty. Ochotnik do Oswiecimia. Oswiecim, 1992.

Goldmann, Sybille and Myrah Adams Rösing. Kunst zum Uberleben: Gezeichnet in Auschwitz. Ulm, 1989.

Heubner, Christoph, Alwin Meyer, and Jürgen Pieplow, eds. Lebenszeichen: Gesehen in Auschwitz. Bornheim-Merten, 1979.

Jaworska, Janina. Nie wszystek umre.... Warsaw, 1975.

Archives at the Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw.

Milton, Sybil and Janet Blatter. Art of the Holocaust. New York, 1981.

Stutz, Marina, ed. Uberleben und Widerstehen. Cologne, 1980.

Swiebocki, Henryk. Auschwitz 1940-1945: Studien zur Geschichte des Konzentrations- und Vernichtungslagers Auschwitz, 5 volumes. Oswiecim, 1999.

lastexpression.northwestern.ed…

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Mieczyslaw Koscielniak - visual artist and Holocaust survivor

Born 28 January 1912 in Kalisz, Poland

EXPERIENCED THE HORRORS OF WORLD WAR TWO. Drafted into the Polish army in 1939 and wounded in the fighting around Warsaw. After recovering, he joined the Home Army resistance in the town of Kalisz, using the code name 'Zawrat.'

ARRESTED 3 March 1941, FOR PRODUCING A PAINTING THAT DEPICTED GERMANS SHOOTING AT POLES. The arrest occurring despite the fact that he had completed the picture in 1928, long before the occupation of poland, while he was still a student.

TORTURED AND ENSLAVED 2 May 1941 by the Nazis in Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland. Received prisoner number 15261.

Work Assignments at Auschwitz.
Koscielniak was assigned to work in demolition (Abbruch), one of the camp's most strenuous labour details. Fellow prisoner and artist Wincenty Gawron's unpublished memoirs recount the incident leading to Koscielniak's transfer from Abbruch. In response to an Auschwitz guard's continual taunting, Koscielniak stated that he was willing to be whipped if his art displeased the guard. The guard, in turn, gave Koscielniak five minutes to make a picture. The resulting artwork, a pencil portrait of the guard, reputedly impressed its subject so much that he told an Auschwitz Kapo that 'Koscielniak should no longer swing a shovel...and... was to be reassigned.' Following this episode, Koscielniak was transferred to other work details: the SS-Unterkunftskammer (billets), the Lagerdruckerei (camp print shop), and the Lagermuseum (camp museum).

Art Produced at Auschwitz
The art works that Koscielniak produced at Auschwitz range from SS commissions to more private images and include oil paintings, watercolors, woodcuts, linoleum cuts, etchings, and illustrated letters.

'We... devised our escape [from SS terror] using humor, song, ridicule, and caricature.'

With the help of the camp resistance, Koscielniak smuggled out of Auschwitz some 300 of his drawings as well as those of prisoner physicians and infirmary staff.

EVACUATED FROM AUSCHWITZ TO MAUTHAUSEN 18 January 1945 and transported to Mauthausen, Austria. Continued his artistic activities there and in the Mauthausen subcamps of Melk, and Ebensee.

Liberated by American forces 6 May 1945, Ebensee

Following liberation, he completed a number of works that include portraits of Generals Dwight Eisenhower and George Patton. Returning to Warsaw in 1946 or 1947, Koscielniak completed a postwar series about Auschwitz entitled The Day of a Prisoner and saw his works featured in numerous postwar exhibitions in Poland and Germany.

Died 6 March 1993 in Warsaw, Poland

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Goldmann, Sybille and Myrah Adams Rosing. Kunst zum Uberleben: Gezeichnet in Auschwitz. Ulm, 1989.

Jaworska, Janina. Nie wszystek umre... Warsaw, 1975.

Koscielniak, Mieczyslaw. Bilder von Auschwitz. Frankfurt, 1982.

Milton, Sybil and Janet Blatter. Art of the Holocaust. New York, 1981.

Stefanska, Irena. 'Muzeum w KL Auschwitz,' Przeglad lekarski 39, No. 1-3 (1982).

