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Newest Deviations

Lower Elliot anchisaur by Megalotitan Lower Elliot anchisaur :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 42 30 Aardonyx schematic by Megalotitan Aardonyx schematic :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 38 3 Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum schematic by Megalotitan Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum schematic :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 44 8 Paleopsephurus by Megalotitan Paleopsephurus :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 34 2 Aegyptosaurus schematic by Megalotitan Aegyptosaurus schematic :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 40 1 Antetonitrus chart by Megalotitan Antetonitrus chart :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 40 4 Saurosuchus schematic by Megalotitan Saurosuchus schematic :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 52 7 Paludititan MK. III by Megalotitan Paludititan MK. III :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 49 4 Sibirotitan revisited by Megalotitan Sibirotitan revisited :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 34 7 Kem Kem chart by Megalotitan Kem Kem chart :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 176 73 Rebbachisaurus schematic by Megalotitan Rebbachisaurus schematic :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 38 2 New Tienshanosaurus schematic by Megalotitan New Tienshanosaurus schematic :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 52 1 Wintonotitan schematic by Megalotitan Wintonotitan schematic :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 51 7 Sibirotitan schematic by Megalotitan Sibirotitan schematic :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 41 7 Orkoraptor finished by Megalotitan Orkoraptor finished :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 46 3 (Inaccurate) Upper Shishugou fauna chart by Megalotitan (Inaccurate) Upper Shishugou fauna chart :iconmegalotitan:Megalotitan 99 31

Random Favourites

Teleocrater by HodariNundu Teleocrater :iconhodarinundu:HodariNundu 175 29 Lambeosaurus magnicristatus by DinosaurDJ Lambeosaurus magnicristatus :icondinosaurdj:DinosaurDJ 15 1 Daily Painting 1737# Green Tea by Cryptid-Creations Daily Painting 1737# Green Tea :iconcryptid-creations:Cryptid-Creations 5,273 137 The beast of Shringa by Hyrotrioskjan The beast of Shringa :iconhyrotrioskjan:Hyrotrioskjan 296 47 My Little Horsey by DinoHunter000 My Little Horsey :icondinohunter000:DinoHunter000 18 0 Black Beauty by PaleoGuy Black Beauty :iconpaleoguy:PaleoGuy 109 0 Borealopelta by PaleoGuy Borealopelta :iconpaleoguy:PaleoGuy 94 9 Dusk and Dawn by WSnyder Dusk and Dawn :iconwsnyder:WSnyder 52 5 Yi-Aqui by FeatherNerd Yi-Aqui :iconfeathernerd:FeatherNerd 164 79 Island crawler by AnAlienScientist Island crawler :iconanalienscientist:AnAlienScientist 15 15 Pleurosaurus goldfussi by Kana-hebi Pleurosaurus goldfussi :iconkana-hebi:Kana-hebi 140 3 Saving the live stock from pesky Rex's by TheGreatestLoverArt Saving the live stock from pesky Rex's :iconthegreatestloverart:TheGreatestLoverArt 116 9 Silky Bird by Tomozaurus Silky Bird :icontomozaurus:Tomozaurus 143 8 Chaoyangsaurus by cisiopurple Chaoyangsaurus :iconcisiopurple:cisiopurple 27 4 Shringasaurus by Stolpergeist Shringasaurus :iconstolpergeist:Stolpergeist 164 19 Scalacurvichthys naishi by PLASTOSPLEEN Scalacurvichthys naishi :iconplastospleen:PLASTOSPLEEN 106 23


Journal History


just gonna dump my Twitter here, since i've posted stuff there (at an infrequent rate) that aren't on here:
Lower Elliot anchisaur
Yes you can use it now (hopefully without much margin of error), yes it's still big, yes it is still bigger than Tyrannosaurus, no it is not Ledumahadi nor the Highland Giant.

Update: i guess i'll dump the reference here because a lot of people seem to be confused by this 
actually Ledumahadi schematic will be on hold for a bit, gonna make a lessemsaurid composite first
Aardonyx schematic
Long time no see.

I thought Adam Yate's skeletal of this guy could use a overhaul, so here we are. That being said, I was forced to extrapolate a lot of shit from his skeletal, as there's basically no material shown in the description. Thankfully, there were a lot of suitable measurements to be used, so I at least managed to make a decent hackjob out of it. Definitely got that pubis wrong tho rip

a certain king of the hill will not take too long, hopefully

Update: made the femur too big, oops
Update #1: turns out i made the human too big as well...

Yates et al., 2010. A new transitional sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of South Africa and the evolution of sauropod feeding and quadrupedalism
ScottHartman's Melanorosaurus
ijreid's Blikanasaurus and Aardonyx skull reconstruction
Gregory S. Paul's Jingshanosaurus
Human silhouette is from Andrew Farke.
Kem Kem chart
Someone had to fucking do it. I guess.

The Kem Kem Beds is actually not a formation itself; rather, it composes the Ifezouane Formation in the lower parts and the Aoufous Formation in the upper parts. Most of the animals here appear to be from the Ifezouane, although some might be from the Aoufous, but in most papers it is not specifically said which formation said specimen was found, only referring to the Kem Kem Beds. It appears to have been a coastal lagoon (apparently can be also called paralic sebkhas, which supposedly are evaporitic tidal flats close to the ocean) based on sedimentological and micropaleontological data, although the fauna appears to indicate a freshwater or brackish water environment. But who cares about this shizzazledoodles? Read it up in papers or something.
oh yeah no size estimates for this one too
and the order is left to right, top to bottom (excluding those flying pterosaurs)

Jeddaherdan aleadonta: Just your good ol' lizard that is everywhere - except it's from a damn dentary fragment. Close to extant Uromastyx, otherwise known as spiny tailed lizards, and Gueragama from Brazil, it appears to be omnivorous with plants taking up the majority of that diet.

