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Welcome .. to the secret valley


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If you would like to join this group please bear in mind that we will be looking for medieval themed deviations only.


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==New folder==
BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS - every submission to this folder MUST contain full source details!

Gallery Folders

The Heat of Battle by Josh-Media
Saighdearan by VonStarck
Man-At-Arms by Josh-Media
Knight set for battle by slavaemris
Tournaments and battles
.:The Knights That Say:. by LSouthern
The French and Bretagne Troops Having Fun by MedievalJunkie
They not lovin... they Hattin by MedievalJunkie
Jeanna la Flammer Attacking the French Camp by MedievalJunkie
Everyday life
Dirleton Castle Interior by Quit007
Medieval Wax Tablet by paul-rosenkavalier
'Medieval' Backgammon Board by paul-rosenkavalier
Medieval Urine Chart by paul-rosenkavalier
weapons and units
Open sallet by Kretualdo
Open sallet by Kretualdo
Gateway to Wales by BricksandStones
Longsword by Kretualdo
Umbrian Landscape by Quit007
Tantallon Castle Gate by Quit007
Basilica In The Morning by Quit007
l'Abbatiale de Payerne dans toute sa Grandeur by LePtitSuisse1912
.:Whoa, There Nelly:. by LSouthern
.:Sweet Merciful God:. by LSouthern
.:King:. by LSouthern
Saltarello by ambosshg
Karima al-Marwaziyya by Eldr-Fire
Medieval halberdier by Kretualdo
Medieval halberdier by Kretualdo
.:Love Potion:. by LSouthern
book illustrations
Rules 11: It is not right... by JD-Kloosterman
Rule 07: A Widowhood of Two Years by JD-Kloosterman
Rule 08: No One Should be Deprived of Love by JD-Kloosterman
Medieval town scene by KristinaGehrmann
art work
Byzantine Coronation by Ediacar
Thorgunna by Eldr-Fire
The Deaconess of Lucca by Eldr-Fire
(Mazowsze) Janusz Nalecz by LePreuxChevalier
The Grand Library
The hot spring episodeThe spa town of Karlovy Vary (in Czech), or Karlsbad (in German), was founded in 1370 by Kaiser Charles IV of the Holy Roman Empire. While many public bathhouses in medieval cities were also brothels and could spread diseases, the mineral waters in hot springs were believed to possess properties that could cure diseases. Often, this was thought to be a divine miracle and hot springs might be dedicated to or associated with a specific saint. Today, in the 16th century, a young prince and his little student have brought a poor ailing widow to the hot springs and are praying for a miracle.“Abun d’bashmayo, nethqadash shmokh, tithe malkothokh, nehwe sebyonokh, aykano d’bashmayo oph bar’o, hablan lahmo d’sunqonan, yowmono washbuqlan hawbayn l’wahtohayn, aykano doph hnan shbaqen l’hayobayn, lo ta’alan nesyuno, elo phasolan men bisho. Metul dilokh hi malkutho, w’haylo, w’teshbuhto, l’olam olmin. Amin.” recited Prince Gabriel aloud.“What are you saying?” asked the widow.“The Lord’s Prayer in Syriac Aramaic, which was the language that Jesus of Nazareth spoke when he walked the Earth.” said Prince Gabriel as he adjusted his plague mask.“What exactly do you keep in that beak of yours, anyways?” asked the widow.“Roses from Turkey, frankincense from Arabia, and sandalwood from India so I will not catch the miasma that might be emanating from you.” explained Prince Gabriel to the widow.“Will I ever get to see your lovely face?” asked the widow.“No!” replied Prince Gabriel angrily.“The man behind the mask is not what you think he is.” added Princess Eleanor as she entered the room adjusting her own plague mask.“You will carry me to the baths, for my strength has left me and I cannot walk or even limp.” said the widow.“Of course I will do that for you.” replied Prince Gabriel graciously.“Are you sure you are strong enough to lift her?” asked Princess Eleanor to Prince Gabriel.“No.” replied Prince Gabriel to Princess Eleanor.“Pl-Please be gentle.” said the widow as Prince Gabriel struggled to lift her from her from the ground where she was lying.“I don’t want to touch you in the wrong place.” said Prince Gabriel.“I wouldn’t have minded that.” said the widow.