Stutz, Marina, ed. Uberleben und Widerstehen. Cologne, 1980.

lastexpression.northwestern.ed…

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Blessed Stefan Grelewski - Catholic priest

Date of berth unknown

DEPORTED TO DACHAU SLAVE LABOUR CAMP. Assigned Prisoner No. 25281

TORTURED AND MURDERED 9 May 1941 by the Nazis using stavation in Dachau slave labour camp, Germany

No further information available at this time.

Not forgotten.

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Heinz Kapelle - publisher, pamphleteer, social activist and resistance fighter.

Born 17 September 1913, Berlin

A leader of the Communist Youth League, Kommunistischer Jugendverband Deutschlands; KJVD, which was outlawed by the Nazis in 1933.

ARRESTED EARLY 1934, AND SENTENCED TO TWO YEARS' IMPRISONMENT 20 September 1934, by the Berliner Kammergericht for 'conspiracy to commit high treason'.

Once released, he quickly returned to anti-régime activities. He in effect led an illegal youth resistance group of about 60 members against the Nazis. The leaflets that he wrote he sometimes even distributed himself, by scattering them in the streets of Berlin's working-class neighbourhoods at night from his motorcycle.

ARRESTED 'MANY TIMES'.

ARRESTED AND TORTURED 16 October 1939, by the Gestapo long with five other members. Kapelle never betrayed the other members of his group.

SENTENCED TO DEATH 21 February 1941 for 'furthering the enemy's cause and conspiracy to commit high treason'.

TORTURED AND MURDERED 1 July 1941 by the Gestapo at Plötzensee Prison, Berlin.

Not forgotten.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinz_Ka…

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Franz Reisz - visual artist, draftsman, commercial artist, book illustrator and Holocaust survivor

Born 3 April 1909 in Vienna, Austria

FORCED TINTO EXILE FROM AUSTRIA TO FRANCE 1938, when Germany annexed Austria.

ARRESTED IN PARIS July 1941

TORTURED AND ENSLAVED September 1941 by the Nazis. Sent to Internment Camps Beaune-La-Rolande And Meslay-Du-Maine

IMPRISONED AT PITHIVIERS until late June 1942. He filled several sketchbooks with details of daily life in the camps.

DEPORTED 27 June 1942 to Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland. Assigned prisoner number 42447.

Work Assignments at Auschwitz
He worked in the Schreibstuben (offices), where he produced drawings for his friends and upon orders of the SS. His profession was listed as draftsman.

EVACUATED FROM AUSCHWITZ first to Mauthausen, Austria in January 1945, and then to Ebensee where he was liberated. Shortly thereafter, he convalesced at a hospital in France, where he completed numerous watercolors and sketchbooks about his experiences at Auschwitz.

Died March 1984 in New York

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Archives and art collection of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oswiecim.

Goldmann, Sybille and Myrah Adams Rösing. Kunst zum Uberleben: Gezeichnet in Auschwitz. Ulm, 1989.

Milton, Sybil and Janet Blatter. Art of the Holocaust. New York, 1981.

Stütz, Marina, ed. Uberleben und Widerstehen. Cologne, 1980.

Collections Department of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC.

lastexpression.northwestern.ed…

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Karel Treybal - lawyer and one the world's top fifty chess players for much of his life

Born 2 February 1885 Kotopeky, southwest of Prague in central Bohemia

ARRESTED AND IMPRISONED 30 May 1941 by the Nazis. Later charged with concealing weapons for use by resistance forces and the illegal possession of a pistol. It is not known whether these charges had any foundation.

TORTURED AND MURDERED 2 October 1941 by the Nazis. His body was not handed over to his family and whereabouts of his grave or remains are unknown.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

In 1945, a tribute to Treybal appearing in the Czech chess magazine Sach stated that Treybal had been executed without trial and had 'never occupied himself with politics'.

Treybal's brother, Frantisek, was also a prominent Czech chess player.

Note 3729 from Karel Mokry in Edward Winter's Chess Notes Archives

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karel_Tr…

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Robert Delaunay - visual artist.

Born 12 April 1885, Paris

DEATH HASTENED BY WAR 25 October 1941 in Montpellier, France. Death by cancer hastened by efforts to avoid the invading German forces of World War Two. The Delaunays moved to the Auvergne when World War Two erupted. Suffering from cancer, Delaunay was unable to stand being moved around, and his health deteriorated as a direct result.