Lavocatchampsa sigogneaurusselae: A (presumably) basal ziphosuchian, it appears to be closely related to Candidodon, Malawisuchus, and Pakasuchus. The morphology and wear of the teeth suggest that it was crushing tough material.

Araripesuchus rattoides: A small notosuchian, it is very widespread in the southern hemisphere, being found in Brazil, Argentina, Niger, Madagascar, and Morocco. Based on A. wegeneri, it may have had a primarily herbivorous diet.

Hamadasuchus rebouli: A peirosaurid notosuchian, it appears to have been carnivorous like its other relatives from neighboring South America and Africa. Has a set of nasty teeth.

Notosuchia indet. (Ibc 119): Only known from an isolated quadrate, it was first referred to Libycosuchus by Buffetaut (1976), then to Hamadasuchus by Larsson and Sues (2007). Most recently in 2018, a revision of "Trematochampsa" (it's dubious now rip) found this quadrate to compare well with A. wegeneri, although it appears to have been approximately three times the size.

Laganosuchus maghrebensis: A stomatosuchid, the genus is also present in Niger in the form of L. thaumastos. This genus is closely related to Stomatosuchus of Egypt, and both appear to have been sit-and-wait predators, capturing any small fish that happened to be within snapping range.

Rebbachisaurus garbasae: One of the largest definite rebbachisaurids (Limaysaurus comes close), it's weird. Too weird.

Aegisuchus witmeri: Named after Lawrence Witmer, the size of this neosuchian has been greatly overestimated in the original description, getting a bare minimum of 15 meters. bLAZZE92 happened to remake the formulas used in the paper and got a length of approximately 3.9 meters.

Tapejaridae indet. (BSP 1997 I 67): Only known from a jaw fragment, perhaps from the mandible, it appears to have been quite large, perhaps reaching the size of Tupandactylus.

Siroccopteryx/Coloborhynchus moroccensis: An ornithocheirid, it most likely was piscivorous like its other relatives: a suiting niche when there are a bit too much fish in the waters.

Chaoyangopteridae indet. (MN 7054-V): Originally considered as a putative pteranodontid, Zhejiangopterus has noted more similarities with chaoyangopterids (like Lacusovagus) than pteranodontids; perhaps something like Shenzhoupterus, although with a proportionally shorter snout. 

Xericeps curvirostris: A rather peculiar azhdarchid, it appears to be analogous to jabirus, with the curved beak and all. It and Alanqa happen to have raised ridges near the back of their jaws, which may have helped in consuming the shellfish that they would've been likely to eat. The different jaw shape compared to Alanqa implies niche partitioning within the same ecosystem; nonetheless, both appear to be related, and might be claded with Argentinodraco from the Portezuelo Formation of South America.

Alanqa saharicus: A more normal looking azhdarchid, it appears to be be akin to openbill storks or oystercatchers in terms of lifestyle.

Somphospondyli indet. (NMHUK R36635): Only known from a dorsal neural arch, Mannion & Barrett 2013 chose to interpret it as a basal somphospondylian, although I've chosen to scale it after Andesaurus.

Ornithopoda indet. (UCRC I 5S4): Just gotta have a relevant ichnotaxon in any formation :P The particular maker of this footprint is quite large, with a 52.5 cm long foot that yields an approximately 9.4 meter long, ~3 tonne ornithopod using Ouranosaurus as a base - roughly on par with Iguanodon.

Unenlagiinae? indet. (CMN 50852): First described as an avialan vertebra by Riff et al. 2004, a resemblance to Rahonavis has been noted in the paper. It was considered a basal avialan at the time, but now... it just jumps in and out of Unenlagiinae and basal Avialae as it likes, unfortunately. It also looks quite like the dorsals of Buitreraptor, and that is the base for it here.

Noasauridae? indet. (ROM 65779, CMN 50811, CMN 50810): These are probably the same general thing in different sizes so I'll just describe them in the same paragraph. These lads 'n lasses are only known from fragmentary remains; the first is known from a partial femur, second is known from a posterior cervical centrum, and third is known from an axis. All could pertain to noasaurids, and are scaled as such here. They perhaps had a lifestyle like that of Masiakasaurus; whatever that is.

Titanosauria indet. (FSACK-KK 7000): A surprisingly derived titanosaur for its time, it appears to be close to Baurutitan and Alamosaurus, taxa that would not come until approximately 30+ millions years later. Personally I think it would help to find the origin of those titanosaurs and the ones in Eurasia, which also appear to be closely related, and Mansourasaurus also helps.

Abelisauridae indet. (NS153/01, NS153/02, UCPC 01): These also are probably similar in general anatomy, so they'll also be described in the same paragraph here. All are known from maxilla fragments; NS153/01 appears to be something similar to Skorpiovenator, while NS153 and UCPC 01 seem to be more like Ekrixinatosaurus.

Titanosauria indet. (FSACK-KK 01): Only known from a partial humerus, it appears to be closely related to Paralititan of Bahariya, as well as being approximately the same size; this adds another addition of the shared terrestrial fauna between the two geological formations. 

Elaphrosaurinae? indet. (not shown): Originally described from a tibia by Lavocat, he noted a striking similarity between it and an Egyptian tibia described by Stromer and referred to as cf. Elaphrosaurus, as well as Elaphrosaurus itself. However, Rauhut & Carrano 2016 made a case that the former was not so related to Elaphrosaurus, instead showing characters more similar to that of tetanurans. Although I am not sure if this also applies to the Kem Kem tibia, I would not be surprised if it was, and I decided to remove it from this chart for now.