“Perhaps I may be of assistance, Ihre Königliche Hoheit?” asked a filthy behemoth of a man, one of his hands noticeably missing and having been replaced by a steel gauntlet as a prosthetic.“Götz von Berlichingen, is that you? Didn’t you try to rob us along the road here with your rusty mitten?” asked Prince Gabriel to the strange knight-errant.“I did, but in your merciful benevolence, you pardoned me for my transgression.” said Götz von Berlichingen.“That is because you threatened to strangle me with your Übermensch strength.” said Prince Gabriel.“I saved your life ten years ago during the Bauernkrieg.” argued Götz von Berlichingen.“Indeed you did, but what became of the peasants whose cause you deserted as soon as things became too difficult? Florian Geyer may have wanted me dead, but he was a better knight than you because he stuck with them and fought to the bitter end.” argued Prince Gabriel.“I would be most grateful if that strong young knight would carry me to the baths at the top of the hill.” said the widow.“You should not touch her. She is very sick.” said Prince Gabriel.“Plenty of ladies I held in my arms have made me sick before.” said Götz von Berlichingen.“You are a brave knight.” said Prince Gabriel facetiously as Götz von Berlichingen effortlessly lifted the widow and sprinted uphill.“Th-Thank you.” muttered the widow.“We should go to the baths too, in case we got sick from either of our friends.” suggested Prince Gabriel to Princess Eleanor.“Okay.” replied Princess Eleanor.“Be careful. There may be more people in there like our friend the widow.” whispered Prince Gabriel.“Okay. Do you mean sick people?” asked Princess Eleanor.“I am referring to sickness of the mind, not sickness of the body.” explained Prince Gabriel.Quite some time later, the prince parted ways with his little student and proceeded to remove first his plague mask and his circlet, then his cloak, jerkin, gloves, rapier belt, and boots, and finally his doublet and hose/ tights so that he entered the baths wearing only his shirt/ chemise (which was quickly rendered diaphanous by the water). He felt a strong stinging pain as the hot water made contact with the ghastly cruciform scarring on his chest, but he did not mind because he knew the healing miracle was working. Yet he was surprised to encounter a familiar acquaintance who he knew did not believe in these things in quite the way he did.“Ihre Königliche Hoheit, it is good to see you again.” said Doctor Faust to a shocked and open-mouthed Prince Gabriel.“Herr Doktor, is that you?” asked Prince Gabriel to Doctor Faust.“Do you find it odd that I come here from time to time? These waters are as useful to me as they are to anyone else.” said Doctor Faust.“Too bad your powers are useless in such a holy place.” said Prince Gabriel.“Indeed they are, so if you wish to fight me here and now, we would be evenly matched. However, knowing you, I suspect you are still too cowardly to stand up to me even in these circumstances.” teased Doctor Faust.“Not unless you chose to harm someone else.” said Prince Gabriel.“Only someone else, or could it be you?” asked Doctor Faust as he dunked Prince Gabriel’s head into the scalding hot water and forcibly held him there.Meanwhile, through a hole in a tall wooden fence, the widow giddily observed the situation from her side of the baths.“You are awfully happy, and that makes me happy. Have you been cured of your ailments?” asked Princess Eleanor to the widow.“Yes, of course! I am just… Um… listening to the wood to make sure there are no termites gnawing on it in the inside.” explained the widow.“You don’t need to make excuses for being happy.” said Princess Eleanor.“Someday you will understand why I am happy.” replied the widow.“I always look forward to learning something new every day.” said Princess Eleanor.“Someone help me! I’m drowning!” screamed Prince Gabriel as he was briefly able to lift his head above the water line.“Too much of a good of thing, I see!” chirped Doctor Faust merrily as he shoved Prince Gabriel back underwater.“There is a lot of noise coming from the other side of the fence.” said Princess Eleanor to the widow.“They are obviously just overjoyed by the miraculous healing of their ailments.” replied the widow to Princess Eleanor.