Not forgotten.

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Pavel Nikolaevich Filonov - painter, poet and revolutionary.

Born 27 December 1882 (Julian calendar), Moscow

EXPELLED FROM ST. PETERSBURG ACADEMY OF ARTS 1910.

EXPERIENCED THE HORRORS OF WORLD WAR ONE
Served on the Romanian front in World War I. Participated actively in the October Revolution and served as the Chairman of the Revolutionary War Committee of Dunay region.

BANNED BY THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT1929. Soviet government forbade a large retrospective exhibition of his work.

WENT ON AN ARTISTIC STRIKE FROM 1932 UNTIL HIS MURDER. He literally starved but refused to sell his works to private collectors. He wanted to give all his works to Russian Museum as a gift so as to start a Museum of Analytical Realism.

TORTURED AND MURDERED 3 December 1941 by the Nazis using starvation during the Siege of Leningrad.

Not forgotten.

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Gabriel Péri - communist political activist, journalist and politician

Born to a Corsican family 1902, Toulon, France

FORCED TO GIVE UP FORMAL EDUCATION AT AN EARLY AGE

ARRESTED 18 May 1941

TORTURED AND MURDERED 15 December 1941. Shot by the Nazis, Fort Mont-Valérien, France. The writer, Albert Camus witnessed his execution, an event which he later said crystallized his own revolt against the Germans.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Lettre d'adieu de Gabriel Péri

Gabriel Péri: a free and lucid mind

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_…

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Alexander Massy Anderson - journalist working for Reuters.

He covered a number of big British naval battles in the eastern Mediterranean. 'Anderson was the bravest and most courageous newspaperman I have ever known,' wrote colleague Larry Allen of The Associated Press. 'He took all the risks, often more than the men who fought. Yet his only weapon was his typewriter.'

KILLED IN ACTION 15 December 1941. Drowned when the cruiser HMS Galatea was torpedoed and sank off Alexandria in The Mediterranean Sea.

Not forgotten.

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Edmund-Mozes Blum - visual artist

Born 4 May 1909, Jaworow, Poland

TORTURED AND ENSLAVED 15 December 1941 by the Nazis in Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Camp, Oswiecim, Poland. Assigned prisoner number 24512.

No further information is currently available.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Archives at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oswiecim.

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Valentin Nagel - visual artist

TORTURED AND MURDERED 1942, by the Nazis in München. Died after several heart infarctions after punishment as a slave

No further information known at this time.

Not forgotten.

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Eric Ravilious - Official war artist, painter, book illustrator, and wood engraver

Born 1903 England

KILLED IN ACTION 1942 while serving as a war artist in the Royal Air Force on a rescue mission off the coast of Iceland.

Not forgotten.

<en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Rav…>

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Charlotte Salomon - visual artist

TORTURED AND MURDERED 1942 by the Nazis in Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Viking, New York 1981. Reproduces in colour her 769 autobiographical paintings created between 1939-1942.

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Käthe Löwenthal - visual artist

Born 27 March 1877, Berlin, Germany

BRANDED A 'DEGENERATE ARTIST' AND BANNED FROM EXHIBITING BY THE NAZIS 1933

TORTURED AND MURDERED 1942, by the Nazis in Izbica extermination camp (Vernichtungslager), Poland

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Kaethe Loewenthal 1877-1942. A memory book, hrsg. v. new residents of Munich gallery, Munich 1985 (In German)

Kaethe Loewenthal 1877-1942. From the graphic work, text from Inge-borrow Leuchs, hrsg. to v. new residents of Munich gallery, Munich 1989 (In German)

Kaethe Loewenthal, landscapes, Ausst. Kat. City museum Munich 1992 (In German)

<www.uni-stuttgart.de/ndl1/abst…>

<www.exil-archiv.de/html/biogra…>

<www.kaetheloewenthal.de/index.…>

<www.jewish-forum.de/showtopic.…>

<www.telepotsdam.com/filme/spur…>

<www.kavaude.de/aktuell/aktuell…>

<www.keom.de/archive/geluwe/inh…>

www.keb-muenchen.de/CMS/CONTEN…

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Robert Clary alias Robert Max Widerman - singer, actor, comedian, author and lecturer

Born 1 March 1926 France

Famous for his role as Corporal Louis LeBeau in the TV series Hogan's Heroes

TORTURED AND ENSLAVED 1942. in Buchenwald slave labour camp, near Weimar, Thuringia, Germany, along with 12 other members of his immediate family.