Sauroniops pachytholus: Is this even worth mentioning? I guess. Only known from a shit but pretty nice frontal, it appears to be close to Eocarcharia of Early Cretaceous Niger, and to a lesser extent Acrocanthosaurus

Titanosauria indet. (GMNH-PV 2314): A large titanosaur (although not as large as FSACK-KK 01 or Paralititan) that is perhaps also related to Paralititan, tooth marks are etched into the material represented, an ischium.

Deltadromeus agilis: The hella enigmatic thing. A close relative of South American Gualicho, it might be a noasaurid of some kind, although which we really don't know. Oh, and it has those teeny arms.

"Osteoporosia gigantea": A taxon that got a bit too overhyped originally, it is not a megaraptoran of extraordinary size, comparing quite well with Aerosteon. I guess it has unique implications for megaraptoran paleobiogeography?

Titanosauria indet. (GMNH-PV 2399): Another relatively large titanosaur, the known dorsal appears to show affinities with Epachthosaurus and Paralititan, and could be congeneric with GMNH-PV 2314, although it would be suggested to not lump them for the time being.

Abelisauridae indet. (OLPH 025): The large-o abelisaurid described by Andrea Cau and colleagues in 2016, Grillo & Delcourt 2016 estimated it at a similar size to Ekrixinatosaurus.

Carcharodontosaurus saharicus: This theropod appears to be the largest terrestrial predator present in the Kem Kem. Although there were enough terrestrial prey, I wouldn't be surprised if it also relied on the freshwater fauna for prey.

Spinosaurus aegyptiacus: The largest aquatic predator in the Kem Kem Beds, it is quite capable of eating a lot of the ichthyofauna, and would also be more than likely to be able to cram a crocodilyform or two in its mouth. For a more comprehensive chart of Spinosaurus sizes (or at least presumably the same morphotype), randomdinos has a very nice one here. It appears to be the more aquatic one out of the two Kem Kem spinosaurins, having a raised eye placement on the skull, not unlike that of hippos and crocodiles.

Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis: The other spinosaurin from the Kem Kem Beds, it has a complicated taxonomic history, having been in its own family (Sigilmassasauridae), a synonym of Carcharodontosaurus (goddammit Sereno), an intermediate tetanuran, and a synonym of Spinosaurus in Ibrahim et al. 2014. It was recently re-described as a valid spinosaurid in Evers et al. 2015, and considered to be one by Hendrickx et al. 2016 and Arden et al. 2018. The latter paper has assigned this genus to Spinosaurini along with Spinosaurus and other intermediate North African spinosaur material, and also suggested that it was less aquatic than Spinosaurus, based on the referred frontal morphology (although this referral was solely based on size, so that's pretty dumb). Scaled to the largest specimen here; for more sizes, see the spinosaurin chart I linked above.

Dirqadim schaefferi: Starting with the turtles, Dirqadim is up first. An euraxemyid turtle, its sister taxon Euraxemys is from the Albian Santana Formation. Nothing special, honestly.

Galianemys spp. (G. whitei, G. emringeri, AMNH 30550, AMNH 30551): Easily the most common turtle in the Kem Kem Beds, there are large shells from the same deposits that may belong to this genus, based on their placement within the same tribe, Cearachelyini, which the Santana genus Cearachelys is also a part of.

Hamadachelys escuilliei: A sister taxon of podocnemidids, it is described from a mere skull, although there appears to be a presumably undescribed specimen that is mostly complete.

Araripemys sp.: Usually present in the Santana Formation, Cavin et al. 2010 mention collecting Araripemys specimens of intermediate species within the Kem Kem Beds, although the material was not figured, so the size here is based on the Santana specimens.

Norisophis begaa: A basal snake, around Najash-grade, it appears to have been terrestrial, although not fossorial.

Madtsoiidae indet. (UCRC PV132-138): Briefly described but not shown in Rage & Dutheil 2008, this is a very rough size approximation loosely based off a Madtsoia madagascariensis size estimate in LaDuke et al. 2010 and should not be taken as a solid size.

Simoliophis cf. libycus: A simoliophiid (which also contains Pachyophis and Haasiophis), it appears to have been mainly aquatic. Also has those teensy legs.

Elosuchus cherifiensis: A large pholidosaurid/elosuchid/whatever the fuck you call it, it appears to have a relatively strong bite compared to other longirostrine crocodyliforms, based on modifications of the skull.

Notosuchia? indet. (Sereno's longirostrine crocodyliform): The large crocodyliform that Sereno is evilly keeping in his Chicago lab, it is supposedly related to Stolokrosuchus, which jumps in and out of Notosuchia. The Razanandrongobe redescription paper phylogeny puts it at a basal position within Notosuchia, which is tentatively followed here. It has a skull that is around 1.55 metres long (contrary to the earlier reports of a 2 metre skull), most of the length we can expect to be the rostrum, based on its supposed relative. Efficient if you have a piscivorous diet.

Asteracanthus aegyptiacus: Now onto the fish (i'm using this in the traditional sense so don't give me a fucking lecture, i know very well about the extent of this definition). This presumably durophagous hybodont is one of the many Kem Kem fish that is also present in the Bahariya Formation.

Tribodus sp.: Another durophagous hybodont, the genus is known from very well preserved specimens from the Santana Formation and from fin spines and teeth from Bahariya, although it is only known from teeth in the Kem Kem Beds.

Aidachar pankowskii: A ichthyodectid, this genus is also present in Uzbekistan during the same time. It appears to be close to Cladocyclus of Brazil and Italy, and was described as a species of it during its original description. Like other ichthyodectiforms, it most likely was a voracious predator, dealing with proportionally large prey.