“Ouch! How dare you bite me there, you royal angel dog!” screamed Doctor Faust as he lost hold of Prince Gabriel and the waters filled with blood.“I bite wherever it hurts most.” said Prince Gabriel after he had escaped the grasp of his enemy.“Excuse me, which one of you is the author of these almanacs?” asked a stranger interrupting the ongoing confrontation.“I am.” said Doctor Faust.“I admit my translation of the ancient sources was not the best, and I do not think I conveyed their intended meaning very well. My publisher demanded they be finished by a specific date, and I had to work faster and not better. I apologize sincerely.” explained Prince Gabriel.“Which one of you was it really?” asked the stranger.“You plagiarized me!” complained Prince Gabriel to Doctor Faust.“I corrected your amateur-ish translation errors.” insisted Doctor Faust to Prince Gabriel.“I followed all of the advice in your almanac. My crops failed, my ox was struck by lightning, I caught the plague, and I had to limp through the snow and wilderness all of the way here to be healed.” complained the stranger.“Astrology is a very imprecise science and what is written in the stars cannot always be written in any human language.” explained Doctor Faust.“That is the glory of God’s creation. Only God can know everything there is to know.” added Prince Gabriel.“The original scroll began with a divination ritual that summoned ancient gods or spirits of chaos and destruction. You were missing a portion of it.” explained Doctor Faust to Prince Gabriel.“Really? Perhaps it was God’s will that I did not translate the original scroll very well!” said Prince Gabriel.“I want my money back.” demanded the stranger.“Now you know why I robbed you along the way here, Ihre Königliche Hoheit!” yelled Götz von Berlichingen.“Your iron hand is going to rust in the water.” told Doctor Faust to Götz von Berlichingen.“Give him his money back now!” demanded Götz von Berlichingen. As his gauntlet prosthetic glowed red, he immediately proceeded to punch straight through the guts of both Prince Gabriel and Doctor Faust, whose life-threatening wounds were somehow miraculously healed as they both fell into the water.“God is kind and merciful! He has forgiven us!” shouted Prince Gabriel joyously.“Their blood, their bile, and their old intestines are still floating around in the water. Gross!” mumbled the widow out loud to herself as she continued peering through the hole in the fence.“Do you attribute all that is good to God?” asked Doctor Faust to Prince Gabriel.“The healing powers of these hot springs did not come from mankind, and reason alone indicates that all of nature must lead to a Creator.” replied Prince Gabriel.“Both of you are still missing something that is very important to you.” said Götz von Berlichingen, noticing the grisly aftermath of his powerful punch still afloat on the surface of the hot springs.“Mariam.” moaned Prince Gabriel.“Gretchen.” moaned Doctor Faust.“When I lost her, I felt like I lost everything. I never thought I could learn to live again. I still see her in my dreams, and I wait patiently to be with her again in Heaven.” lamented Prince Gabriel.“When I lost her, I knew I could never love again. Alchemy alone could not bring her back. My soul was shattered, so I had no choice but to sell what was left of it for what really matters to me most.” lamented Doctor Faust.“If you could love once, you can learn to love again. I want to be friends again. Herr Doktor, repent your sins, and we can go to church together in Wittenberg again. I remember the day we saw Martin Luther nail his 95 Theses to the doors. It seems like so long ago.” said Prince Gabriel.“It was a different world. We could never go back to those times.” said Doctor Faust.“Will you repent?” asked Prince Gabriel.“No!” shouted Doctor Faust as he dunked Prince Gabriel underwater again.“How disappointing! I thought I was going to get to see them… Um…” mumbled the widow.“You thought you were going to see what?” asked Princess Eleanor.“No, your mentor would never do that. He is a good Christian boy.” said the widow.