12 OTHER MEMBERS OF HIS IMMEDIATE FAMILY WERE TORTURED AND MURDERED in Buchenwald slave labour camp. Clary was the only survivor.

As of 2006, Clary gives lectures on his incarceration at Buchenwald and the Holocaust in general.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Robert Clary: From the Holocaust to Hogan's Heroes, 2001.

www.robertclary.com/

_________________________________________________________________


Käthe Spiegel - historian and librarian

A leading member of the Czech federation.

The AAUW made tremendous efforts to get Spiegel out, providing her with an affidavit, paying for travel and visa, and depositing money in Cuba; yet, when everything was agranged the United States entered the war. Spiegel's trip, scheduled on 8 December 1941, was canceled, and Spiegel disappeared.

TORTURED AND MURDERED early 1942 by the Nazis. She did not survive her deportation to Poland.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

AAUW Archives, series V, war relief cases, folder. 38.

Networks of an Academic World Community: The Exodus of German-Speaking Women Scientists and the Refugee Aid Program of the American Association of University Women by Christine von Oertzen translated from the German by Sally E. Robertson 1999 www.ghi-dc.org/bulletin27F00/b…

_________________________________________________________________


Dr Lucie Adelsberger - Medical doctor, writer, teacher and Holocaust survivor.

Internationally prominent specialist in immunology and allergies.

Born 1895, Germany

TORTURED AND ENSLAVED 1942 - 1945 by the Nazis in Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland.

FORCED TO WATCH HELPLESSLY, AS THOUSANDS OF PATENTS DIED OF PREVENTABLE DISEASES, STARVATION AND ABUSE.

FORCED TO PERFORM HUNDREDS OF ABORTIONS AND KILLED HUNDREDS OF HEALTHY NEWBORN BABIES AGAINST THE WISHES OF THE MOTHERS IN ORDER TO SAVE THE LIVES FOR THE MOTHERS. (A child was an instant death sentence for any woman in Auschwitz).

FORCED TO ENDURE A DEATH MARCH 1945.

Liberated by Americans 1945.

Died 1971

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

AAUW Archives, series V, war relief cases, folder 2

Networks of an Academic World Community: The Exodus of German-Speaking Women Scientists and the Refugee Aid Program of the American Association of University Women by Christine von Oertzen translated from the German by Sally E. Robertson 1999 www.ghi-dc.org/bulletin27F00/b…

Adelsberger, Lucie: 'Auschwitz A Doctor's Story' North-eastern University Press Boston 1995 ISBN: 1555532330

_________________________________________________________________


Sophie Scholl alias Sophia Magdalena Scholl - scholar, kindergarten teacher, pamphleteer, student political activist and resistance fighter

Born 9 May 1921

A member of the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany. She was convicted of treason and executed by guillotine. Her last words were: 'Your heads will fall as well.'

HER BROTHERS AND FRIENDS ARRESTED 1937, for illegally participating in the German Youth Movement

HER FATHER WAS IMPRISONED 1942 for a critical remark about Hitler to an employee.

In the early summer of 1942, Sophie participated in the production and distribution of the leaflets of the White Rose.

ARRESTED 18 February 1943, while distributing the sixth leaflet at the University of Munich.

TORTURED AND MURDERED 22 February 1943, Sophie, her brother Hans and their friend Christoph Probst were found guilty of treason and condemned to death by head judge of the court Roland Freisler. They were executed by guillotine in the Munich-Stadelheim prison only a few hours later. The execution was supervised by Dr. Walter Roemer who was the enforcement chief of the Munich district court. Prison officials emphasized the courage with which she walked to her execution.

Following her death a copy of the sixth leaflet was smuggled out of Germany through Scandinavia to England, and in mid-1943 millions of propaganda copies were dropped over Germany from Allied planes, now retitled as 'The Manifesto of the Students of Munich.'