Lavocatodus humei: A small lungfish, it was referred to as Ceratodus humei for over a century; it was not until 2014 that it was referred to Lavocatodus, which appears to be closer to South American and African lungfishes. Like all modern lungfish, it probably was an opportunistic omnivore, eating plant material, invertebrates, and small vertebrates.

Arganodus tiguidiensis: A tiny, irrelevant lungfish. They're just everywhere.

Oniichthys falipoui: A small gar, it appears to be very close to Atractosteus, even considered to be lumpable by some; thus, it is likely that it also had a similar diet on a smaller scale, like smaller fish and invertebrates.

Obaichthyidae spp. (Obaichthys africanus, ?Dentilepisosteus kemkemensis): Two gars that are not within Lepisosteidae (modern gars), the genera are known from fairly well preserved specimens from the Santana Formation. The specialized jaw anatomy indicates that these gars were not after proportionally large prey, and perhaps were feeding on invertebrates.

Steinbachodus bartheli: A small steinbachodontid hybodont, the family appears to be close to lonchidiids.

Haimirichia amonensis: This small basal lamniform was for a long time under the genus Odontaspis, then into Serratolamna, until it was erected as a new genus by Vullo et al. 2016 following the description of a new specimen with preserved tissue from later deposits (Akrabou Formation). It appears to be similar to shovelheads and whitetip reef sharks in terms of lifestyle and diet, although it most likely wasn't suited for hard-shelled prey that shovelheads go for, narrowing the scope of what it could eat. It does not appear to be common in Kem Kem, although very abundant in other places; it might have been gregarious based on mass accumulations of teeth at some sites, gathering around in shallow warm waters like shallow bays and estuaries.

Efroudichthys rosae: A possible stem-chanid (which includes milkfish), it also may have had a similar diet, eating cyanobacteria, algae, and invertebrates.

cf. Axelrodichthys sp.: A mawsoniid coelacanth, it is known from relatively well preserved specimens from the Santana Formation. Based on comparisons with living coelacanths (Latimera), mawsoniids as a whole, which appear to be edentulous, may have eaten prey through suction - and there was a lot to choose from.

Calamopleurus africanus: A calamopleurin, its sister taxon C. cylindricus is known from very well preserved specimens from the Santana Formation, while C. africanus is known from a disarticulated distorced skull and a separate braincase. Based on specimens from Brazil, it most likely was a voracious predator, eating prey of proportionally large sizes.

Neoceratodus africanus: This one's pretty relevant, being big and all. Although most specimens appear to be in the 70~100 cm range based on 3~5 cm tooth plates, Stromer described tooth plates from Bahariya that were around 10 cm, indicating individuals that could've grown at least over 2 meters.

Distobatus nutiae: An apparent ray related to cownose rays, it also may have been durophagous based on the similar dentition.

Palaeonotopterus greenwoodi: A osteoglossiform that is perhaps related to Petrocephalus, it appears to have been durophagous based on the jaw anatomy and dentition.

Adrianaichthys pankowskii: A large semionotid and the youngest one known, the species was originally described as Lepidotes pankowskii, although it was determined that it did not belong in Lepidotes proper according to López-Arbarello 2012, and the new genus Adrianaichthys was erected in 2016. It appears to have had a similar diet to lungfish.

Axelrodichthys lavocati: Known as Mawsonia lavocati for a long time, it has only been recently (this year, in fact) moved within the previously Brazil-endemic genus. Although there are numerous specimens referred to it, it is not possible to determine whether most, if not all of this material is actually referable to the same species as the holotype - an angular.

Mawsoniidae indet. (MDE F36): why the fuck are there so many mawsoniids

Mawsonia cf. gigas: One of the largest fish in the Kem Kem Beds, the sizes here are tentatively based off specimens from the similar-aged Alcântara Formation of Brazil, as there is no figured material, and it has only been mentioned in a mawsoniid paleobiogeography study by Miguel et al. in 2014. This material might not even belong to M. gigas according to Lionel Cavin, but a consensus has yet to be reached.

Mawsoniidae indet. (UMI-1): it's a dentary fragment shoo

Concavotectum moroccensis: A relatively large tselfatiiform, it appears to have been a filter feeder based on the anatomy of the jaws and gill rakers. This is one of the many Kem Kem taxa showing relations to the Bahariya fauna, as it is closely related, perhaps even synonymous with Paranogmius.

cf. Bawitius sp.: A massive bichir, a maxilla from the beds appear to be from an individual as big as the holotype from Egypt, and shows that it had a similar diet as bichirs of today, like fish, amphibians, and aquatic invertebrates, although perhaps the scope of suitable prey would've been bigger, so it could have eaten other aquatic vertebrates like turtles, snakes, and small spinosaurids. This maxilla was first referred to Stromerichthys by Cavin et al. 2010, but was shown to belong to a bichir in Cavin et al. 2015, which also rebuked Stromerichthys status as a valid genus, suggesting that the holotype was a chimera.

piece of shits (Bartschichthys sp. & Sudania sp.): these fuckers are only known from shitty ass fin spines

Peyeria lybica: A pristid sawfish, it is the earliest known; another pristid would not appear until 45 million years later. It is possible that pristids happened to take over the niche that sclerorhynchids have left behind after the K-T mass extinction.

Marckgrafia lybica: A small sclerorhynchid, there's really nothing special about it... besides the fact that it's easy fodder, I guess.