Battle of the Nations 11 by KowalskiEmil
Battle by Nivelis
Medieval Knights by Nivelis
Knight owned by Nivelis
Battle of the Nations 2 by KowalskiEmil
Medieval musician band by A1Z2E3R
Medieval gentleman by A1Z2E3R
medieval musician of french bagpipe by A1Z2E3R
Medieval Dungeon of CREST town by A1Z2E3R
Medieval courtyard by Sockrattes
Bruge Canal by Redli0n
Carisbrooke Castle gate by PhilsPictures


Battle of the Nations 11 by KowalskiEmil Battle of the Nations 11 :iconkowalskiemil:KowalskiEmil 38 4 Battle by Nivelis Battle :iconnivelis:Nivelis 33 4 Medieval Knights by Nivelis Medieval Knights :iconnivelis:Nivelis 114 4 Knight owned by Nivelis Knight owned :iconnivelis:Nivelis 111 8 Knights of old by Thegingework Knights of old :iconthegingework:Thegingework 66 9 Medieval War IV by deex-helios Medieval War IV :icondeex-helios:deex-helios 54 2 Medieval War VIII by deex-helios Medieval War VIII :icondeex-helios:deex-helios 162 8 Medieval War XII by deex-helios Medieval War XII :icondeex-helios:deex-helios 57 3 Medieval War XV by deex-helios Medieval War XV :icondeex-helios:deex-helios 29 3 Joms Viking Training by mopasrep Joms Viking Training :iconmopasrep:mopasrep 59 2 smoke by mopasrep smoke :iconmopasrep:mopasrep 22 12 duel 2 by mopasrep duel 2 :iconmopasrep:mopasrep 9 1 Rus viking trader by VendelRus Rus viking trader :iconvendelrus:VendelRus 231 42 One Knight Stand 19 by AilinStock One Knight Stand 19 :iconailinstock:AilinStock 135 15 Medieval Battle by 0Karydwen0 Medieval Battle :icon0karydwen0:0Karydwen0 392 29 Battle of Grandson by wraithdt Battle of Grandson :iconwraithdt:wraithdt 1,609 47

Recent Journal Entries

'More than any other artifact of war, armor dominates visual images of medieval Europe. From the chainmail carefully stitched onto each warrior in the Bayeux Tapestry to the heavy jousting armor worn by knights in films, it fills our mental picture of those times.

Armor changed significantly over the Middle Ages – far more so than weapons. Even within these shifting phases, the armor worn depended on upon the wealth and resources of the wearer. To understand the most common types of armor is to understand a great deal about change and society during that age. (..)'

You can read the full article here:…

'May Day in the Middle Ages

May Day is one of those holidays that seems medieval, even ancient; the customs of flowers and fertility rites definitely feel like they go back a long time (...)

The ancient world:
The Roman festival of Floralia took place for six days beginning the 28th of April, and this seems to be the origin of some of the things we associate with May Day began: wearing bright colours, drinking a lot, and a certain sexual permissiveness are mentioned by Ovid and Juvenal. This celebration was dedicated to Flora, the goddess of flowers, which was an idea that appealed to the Renaissance humanists when trying to recreate some good Classical festivals.

This coincided with the Gaelic festival of Beltaine. The word itself, in Q-Celtic languages, comes from a Proto-Celtic word for ‘bright fire’, which seems to have been the chief attraction. (The Welsh word, meanwhile, is Calen Mai, which comes directly from the Roman calendar and the Latin for the first of May.) It started the night before, as do all ancient Celtic festivals since they figured time in nights rather than days. The ninth-century Irish glossary Sanas Cormaic says the druids made the fires while casting ‘great incantations,’ and that they were supposed to ward off disease; people may also have danced ‘sunwise’ around them. There is, at least, archaeological evidence of large fires at quite a few places in Ireland. It seems cattle would be driven between two fires, which seems fitting for two reasons: that ancient Ireland counted wealth in cattle, and that Beltaine, like Samhain six months before, was a liminal border-day when the fairies, whose world overlaid the mortal one, were even closer then usual.