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Inheritance Inge Aicher-Scholl ED 474 im Archiv des Instituts fuer Zeitgeschichte Muenchen-Berlin Institute of Contemporary History Munich/Germany

In February 2005, a movie about Sophie Scholl's last days was released, based on the transcripts of her interrogations, Sophie Scholl - The Last Days

In 1982, Percy Adlon's Fünf letzte Tage presented Lena Stolze as Scholl in her last five days from the point of view of her cellmate Else Gebel. In that year, Stolze repeated role in Michael Verhoeven's The White Rose. The 2005 film portrayed the same subject, but based on recently released transcripts of the Gestapo interrogation of Sophie, transcripts that had been locked away for many years in East German archives.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophie_S…

_________________________________________________________________


Czeslaw Lenczowski - visual artist, teacher and Holocaust survivor

Born 13 March 1905 at Swiatniki Gorne, Poland;

ARRESTED, STARY SACZ, POLAND 4 March 1942. Imprisoned in Nowy Sacz and Tarnow.

TORTURED AND ENSLAVED 13 April 1942 by the Nazis in Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland. Received prisoner number 29553.

Work Assignments at Auschwitz
Lenczowski worked in the Schlosserei (locksmith's workshop) and the Bauleitung (construction office).

Art Produced at Auschwitz
1943 he worked in the camp museum, painting landscapes and still lifes for the SS and clandestine portraits of his fellow prisoners.

TRANSFERRED TO NEU ROHLAU, A SUBCAMP OF RAVENSBRÜCK, 8 September 1944 where he was assigned to paint porcelain at the SS Bohemia china factory.

Liberation and After
He was evacuated from Neu Rohlau on 23 April 1945 and liberated at Plauen.

Died 27 March 1984, Stary Sacz, Poland

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Archives at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oswiecim.

lastexpression.northwestern.ed…

_________________________________________________________________


Alfred Grünberg - political activist, polemicist, pamphelteer, resistance fighter

Born 18 February 1902 Magdeburg, Germany

AFTER THE WAR BROKE OUT IN 1939, GRÜNBERG WAS ARRESTED MANY TIMES FOR HIS POLITICAL ACTIVITY AT THE SIEMENS WORKS.

SENTENCED TO 15 MONTHS IMPRISONMENT January 1941

SENTENCED TO DEATH FOR HIGH TREASON 10 January 1942 by the Nazis at the Volksgerichtshof along with Kurt Steffelbauer and Johann Gloger.

TORTURED AND MURDERED 21 May 1942. Hung by the Gestapo in Plötzensee Prison, Berlin.

Not forgotten.

<en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_G…>

_________________________________________________________________


Stanislaw Gutkiewicz - visual artist

Born 23 July 1910, Janowiec, Poland

Gutkiewicz registered at the Warsaw Academy for Decorative Arts and Painting in 1934 and studied at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts 1934-48.

Arrest and Deportation to Auschwitz

ARRESTED 18 March 1941, and deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland. Received prisoner number 11003. Assigned to the Tischlerei (carpentry workshop) at Auschwitz.

Art Produced at Auschwitz
He secretly carved designs on spoons and plates, also completed many portraits of his fellow prisoners. Fellow prisoner and artist Wincenty Gawron smuggled some of Gutkiewicz's drawings out of Auschwitz in his successful May 1942 escape from the camp.

TORTURED AND MURDERED 13 June 1942, by the Nazis. Executed in barrack 11 at Auschwitz I slave labour camp, Oswiecim, Poland.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Archives at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oswiecim.

Jaworska, Janina. Nie wszystek umre.... Warsaw, 1975.

Stutz, Marina, ed. Uberleben und Widerstehen. Cologne, 1980

lastexpression.northwestern.ed…

_________________________________________________________________


Titus Brandsma - Carmelite priest, philosopher, educator and journalist working for De Stad OSS

Born 1881, Netherlands

He staunchly resisted Nazi attempts to control the Dutch Catholic press during World War II, including actively working to have those newspapers refuse to carry advertising for Nazi organizations.