Onchopristis numidus: Our last animal on the chart also happens to be one of the more famous fish, usually depicted as Spinosaurus chow. A sclerorhynchid sawfish, the rostral teeth are among the most common teeth in the Kem Kem Beds. It is actually known from quite more than teeth: at least two partial rostrums have made it into science's hands and been described to some extent; one is none other than the holotype of the genus, which Stromer happened to describe, and a more recent find in the Kem Kem Beds, although it is less complete than the holotype. There apparently is also a specimen with a two meter long rostrum, although it is yet to be described.

And that marks it, I guess. I haven't added some animals in here, two due to the fact that these taxa are much too small to be in this chart, turning into a mass of undiscernible pixels when scaled to its size; these would happen to be Kababisha (a siren) and Oumtkoutia (a pipid frog). I may make a separate chart for these amphibians. A nigerophiid snake has also been omitted due to no measurements or figures provided. Kemkemia has not been added due to uncertain affinities within Crocodyliforms. A collection of animals I haven't added are the fish of the OT1 assemblage from the Djbel Oum Tkout locality. This locality is technically within the Kem Kem Beds (Aoufous Formation, specifically), but the fauna associated with this locality is considered endemic and is not considered to be part of the Kem Kem compound assemblage, which is what is shown here. 
Something I've noticed between Kem Kem and Bahariya is that the ichthyofauna from the latter appears to be much more diverse, but the former happens to have more terrestrial taxa, most prominent on the amount of herbivores. This is surprising, as the Kem Kem Beds supposedly has less vegetation than Bahariya, according to 
Ijouiher 2016. The Kem Kem also (understandably) appears to share more ichthyofauna with Brazil's from the Albian to Cenomanian than the Bahariya.
All in all, the Kem Kem Beds have a more diverse fauna than most seem to know, and hopefully there will be more discoveries from this series of formations that help us understand this ecosystem better in the future.

Thanks to:

:iconscotthartman: for the AlamosaurusBuitreraptorOuranosaurusMasiakasaurus, Nigersaurus, and Tupandactylus skeletals, which was used in one way or another during the making of this chart.
:iconfranoys: for the Acrocanthosaurus (which was the base for Sauroniops), Carcharodontosaurus, and Spinosaurus skeletals.
:iconpwnz3r-dragon: for the Deltadromeus and composite megaraptorid skeletals.
:iconrandomdinos: for the (unreleased) Paralititan, Epachthosaurus, and Andesaurus schematics, as well as providing the scalings for Stomatosuchus, Aegisuchus, Sarcosuchus, and UCRC I 5S4 scalings, which were used in some way for this chart.
:iconpaleojoe: for the Ekrixinatosaurus skeletal.
:iconzhejiangopterus: for the chaoyangopterid and Xericeps skull reconstructions. Go check out his cool blog as well!
:iconqilong: for the composite chaoyangopterid skeletal.
:iconhyrotrioskjan: for the Simoliophis and Paranogmius reconstructions, as well as providing commentary on Discord.
Mark Witton for the Zhejiangopterus skeletal.
Gregory S. Paul for the Elaphrosaurus skeletal.
Karen Carr for the Malawisuchus reconstruction.
Tracy Ford for the Stolokrosuchus skull drawing.
Pepi for the Montealtosuchus reconstruction.
Flower 1898 for the Queensland lungfish illustration.
Lydekker et al. 1909 for the South American lungfish illustration.
Whoever made this nice African helmeted turtle illustration.
This photo of a false coral snake.
The MNHN for this Magdalena River turtle illustration.
Poll Mertens for this Petrocephalus simus illustration.
Jeffery T. Williams for this milkfish photo.
Cervigón et al. 1992 for this cownose ray illustration.
Marc Dando for this knifetooth sawfish illustration.
The FCIT for this Nile bichir illustration.
Duane Raver for this alligator gar illustration.
Farinoza for this Uromastyx geyri photo.
Deposits Magazine for this Callipurbeckia skeletal.
Pinheiro & Rodrigues 2017 for the anhanguerid skeletal.
Krause et al. 2006 for the Araripesuchus and Mahajungasuchus skeletals.
Lane & Maisey 2009 for the diagram of the Tribodus anterior body.
Maisey 1986 for the Hybodus skeletal.
Meylan 1996 for the Araripemys skeletal.
Gaffney et al. 2006 for the images used for Dirqadim, Galianemys, and Hamadachelys; this paper had some, er, peculiar comments...
Leal & Brito 2004 for the Cladocyclus skeleton image.
Fischer 2012 for the Lissodus reconstruction.
Grande & Bermis 1998 for the Calamopleurus skeleton image(s).
Maisey 1986 for the Axelrodichthys skeletal.
Medeiros et al. 2011 for the Mawsonia gigas schematic.
Wueiringer et al. 2009 for the Libanopristis lineart.
Stromer 1925 for the Onchopristis rostrum.
Grillo & Delcourt 2016 for the Skorpiovenator skeletal.
A enormous thanks to Lionel Cavin for the otherwise inaccessible papers he was kind enough to provide; without them, scaling a bunch of the fish would have been impossible.
Update #1: Added some sources; still need to add a lot more.
Update #2: Added all the references for the silhouettes for this chart; gonna work on the referenced papers soon.
Update #3: I know I said I would add the referenced papers to here, but honestly I don't think I will ever get around to do that. Ah well. Downsized Sereno's longirostrine crocodyliform (based on a tweet by Tom Holtz stating that the skull was around 155 cm long, as opposed to the original 200 cm estimate), added the holotype of A. lavocati, changed the silhouette for the somphospondylian, and quite obviously made the aquatic side of creatures more packed together.
Update #4: Edited the Onchopristis rostrums after learning that the rostrum was somewhat incomplete.
Update #5: Removed the elaphrosaurine; see its description for reasons.
Update #6: Renamed Lepidotes pankowskii to Adrianaichthys pankowskii; thanks to Hyrotrioskjan for bringing this up to me.
Update #7: Changed the Sigilmassasaurus silhouette based on randomdinos's newly updated spinosaurin chart (yes i know it's basically a Spinosaurus). Also updated descriptions here and there.
thank you all for the birthday wishes!
Aegyptosaurus schematic
So ijreid suggested the other day that Aegyptosaurus might be close to Rapetosaurus and alike based on some morphological shit (i guess), so I quickly whipped this up. Proportions matched up surprisingly well; the only difference happened to be the leg being somewhat longer.