There seems to have also been an old Germanic festival that also involved bonfires, which was later merged with the feast of the 8th-century German saint Walpurga to become Walpurgisnacht. In the early modern era this was expanded even more as local anxiety over witches turned it into a “witches’ sabbat”, and by now has mostly been replaced by Easter fires.

Basically, early agrarian societies all liked the part of the year when enough plants started to grow that you got new food to eat, and you could let the cattle out of your house and send them off to grazing land.

The middle ages:

Along with the new food to eat and the cattle grazing, a useful thing about spring festivals was that if you were a villager, rather than a noble with a great hall, you couldn’t really have huge communal feasts during the winter. The only building in a village likely to be big enough was the church, and along with being hard to heat, people tended to shy away from using those for secular celebrations. When the weather started turning warmer, they could all meet outside on the village green (...)

By the middle ages, some of what had once been Floralia, Beltaine, and other early-spring festivals had been pulled into the liturgical calendar and applied to the Christian celebration of Whitsun, or Pentecost. This was one of three weeks of holiday for the medieval worker, and was marked by feasting, dancing, and parties. The Welsh tale of Geraint (and various other versions of the same story) opens with a description of Arthur’s Whitsun feasting, and all the churches necessary to fit everyone in the court so they can all hear Mass. It was also one of the three times of the year, along with Christmas and Easter, when vassals were given new clothes (...).

Various churchmen complained about the festivities from 1220 onward, but not-very-mysteriously stopped in the fifteenth century when someone worked out that if the church actually sponsored these things, they could keep an eye on everything and make some money at it. Like the Hocktide kidnapping game, the paris ale used local custom to bring in some money to the local church.

Bringing in the May:
So what exactly did this ‘bringing in the May’ business entail? In most places, people gathered flowers and branches to make garlands or wreaths. Chaucer mentions woodbine and hawthorn in the Knight’s Tale, while sycamore was more common in Cornwall and birch in Wales. The flowers were then awarded as prizes or given as gifts to friends and neighbours. Washing one’s face in the morning May Day dew was supposed to bring youth and radiance to the complexion.

The most enduring image of a May Day celebration is the Maypole, painted and beribboned and standing on the village reen. While the earliest recorded evidence of it is from a Welsh poem by Gryffydd ap Adda ap Dafydd in the mid-fourteenth century describing a maypole in Llanidloes, it seems otherwise to be English, rather than Celtic, in origin and to have migrated to the marches from English settlers. A number of theories exist as to their original significance, some less likely and more outlandish than others, but no definitive explanation has presented itself. From the early 1400s there are records of a number of English villages paying for platforms and ribbons to display and decorate maypoles.

The crowning of a May Queen (or later more commonly a May King), seems to have really taken off in the early modern period, but there is evidence of it earlier. The Bishop of Worcester complained about a May beauty contest that sounds suspiciously like such a ceremony in 1240, and there are other, slightly less disapproving references in manuscripts in 1303 and 1306. After about 1450, summer kings seem to have been more common than summer queens, and there are only a few instances of there being one of each. (...)'

Whit Sunday

'Pentecost (...) took place 7 weeks after Easter to mark the Holy Spirit descending on Jesus’ disciples.  It was also known as Whit Sunday and was important to the liturgical calendar.In the Middle Ages, cathedrals and great churches throughout Western Europe were fitted with a peculiar architectural feature known as a Holy Ghost hole; a small circular opening in the roof that symbolized the entrance of Holy Spirit into the midst of the assembled worshippers. At Pentecost, these Holy Ghost holes would be decorated with flowers, and sometimes a dove figure lowered through into the church while the story of the Pentecost was read. Holy Ghost holes can still be seen today in European churches such as Canterbury Cathedral.