FORCED TO BE A HUMAN GUINEA PIG FOR MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS at Dachau slave labour camp, Germany

TORTURED AND MURDERED 26 July 1942 by the Nazis using lethal injection in the infirmary of Dachau slave labour camp, Germany.

To some, he became a second patron saint for journalists, after St. Frances de Sales. He was beatified by the Catholic Church in 1985.

Not forgotten.

_________________________________________________________________


Julius Hermann - writer

FORCED TO LEAVE EUROPE FOR CUBIA TO ESCAPE NAZI GERMANY. Attempted voluntary exile from Europe along with 960 Jewish passengers on board the SS St Louis

REFUGEE SHIP WAS REFUSED ENTRY AT PLACE OF DESTINATION, May 1939, Havana, Cubia. A few people got off but most were forced to return to Europe on the ship.

THE SHIP RETURNED ACROSS THE ATLANTIC TO EUROPE AND LANDED IN FRANCE (PRE NAZI INVASION!)

PLACED IN AN INTERNMENT CAMP AT SIANT CYPRIEN WHERE HE ENDURED APPALLING LIVING CONDITIONS.

DEPORTED TO AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU August 1942.

TORTURED AND MURDERED August 1942 by the Nazis at Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland.

Not forgotten.

<history1900s.about.com/od/holo…>

_________________________________________________________________


Gela Seksztajn - visual artist

Born 1907

Deported to Warsaw ghetto where she continued to paint.

TORTURED AND MURDERED August 1942 by the Nazis at Treblinka extermination camp, 100 km northeast of Warsaw, Poland.

In her will, which was preserved along with her watercolors in the underground archives of the Warsaw ghetto, she wrote, '...I am now standing at the boundary between life and death. I already know for certain that I must die and that is why I want to bid farewell to my friends and to my work. Farewell, comrades and friends. Jews! Do everything that such a tragedy will never be repeated!'

Not forgotten.

_________________________________________________________________


Teresa Benedicta of the Cross, alias Edith Stein - Carmelite nun, educator, philosopher and spiritual writer. Generally regarded as a modern saint and martyr.

Born 12 October 1891 Germany

TORTURED AND MURDERED 9 August 1942 by the Nazis at Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland.

A Roman Catholic convert from Judaism, Stein joined the Carmelites in 1934 and wrote a number of important philosophical and spiritual works, including 'Finite and Eternal Being.'

With Hitler's 1942 order for the arrest of all non-Aryan Catholics, Stein was seized and shipped to the extermination camp at Auschwitz where she died in the gas chamber with her sister Rosa. A woman of singular intelligence and learning, she left behind a body of writing notable for its doctrinal richness and profound spirituality. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II at Cologne on 1 May 1987.

Not forgotten.

_________________________________________________________________


Irene Nemirovsky - writer

Born 1903 France

TORTURED AND MURDERED 17 August 1942 by the Nazis in Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland.

THE NAZIS MURDERED HER HUSBAND LATER THAT YEAR, LEAVING BEHIND TWO ORPHINED GIRLS ON THE RUN, OR IN HIDING FOR THE REST OF THE WAR.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Irene Nemirovsky: 'Suite Francaise'

________________________________________________________________


Erwin Schulhoff - composer and concert pianist

Born: 8 June 1894, Praha (Czech Republic)

BLACKLISTED AS 'DEGENERATE' in the 1930s by the Nazis because of his Jewish descent and communist politics. Banned from giving recitals in Germany, and nor could his works be publicly performed.

When the Nazis invaded Czechoslovakia in 1939, he had to resort to performing under a pseudonym.

In 1941, the Soviet Union approved his petition for citizenship, but he was arrested and imprisoned before he could leave Czechoslovakia.

