How did ancient Finnish shamans raise the dead?
1. Entering the graveyard during the night, usually alone.
2. Greeting the dead, the family of Kalma (Corpse, Death).
3. Uttering the raising spell, a plea to rise and stand beside the shaman in ordeals.
4. Taking dirt, dust, fingers or teeth from the grave to carry the force of death with him/her.
5. Making a return gift in the form of gold or silver from a ring or coin.
What kind of dead did the the shamans summon?
There are four types of dead that shamans used to raise.
1. The shaman's own guardian spirit
The shaman's guardian spirit is his/her counterpart in the other world, called haltija (spirit, guardian) or luonto (nature). Every person has their own guardian spirit, but unlike ordinary people, shamans can summon it with a spell:
My Nature I shall try to raise,
I shall summon my genius (haltia):
my Nature, from thy hole arise,