Similarly, a large two dimensional dove figure would be, and in some places still are, cut out of wood, painted and decorated with flowers, to be lowered over the people, particularly during the singing of the sequence hymn, or Veni Creator Spiritus. In other places, particularly Sicily and the Italian peninsula, rose petals were and are thrown from the galleries over the congregation calling to mind the tongues of fire. In modern times, this practice has been revived, and interestingly adapted as well, to include the strewing of origami doves from above, or suspending them – sometimes by the hundreds – from the ceiling.

In some cases, red fans, or red handkerchiefs are distributed to the assembled worshippers to be waved during the procession, etc. Other congregations have incorporated the use of red balloons, signifying the "Church's Birthday" into their festivities. These may be carried by worshippers, used to decorate the sanctuary, or released all at once.'
Officeholders, nominated by the king and directly responsible to the crown, were the forest wardens whose office sign was a hunting horn. They took care of the trespassers at the king s castle and nominated foresters to represent them in different parts of England. The foresters, whose sign of office was a bow, were to patrol a given forest, officiate at the various forest courts and supervise the lawing of dogs.

Another official, who had an axe in his office sign, was the verderer. These were the knights elected to administer an office without any salary. Their task was to officiate at inquests and to supervise the foresters. Those, who actually executed the forest law were the two chief
justices, of the North and South Trent, and the dread justices in eyre (circuit court).

Sheriffs prepared preparatory hearings at the eyre courts and bishops, earls, barons, knights of free tenure and other important personas within the forest region were summoned to attend the hearing. After the hearing and examining of evidence a verdict was passed. If a person failed to appear in the court he had later on no right to defend himself and could only count on the mercy of the monarch. Whereas William I extended more and more the areas of the royal forests, during the reign of Richard I and John disafforestation took place, as both of these kings needed urgently money and opened these territories to the local lords in return for certain payments.

The forest law was again enforced by the Forest Charter imposed by Henry III. It stated that local courts were to meet every six weeks, special forest inquisitions were issued to take care of serious trespasses and that the circuit courts had ultimate jurisdiction. It also stated that royal forest will be gradually disafforestated so that everyone could freely hunt everywhere, however, this promise was fulfilled very reluctantly by the Crown.

In the 13th century, whenever there was a need for the king and barons to reach an agreement, hunting rights were exchanged between the Crown and bishops, earls and nobles. The royal forest were reduced and expensive royal charters were distributed which allowed the holder of the charter to use the forest land as fully as the king had which included the right to hunt for the deer, wild boar and other animals which were previously reserved only for the royal hunting party.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, William was especially interested in hunting laws concerning harts and boars and wanted to protect and preserve these animals from poachers. The Chronicles state that William set aside a vast deer preserve and imposed laws concerning it, so that whoever slew a hart or hind was to be blinded . He forbade hunting for harts and boars and created royal forests and game preserves where only the king or those who had his permission could kill quarry like the wild boar, red deer, roe and fallow deer. This process of naming land as royal forest was known as afforestation whereas the incorporated land did not have to be woodland at all.William realized, that if the number and quality of the game was to be stable he needed to protect not only the animals but also the woodland they were living in. The habitat of the deer needed special protection, especially during the breeding season, so that the new generation could replace those animals which were previously hunted.
By the year 1118, the restrictions concerned not only animals but also matters as cutting wood, harvesting honey or carrying weapons in the forest. According to William Marvin, an Associate Professor of English at Colorado State University, in the 12th century, the forest laws stated that:

( ) It was a trespass to clear land; to cut or burn wood; to hunt or even to carry a bow or spear through the forest; to defy the obligation to assist in the royal deer hunt; to let livestock roam freely through the forest; to build structures; to fail to obey summonses to forest courts; to go with dogs into the forest; to resist the lawing of the dogs; or to take hides or the flesh of beasts of the forest that were found dead.