DEPORTED TO WÜLZBURG SLAVE LABOUR CAMP, June 1941

TORTURED AND MURDERED 18 August 1942 by the Nazis, using neglect and desease. Died of tuberculosis in Wultzburg slave labour camp, near Weißenburg, Bavaria, Germany.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Josef Bek: Erwin Schulhoff. Leben und Werk. von Bockel Verlag Hamburg 1994 ISBN 3-928770-27-6

Erwin Schulhoff. Die Referate des Kolloquiums in Köln am 7. October 1992 von Bockel Verlag Hamburg 1993 ISBN 3-928770-16-0

'Zum Einschlafen gibt's genügend Musiken. Die Referate des Erwin Schulhoff-Kolloquiums in Düsseldorf im März 1994 von Bockel Verlag Hamburg 1993 ISBN 3-928770-41-1

Erwin Schulhoff: Schriften von Bockel Verlag Hamburg 1995 ISBN 3-928770-26-8

<www.musica.cz/comp/schulhoff.h…>

<www.fuguemasters.com/schulhoff…>

_________________________________________________________________


Malvina Schalková - visual artist

Born 18 February1882, Litomerice, Austria/Hungary

DEPORTED FROM PRAGUE TO THERESIENSTADT GHETTO 8 February 1942

In the Ghetto she develops an extensive body of watercolors and designs, describing the female work environment and accommodations. In terms of quantity and quality of her work, Malvina Schalková is one of the most important painters in Theresienstadt.

DEPORTED TO AUSCHWITZ 18 May 1942

TORTURED AND MURDERED September 1942 by the Nazis in Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, Oswiecim, Poland.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

<www.exil-archiv.de/html/biogra…>

<www.jewishmuseum.cz/print/cztc…>

<motlc.wiesenthal.com/albums/pa…>

<perso.wanadoo.fr/d-d.natanson/…>

<olivier.mercadier.free.fr/PAGE…>

_________________________________________________________________


Aloys Scholze - Clergymen and public speaker

Date of berth unknown

TORTURED AND MURDERED 1 September 1942 by the Nazis in Dachau slave labour camp, Germany

No further information available at this time.

Not forgotten.

_________________________________________________________________


David Goychman - visual artist

Born 1900, Bogopal, Ukraine

EXPERIENCED THE HORRORS OF WORLD WAR ONE. His brother Abraham was killed in battle while fighting for the French Army in the First World War.

DAVID AND HIS BROTHER ELIEZER WERE VICTIMS OF A POGROM. David suffered a head wound and Eliezer was killed before his eyes.

FORCED TO LEAVE RUSSIA FOR PALESTINE TO ESCAPE PERSECUTION 1919. In Palestine he began to paint.

Moved to Paris 1922 to study at the Academy of Art.

ARRESTED BY THE NAZIS AS A RUSSIAN CITIZEN 27 June 1941. Arrested in his house in Villeban in the Vallce des Chevreuse, near Paris.

INTERNED AT COMPICGNE, where he continued to paint and participated, along with other artist internees, in an exhibition held at the camp.

TRANSFERRED TO DRANCY 11 September 1942

SENT IN DEPORTATION NO. 32 TO AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU 14 September 1942

TORTURED AND MURDERED after 14 September 1942, by the Nazis at Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Camp, Oswiecim, Poland.

None of Goychman's Compicgne paintings are known to have survived, but the Ghetto Fighters' House art collection contains some of his prewar paintings as well as portraits of Goychman made at Compicgne by fellow inmate artists Jacques Gotko and Isis Kischka.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Fenster, Hirsh. Undzere Farpainikte Kinstler (Nos artistes martyrs). Paris, 1951.

Klarsfeld, Serge. Memorial to the Jews Deported from France, 1942-1944: Documentation of the Deportation of the Victims of the Final Solution in France. New York, 1983.

_________________________________________________________________


John Segrue - journalist working for News-Chronicle

Born England

He had served as a foreign correspondent for several British newspapers since before World War I, covering the rise of Nazism in Germany until 1936, then reported from Vienna on the annexation of Austria to Germany in 1938.

CAPTURED BY THE NAZIS 1941 while covering the war in Yugoslavia.

TORTURED AND MURDERED October 1942 in an unknown German prison camp

No further information available at this time.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

www.newseum.org/scripts/Journa…

_________________________________________________________________


Albin Grau - visual artist, architect, art director, set designer, costume designer, movie producer and occultist

Most famous for producing, and the production design of the pioneer horror film Nosferatu in 1922. He was largely responsible for the look and spirit of the film, including the sets, costumes, storyboards and promotional materials.

