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I was bored on the weekend and found these files saved on a hard drive. The clips in this video all come from a project that I was working on last year. Since I could not find the script I messed around with the clips and through a song onto it. This video is just a mess up of the project Miku Hatsune's Secret. This is from my original video: I was working on the whole script with my 1-year-old laptop died on me. I had to redo the video in the middle of the night the day before it was due. I redid the video on new computer that keep giving me problems. These problems caused be to recreate the video four times in an 8 hour period. I HATE how this video turned out. I am going to make the best video I can once my new computer comes in. I am sorry to the people that helped me make this video. I am sorry Aelita and Elaine that all wonderful clips you helped make were unable to enter the project that was going to be handed in for class. Why do computer's always give me nothing but problems? Is it because the two computers I was using were cheap and most likely cheapy made? In the end, I promise to create the best video I can create with the all the clips were all worked hard to make. Credits: Thank you Aelita and your younger sister Elaine for spending all those hours working in front of the camera. Thanks Dianne for knowledge, good personality and help. Thank you Miss Anderson for all your help and spirit. Thank you Ariel for your beauty and wisdom. Thanks Rachel for your lovely smile. Thanks to all the little people who helped give an hand to this video. Thanks Mr Sanderson for you hard working spirit. Thank you Elizabeth for being the white light when I was in the dark. To Ringo you are a good computer that I'll never forge. Thank you for the 11 years you so far have given me. You maybe to old to edit with new software anymore but you can still help me search the internet. Also, to my laptop even though you failed me at the worst possible time. You did a really good job editing and for the last three months. Then to Demetri without you this video would never have been edited. Demetri you may have given me all kinds of problems during the night but you got the job done. I can't forget Buddy who heavenly blue personality gain me the spirit just to start this project. Thanks for all the prayers Cynthia, Sharron, Sally and Ross. A big thank you to you God. Thanks for your love, kindness and peace God. Thank you to all my friends for I'll never forget any of you. You people are the best. Copyright Disclaimer under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use."

The link to where I got the song from: The song is created by Combo164 Thank you for watching. I hope I did a good job. Thank you Samantha for all your help. Copyright Disclaimer under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use."
Yu-Gi-Oh is created by Kazuki Takahashi. Thank you Kazuki Takahashi for creating Yu-Gi-Oh and the game Duelist's of Roses where this clip came from. Thank you viewers for watching. Thank you Samantha my brand new computer for helping me edit this video clip. I hope to spend many years with you working on editing videos and photographs. Thank you laptop for allowing me to find and download the clip of song for this video. Thank you Ringo my 12 year old computer for being their through all those years I learned how to video edit and Photoshop on my own. This video clips is not my best work. I created this video clip while I was on break from work and college homework. Thank you God for being with me and giving me the drive to keep going. Without you God I may not even be here alive and well. Thank all who read this. Personal thanks to Heather, Rachel, Betty, Joyce, Martha, Dianne and Sharron for your wonderful friendships. God bless all of you my friends. Copyright Disclaimer under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use."
1.) "Rudeness is the weak man's imitation of strength." - Eric Hoffer
2.) "Do what you want to do, not what others want you to do." - Michelle Tullier
3.) "Few people stop to reflect on the radiating waves of change in their lives... The big events-divorce, death, losing a job, and other obviously painful changes-are easy to spot. But others, like marriage, sudden success, and moving to your dream house, are forgotten because they are good events and therefore not supposed to lead to difficulty." - William Bridges, in Transitions (Addison-Wesley, 1980)
4.) "While cameras with lots of features are nice, it is not the camera that creates incredible images-it is what you do with the camera that is important." - Jeff Hutchens, Photographer
5.) "Never make the mistake of thinking that a lens is a mere accessory to the camera-especially in HD imaging. The HD lens has the primary role in shaping the image and giving it critical performance attributes that, in turn, will determine the ultimate digital performance of your camera." - Larry Thorpe, Canon USA
6.) "Shot selection for a videographer is an art." - Nathan White, news videographer
7.) "Every shot conveys something different to the audience." - Nathan White, news videographer
8.) "It is best to learn how to use a camera without using any of the auto settings." - Nathan White, news videographer
9.) "In the hands of even a moderately skilled photographer who knows the capabilities of the camera, even a cell phone can produce reasonable pictures. Unfortunately, owning a camera and knowing which button to push doesn't make you a photographer any more than owning an automobile makes you a Formula One race-car driver." - Andy Ciddor, TV Technology
10.) "When shooting people, the eyes are a favorite focusing point." - Jim Owens