The forest law, which was outside the common law when it came to the matter of royal forests, subjected the land and those who lived there, under the direct and personal power of the king. In these circumstances, a knight, hunting with his men and greyhounds in a forest could be forced to pay a fine up to 20 pounds just for roaming through the woodland and not killing or wounding a single prey. According to
William s chroniclers, at some point the king increased the penalties and for shooting a deer the trespasser would have both of his hands cut off. Moreover, those who would distribute the deer s meat would be blinded. In the 13th century, poachers killing a roadeer could be punished with a fine of 5 pounds and it was up to the forest officers to capture such trespassers and to execute the forest laws.
Happy New Year everyone! :)  

Some Medieval New Year facts for you from… ;)

'In most of Europe during the Middle Ages, New Year's Day was celebrated on March 25. This date marked both the beginning of spring and the Feast of the Annunciation, a special day dedicated to Mary. Consequently, the holiday in Medieval Europe was a springtime celebration that was a mix of nature-based worship and the celebration of the divine feminine. Although the church officially changed the date of the new year to January 1 in the 16th century, in some places these older traditions are still followed.

Time of Renewal
Many ancient societies, including the Aztecs and the Egyptians, celebrated the new year in the springtime. For agriculturally based societies, spring represented the return of flowering plants and sunshine. It was the time of year to begin sowing the seeds that would be harvested later in the year. Although the Romans actually changed New Year's Day to January 1 in the early empire, most Medieval Europeans had reverted back to the earlier practice of celebrating the with the beginning of Spring.

The Feast of the Annunciation
Commemorating the day when Mary was visited by the angel Gabriel and advised that she would be the Mother of God, the Feast of the Annunciation was not only the most important Christian holiday of the Middle Ages, it was New Year's Day itself. Massive processions filled the streets, and offerings were made to shrines of Mary. These celebrations paid homage to the woman who -- like the earth itself -- received the seed in the springtime that would bear fruit as the birth of Jesus nine months later, at Christmas.

The Feast of Fools
In the later Middle Ages, a very controversial festival was celebrated by many on January 1. The Feast of Fools featured heavy drinking, gambling and even cross dressing. This celebration was also tied to nature-based activities, in this case the winter solstice and the Saturnalia, where leaders were mocked and society turned upside down. During the festival, slaves and servants openly criticized their masters, often dressing up like them in parody. The Feast of Fools disappeared in the 15th century after heavy suppression by the church.

Modern Celebrations
Pope Gregory officially changed New Year's Day back to January 1 in 1582, but that did not mean that everyone in Europe gave up their traditional practices. Many modern European towns and villages still celebrate or have revived Medieval New Year's Day practices. In Florence, Italy, where live concerts and a huge procession to the Basilica of the Annunciation take place on March 25. Locals and tourists alike take part in these springtime festivities, which honor the feminine mother of God who gives birth to divinity year after year, just as nature renews itself and offers up its earthly abundance again and again.'
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HimitsuUK Featured By Owner Apr 8, 2020  Student Photographer
Double rations? Great!
BricksandStones Featured By Owner Mar 14, 2020
Thank you for requests - I am glad this group is active :) All the best!
Merlin222 Featured By Owner Mar 17, 2020  Hobbyist Photographer
I try my best but the world has gone a bit crazy right now ;)

Stay safe :)
Snell35Damzel Featured By Owner Mar 24, 2019
R writers accepted??
Merlin222 Featured By Owner Mar 26, 2019  Hobbyist Photographer
Accepted as group members however we do not have any folders for creative writing. Any historical entries are very welcome. 
Snell35Damzel Featured By Owner Mar 27, 2019
omick Featured By Owner Apr 18, 2017
  :) (Smile)   Thanks for the request
JuanC-MLG Featured By Owner Jan 21, 2017  Professional Photographer
thanks a lot for the request! :D
Merlin222 Featured By Owner Jan 22, 2017  Hobbyist Photographer
no problem :D
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