Before Grau and Murnau collabourated on Nosferatu, Grau was planning to create several movies devoted to the occult and supernatural through his studio, Prana Film. Since Nosferatu was a loose and unauthorized translation of Bram Stoker's Dracula Prana had to declare bankruptcy in order to evade infringement lawsuits. This made Nosferatu, Prana Film's one and only release.

TORTURED AND MURDERED October 1942, by the Nazis in Buchenwald slave labour camp, near Weimar, Thuringia, Germany

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albin_Gr…

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nosferat…

us.imdb.com/name/nm0336057/

_________________________________________________________________


Hugo Distler - musical composer, pacifist and teacher

Born 24 June 1908, Nuremberg, Germany

Distler was only 25 when Hitler took over. Suppressing the established German church was dicey business for the Nazis. Distler represented religious intensity the Nazis couldn't tolerate.

HIS MUSIC WAS STIGMATIZED BY THE NAZIS AS 'DEGENERATE ART' 1934

COMMITTED SUICIDE 1 November 1942 TO AVOID NAZI PERSECUTION They told him he would be taken from his church post and shipped off to the Wehrmacht! Conscientious objection was treason punishable by death, and Distler could never support the war. Becoming increasingly depressed from the death of friends, aerial attacks, job pressures, and the constant threat of conscription into the German army, he put his head in his own gas oven and ended his life at the age of 34.

Not forgotten.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugo_Dis…

_________________________________________________________________


Bruno Schultz - poet, teacher, author and graphic artist

Born in 1892 Drohobych, now part of Ukraine.

TORTURED AND MURDERED 19 November 1942 by the Gestapo in Drohobyczon

No further information available at this time.

Not forgotten.

<motlc.wiesenthal.com/pages/t06…>

<www.artcult.com/na185.html>

_________________________________________________________________


Nanne Zwiep - Pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church in Enschede

Date of berth unknown

Spoke out from the pulpit against Nazis and their treatment of Dutch Citizens and Jews.

ARRESTED 20 April 1942

TORTURED AND MURDERED 24 November 1942 by the Nazis using abuse and starvation in Dachau slave labour camp, Germany

Not forgotten.

_________________________________________________________________


Franz Graf Schaffgotsch - painter, stage designer and art restorer.

Born 13 December 1902 Bregenz, Germany

FORCED INTO EXILE FROM GERMANY TO YUGOSLAVIA 1938

ARRESTED AND TORTURED BY THE CROATIAN AUTHORITIES 1942

TORTURED AND MURDERED 21 December 1942, in a Croatian internment camp, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia

His wife published a book concerning their fate soon after.

Not forgotten.

Bibliography:

Hedwig Schaffgotsch: The loving are all of a nation, Munich 1949 (her husband and their fate in the Nazi period) (In German)

Nikolaus Schaffer: Nachruf nach fünfzig Jahren. Two artist fates during the LV rule in Salzburg: Helene von Taussig and Franz Schaffgotsch, in: The Salzburger Jahr 1988/89, hrsg. v. of the Salzburger federal state government, Salzburg 1988 (In German)

_________________________________________________________________


Arvid Harnack - Doctor of Law, Doctor of Philosophy, university lecturer, jurist, economist, publisher and resistance fighter

Born 24 May 1901 Darmstadt, Germany

In 1936, Harnack secretly got in touch with the Soviet Embassy, and his American wife with the US Embassy, to warn them about the threat of war that Germany posed. Joined the Red Orchestra resistance group in 1940, and tryed to thwart the German invasion of the Soviet Union through radio contact with soviet agents. This vital intelligence that was dismissed by Stalin even after the invasion was well under way. They also tried to leak information about the Holocaust in vain.

ARRESTED ALONG WITHI HIS WIFE BY THE GESTAPO 7 September 1942

TORTURED AND MURDERED 22 December 1942 by the Gestapo along with his wife, in Plötzensee Prison, Berlin.

HIS WIFE, MILDRED WAS GIVEN SIX YEARS IN PRISON. HITLER PERSONALLY CANCELLED THE SENTENCE AND ORDERED A NEW TRIAL WHICH ENDED WITH A DEATH SENTENCE.

Not forgotten.

<en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arvid_Ha…>
Part Six: WORLD WAR TWO - (1941 -1942)
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