Stromer 1936 for the humerus, radii, ulnae, and femur.
Stromer 1932 for the caudals, scapula, tibia, and pedal claw.
Jain & Bandyopadhyay 1997 for the scapula placeholder.
:iconscotthartman:'s juvenile Rapetosaurus skeletal
give MrWeaselMan a watch if you haven't already, he does amazing shit
please take my Shishugou chart with a bucketful of salt, it's really old and the sizes are bound to be wrong; i might remake it at some point, but not in the immediate future
deleted the Paludititan schematic for now, since i'm gonna make a new one based off randomdinos' unreleased Nemegtosaurus schematic
in the mean time, gonna prepare for something big
Capture by Megalotitan
Rebbachisaurus schematic
i forgot what dA is
randomdinos shoulda done this himself smh, mine's hella shitty
oh yeah dark grey's for those not figured in lateral view
New Tienshanosaurus schematic
See previous version for comparison.
My earlier schematic of Tienshanosaurus was made when I was just forging into the features of GIMP, and thus didn't have much experience, so I did it pretty wrong and ugly. Because of that, I decided to work on a newer, more cleaner and accurate version, and here we are. Revised proportions, length, mass, silhouette, articulation, all that. I've also put in 'placeholders' for a lot of the bones like I did with my Wintonotitan, which shows up as the light gray, although it might be hard to distinguish from the actual bones from a distance. Really wish there could've been a redescription of this friend, but looks like we're stuck with Young's description at the moment. Oh well. There's also a second specimen referred to this species, but Dong likes to be prioritize Bellusaurus and didn't illustrate that Tienshanosaurus specimen. gg
Update: Tweaked silhouette here and there, as well as adding the specimen number.
A new dinosaurian from Sinkiang. Palaeontologia Sinica. 105(2), 1-29.
Re-examination of Chuanjiesaurus anaensis (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Middle Jurassic Chuanjie Formation, Lufeng Country, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Memoir of the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum 10:1-54 (2011)
Omeisaurus tianfuensis—a new species of Omeisaurus from Dashanpu, Zigong, Sichuan. Journal of Chengdu College of Geology 1984 (suppl. 2):13-32
javifel's Chuanjiesaurus skeletal, which served as the main base for this schematic.
(Inaccurate) Upper Shishugou fauna chart
DISCLAIMER: This chart is in serious need of a revision, which won't come for a while. So take the sizes here with a pile of salt, because it's probably more inaccurate than not.

This isn't SUPER-DUPER WUBBA LUBBA DUB DUB XTREM QUALITY like Veterufreak's or randomdinos' charts, but oh well
So I'm working on this thing about the upper part of the Shishugou Formation, and it's certainly an interesting formation. I don't have exact size estimates btw, sorry :P

Dsungarodon zuoi: The fossil from this formation was originally described as a new species, 'Acuodulodon sunae' in Hu et al. 2007, but was subsequently synonymized with Dsungarodon zuoi in 2010 by Thomas Martin and co-workers. The latter was described in Pfretzschner et al. 2005, and is also known from the contemporary Qigu Formation. Being a sister taxon to Castorocauda per Meng et al. 2015, it probably looked like it and had a similar lifestyle, eating fish and aquatic invertebrates.

Sichuanchelys palatodentata: A stem-turtle described in 2016, it's quite unusual in having palatal teeth(!), albeit vestigial. The genus is also known from the Dashanpu Quarry (S. chowi).

Xinjiangchelys spp.: Three species of Xinjiangchelys, X. junggarensis, X. radiplicatoides (not included due to distortion), and X. chowi, are known from the formation. The family it belongs in, Xinjiangchelidae, are just outside of Cryptodira, at least according to Joyce et al. 2016 (S. palatodentata description paper).

Annemys sp.: Another xinjiangchelid from the formation, the genus has also been found from the Shar Teg locality in Mongolia, where it also yielded Nominosuchus.

Yuanotherium minor: Among the smallest tritylodontids known (roughly on par with Oligokyphus), it appears to be omnivorous, contrasting with its herbivorous relatives.

Klamelia zhaopengi: Described from a dentary fragment that came from the lower Shishugou (although supposedly also present in the upper parts), a similarity to stagodontids has been noted, perhaps implying a similar durophagous lifestyle (maybe preying specifically on turtles?), but supplemented with other small vertebrates. It is a klameliid along with Ferganodon, and are particularly close to gobiconodontids, which include Gobiconodon and the infamous Repenomamus.

Nominosuchus matutinus: A shartegosuchid, this is a close relative of the North American Fruitachampsa, which lived with a different asset of titans in the Morrison Formation. John Foster speculated in his 2007 book that Fruitachampsa might've been quite the opportunist, eating small lizards, amphibians, mammals, and dinosaur eggs + hatchlings, and Nominosuchus might've been no different. Multiple individuals were preserved together, indicating that the taxon might've been gregarious. A possible specimen is also preserved in the same block as the Limusaurus holotype.

Temnospondyli indet.: Not much on this fellow, except being mentioned in Peng & Brinkman 1993. It is from the Pingfengshan locality, which yielded several turtle species and Sunosuchus junggarensis, as well as small dinosaurs and few sauropod elements. There is also labyrinthodontian material from the site mentioned in Russel & Zhong 1990 that may pertain to this species. There is a brachyopoid(?) genus from the formation named 'Superstogyrinus ultimus' (Zhang 1987), but it has been considered both a nomen dubium and nomen nudum by Maisch & Matzke 2004, because besides being known from inadequate material (five vertebrae and skull fragments), the whereabouts of the original paper are unknown, making it impossible to find and check the paper. The size here is based on a dentary from Gobiops, which is known from the contemporary Qigu Formation, like Dsungarodon.

Troodontidae indet. (Morphotype 7 tooth per Han et al. 2011): Eeeeee it's a filthy tooth taxon!!!!!! Possibly the earliest record of a troodontid as of now, it seems to be particularly similar to Sinovenator and Paronychodon, as noted by Han et al., and I do think it is also similar to Daliansaurus. Size may be on par with Daliansaurus and Sinovenator, so scaled off Hartman's Sinovenator.

Dromaeosauridae indet. (Morphotype 5 tooth per Han et al. 2011): Yes, another tooth taxon, and (sorry to say) a tooth scaled one. Also a very early dromaeosaurid, but I'm not sure if it's the earliest. Based off GSP's Zhenyuanlong.

Bienotheroides ultimus: Oh hey, this ultimus is valid :P A tritylodontid, the genus is also known from the relatively famous Dashanpu quarry, as well as Mongolia. It is known from the right zygomatic arch, part of the forelimb, rib fragments, vertebrae, parts of the pelvic girdle, and right tibia. It may have been a fossorial, semi-aquatic herbivore, not unlike Kayentatherium.

Sericipterus wucaiwanensis: A pretty large pterosaur, this is a rhamphorhynchid close to Angustinaripterus from the Dashanpu quarry, and Harpactognathus from the Morrison. It has been interpreted as having a crest on its snout, although I've decided to depict it as a particularly deep snout. It appears to be a member of a clade consisting of it, Angustinaripterus, and Harpactognathus. All three seem to be particularly large, robust rhamphorhynchids that specialize in terrestrial prey, far from the lifestyles of their relatively gracile, piscivorous relatives.

Haplocheirus sollers: The earliest alvarezsauroid as of now, it was probably a hunter of small prey, as indicated by its dentition.

Jiangjunosaurus junggarensis: The only named stegosaurid from the Shishugou, it might've looked like Huayangosaurus.

Yinlong downsi: Named as a reference to Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, this is among the earliest ceratopsians known, being a chaoyangsaurid. There are nine specimens described, making it a pretty common species.

Hualianceratops wucaiwanensis: From the same layers as Yinlong, this taxon is also a chaoyangsaurid.

Tienshanosaurus chitaiensis: A seldom-known genus, it is among the several mamenchisaurids of this formation.

Limusaurus inextricabilis: Perhaps the most common dinosaur in the formation (19 specimens!), it also has extensive ontogenetical data, having teeth as a hatchling and juvenile but losing them in subadults and adults in favor of a beak. Some have found their fates in giant, quicksand-filled sauropod footprints, along with other animals, like Guanlong, turtles, neornithischians, tritylodontids (Bienotheroides?), and some crocodyliforms (Nominosuchus?).

Sinraptor dongi: The largest Shishugou predator known from adequate remains, it may have been at the top of the food chain during its time.

'Gongbusaurus' wucaiwanensis: Originally referred to a genus that is now dubious, it is known from a partial dentary, caudal vertebrae, partial forelimb, and a pair of complete hindlimbs. It may be a basal neornithischian.

Sunosuchus junggarensis: Yer local goniopholid. Close to Eutretauranosuchus of the Morrison, it seems to have a pretty unclear stratigraphical position. Although the Pingfengshan locality is said to be from the lower part of the formation in several papers, Brinkman et al. 2013 considers it to be from the upper part, and is followed here.

Mamenchisaurus sinocanandorum: Famed as a very giant beast (even claimed to be the largest dinosaur by Greg Paul), it probably isn't really big as thought to be (it makes up for the neck however), although it certainly is larger than M. youngi.

Guanlong wucaii: With a name meaning, "crowned dragon of five colors", it's quite a cool one. It is known from an old adult specimen and a juvenile, both which succumbed to the quicksand-filled sauropod footprints that claimed many other animals. I wonder if it was an ambusher and a wrestler, because the femur isn't so long compared to the lower leg, and the arms are very robust.

Zuolong salleei: A probable basal tyrannoraptoran, it might've been after faster and lighter prey than Guanlong, with a pretty short femur compared to the lower leg, and more gracile arms. 

Cf. Sinraptor? sp.: The largest predator of this formation is known from a single, ambiguous element: a tooth. The size here is actually at the bare minimum, and might be bigger, depending on the tooth placement.

Cf, Mamenchisaurus or Giant's Tomb mamenchisaurid (SGP 2006/9 + SGP 2006/10 + SPG 2006/11 + SGP 2006/12): The true titan of the Shishugou, it is very large - and relatively old, too. Estimated at roughly 30.8 tonnes, it has thought to reach sexual maturity at the age of 20 and died at the age of 31. Only known from an incomplete humerus, ulna, carpal, and manual ungual, the humerus is estimated to be 1.8 meters in length alone, and combined with the ulna makes up a total length of 2.81 meters. And that doesn't even include the hand! After this invidivudal died, the humerus might've acted as a wall in a river channel, and managed to collect the juvenile mamenchisaurid and SGP 2006/18, along with other elements, mostly from sauropods but some theropods as well, all during a debris flow. This taxon was considered as cf. Mamenchisaurus in a 2013 SVP abstract.

SGP 2006/18: A modest-sized mamenchisaurid, this was among the dinosaurs lodged into the Giant's Tomb mamenchisaurid humerus. It is known from an incomplete cervical that may pertain to the 14th one.

There's also some stuff that I couldn't add into this chart, including a completely articulated(!) lizard found with S. palatodentata. To note is that the proportions of the Nominosuchus may be different than what is shown here, because there are multiple specimens of this species from the formation, yet they have not yet been described. 

All in all, this is a well-researched, yet overlooked formation that has a diverse fauna and flora, and it'd be interesting to see what more research comes up in the following years.


:iconscotthartman: for the following skeletals:
Mamenchisaurus youngi for the M. sinocananodorum, Giant's Tomb mamenchisaurid, and SGP 2006/18.
Sinovenator changii for the troodontid.
Huayangosaurus taibaii for the Jiangjunosaurus.
Goniopholis sp. for Sunosuchus.
Guanlong wucaii silhouette for, well, the Guanlong.

Gregory S. Paul for the following skeletals:
Zhenyuanlong for the dromaeosaurid.
Omeisaurus tianfuensis for the juvenile mamenchisaurid.
Sinraptor dongi

Ville Sinkkonen (Dinomaniac) for the adult Limusaurus skeletal.

Jaime A. Headden (Qilong) for the Hexinlusaurus multidens skeletal, which was the basis for the 'Gongbusaurus' wucaiwanensis.

Pete Buchholz (ornithischophilia) for the Yinlong downsi skeletal, modified to match the tail proportions of IVPP V18685 described in Han et al. 2017. Also served as the base for Hualianceratops.

:iconijreid: for the Zuolong skeletal.

Wang et al. 2016 for the subadult and juvenile Limusaurus skeletals.

Dsungarodon and Klamelia silhouettes are from skeletals of Castorocauda and Gobiconodon respectively in the book In Pursuit of Early Mammals.

The silhouettes of TienshanosaurusNominosuchus, the temnospondyl, Bienotheroides, Yuanotherium, Sichuanchelys, Xinjiangchelys, Annemys, and the Sericipterus are by myself, using the following references:
Tienshanosaurus silhouette is from here.
Nominosuchus silhouette based on a Fruitachampsa skeletal in the book Jurassic West.
Temnospondyl silhouette based off a Siderops skeletal in Warren & Hutchinson 1983, head modified to match Batrachosuchus concordi (Cherinin 1977) and a Gobiops dentary from Shishkin 1991.
Bienotheroides and Yuanotherium silhouettes based on a Kayentatherium skeletal from Sues & Jenkins 2006.
Sichuanchelys silhouette was made using the images from Joyce et al. 2016.
Xinjiangchelys silhouettes were made using images from Brinkman et al. 2013 and Rabi et al. 2013.
Annemys silhouette was made using images from Brinkman et al. 2013 and Rabi et al. 2014.
Sericipterus modified from Mark Witton's skeletal of Rhamphorhynchus from Witton 2015.

The papers mentioned in text are listed below:
Hu et al. 2007, Martin et al. 2010, Pfretzschner et al. 2005, Meng et al. 2015, Peng & Brinkman 1993, Russel & Zhong 1990, Maisch & Matzke 2005, and Han et al. 2011.
If you'd like any papers on the animals shown here, feel free to comment and I'll get it for ya :)

Update: Added some more animals, namely Yuanotherium, Klamelia, Sichuanchelys, Xinjiangchelys, and Annemys. Also reworked some of the silhouettes (eg. Zuolong, Bienotheroides, etc.) so they're not light gray anymore, as well as omitting the juvenile mamenchisaurid due to uncertainty of proportions and possible synonymization with other fellow mamenchisaurids.
Update #2: Fixed the silhouettes for some of the dinosaurs, also rearranged.
Update #3: Downscaled Sinraptor and cf. Sinraptor based on discussions on Discord and a scaling preformed by Franoys.
Update #4: Changed the Tienshanosaurus silhouette with that of my newer schematic.
Update #5: Downscaled the Giant's Tomb mamenchisaurid, after following the in-paper measurements more closely.
yo would you people like downloads for any of my stuff
Green algae
Golden brown algae
Brown algae
Red algae
Club mosses 
Horsetails (Equisetum sylvaticum & E. arvense-like)
Mosquito ferns (Azollopis)
Water spangles (Dorfiella)
Water clovers
Cinnamon ferns (Osmunda)
Curly grass (Anemia mexicana-like form, Microlepiopsis (also Anemia mexicana-like), Schizaea-like, Lygodium-like)
Blechnaceae - Midlandia (Woodwardia-like) and Wessiea (Onoclea-like)
Gleicheniacae (Gleichenia-like?)
Tree ferns (still not completely confirmed)
Bennettitales (Nilsonia-like)
Pines (Picea, Pinus)
Parataxodium (giant redwood basically)
Taxodium wallisii
Athrotaxis-like (only found at one site, so consider with caution)
Ceratophyllum (hornworts)
Haloragacae (Myriophyllum-like)
Witch hazels
Wheel trees (Nordenskiodia-like)
Elms Birches (Alnus-like and Carpinus-like)
Water chestnut (Nymphaeities)
Nyssa (Nyssa and Amersinia-like)
Dove trees (Davidia)
Holly (Ilex-like)
Cashew trees
Toricelliacae (Toricellia-like)
i could add a few things here and there, but i'm like super-tired atm so i'll do it later or something


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