11.) "Focusing is much easier in longer shots and more complicated with close-up shots." - Jim Owens
12.) "It is important that camera operators check out their cameras before the production begins." - Jim Owens
13.) "Teamwork is the essence of good production work." - Jim Owens
14.) "Unless you are willing enough to listen and respect the guidance of others, you probably will not be invited to join a team." - Jon Lord, senior cameraman
15.) "A film is never really good unless the camera is an eye in the head of a poet." - Orson Welles
16.) "Communicating your ideas visually can be challenging." - Jim Owens
17.) "The extreme long shot enables you to establish the location and to create an overall atmospheric impression." - Jim Owens
18.) "Sharply defined detail attracts the eye more readily than defocused areas." - Jim Owens
19.) "When shooting in 3D, everything is multidimensional. That means all the objects seen on the screen are typically in constant focus as they are with human vision. This is one of the reasons a rack focus effect in 3D looks uncomfortable to the eye and should be avoided." - David Kenneth, President, l.E Effects
20.) "There are three main responsibilities for the camera operator. First is the ability to work well with others. Second, you must know your equipment well. Third, the application of the operator's own talents, physical ability, intuition, and patience." - Martin Goldstein, Camera Operator
21.) "Unfortunately, there is no formula for the perfect image." - Jim Owens
22.) "While a picture does not lie, it does not necessarily tell the truth." - Former U.S. President Richard Nixon
23.) "People's eyes are always drawn to the brightest area of the image." - Jim Owens
24.) "The eye is attracted to a variety of patterns." - Jim Owens
25.) "Make peace with the fact that you cannot completely control how a web page will look on every conceivable device and browser." - Elizabeth Eisner Reding
26.) "The producer has the final word on all matters-but don't tell that to the talent; most think they do." - Joseph Maar, Director
27.) "A good crew will is far more important than the latest equipment." - Jim Owens
28.) "A great crew can make a boring event exciting." - Jim Owens
29.) "There is a place for all levels of expertise in the wide spectrum of television production." - Jim Owens
30.) "Knowledge of visual storytelling is essential." - Jim Owens
31.) "Today you don't need to spend millions of dollars on equipment to produce high-value broadcasts." - Mark Scarpa, Producer and Director, The X Factor Digital
32.) "Today, someone with a handheld camcorder a very modest computer can produce results that not so long ago would have required the combined services of a large production team and a great deal of equipment." - Jim Owens
33.) "Words can express an idea, but the appearance of the type is what drives the point home." - Elizabeth Eisner Reding
34.) "Your computer has many fonts installed on it, but no matter how many fonts you have, you can probably use more." - Elizabeth Eisner Reding
35.) "Competition for readers on the visual landscape is fierce." - Elizabeth Eisner Reding
36.) "Life is an adventure. Even during the tough moments, try to smile or laugh." - Tom Keely
37.) "Narcissist’s get bored of people easily, once that person has no use to the narcissist they move on to the next person." - Bek Slater
38.) "I ain't never heard of no sickness that makes you kill little girls just because you don't want them in your school." - Christopher Paul Curtis
39.) "The three great editing tools are context, contrast, and rhythm." - Jay Ankeney, Editor
40.) "Overuse of special effects is the sign of an amateur production." - Jim Owens
41.) "My best advice is to go with your gut." - Scott Powell, editor
42.) "If something has gone wrong, a director who panics and shouts merely spreads the panic to all those on the intercom and will create an air of uncertainty. Speaking with a calm voice, even if you are inwardly in turmoil, will help to solve the problems quickly and efficiently." - Simon Staffurth, Director, Britain's Got Talent
43.) "Single-camera shooting is the traditional method of filmmaking." - Jim Owens
44.) "My ambition was to be one of the people who made a difference in this world. My hope is to leave the world a little better for having been there." - Jim Henson, Director, Sesame Street
45.) "Cutting has sometimes become too frenetic. It is important to let the action in the frame tell the story instead of fast cutting." - John Nienaber, Producer
46.) "Eyes are always drawn to the sharpest parts of the image." - Jim Owens
47.) "Because television is run on a vary specific time schedule, the clock is an important piece of production equipment." - Jim Owens
48.) "People empathize with what they see on the screen, and we have the power to change hearts and minds." - David Nixon, producer/director DNP Studios
49.) "Don't ever compromise, especially when the technology or the situation becomes difficult." - David Nixon producer/director DNP Studios
50.) "Never give up; never accept mediocrity!" - David Nixon producer/director DNP Studios
51.) "Leave your ego at the door." - David Nixon producer/director DNP Studios
52.) "The sum of the parts is greater than the whole!" - David Nixon producer/director DNP Studios
53.) "Photoshop is rich with tools and techniques for creating and enhancing images." - Elizabeth Eisner Reding
54.) "The wily god of love was fair enough to protect the girl whom he forced to be his unwilling, perhaps unconscious, ally." - Beverly Calhoun
55.) "Women as lovely as they have no reason to be jealous. It is only the woman who does not feel secure of her personal charms that cultivates envy." - Beverly Calhoun
56.) "Believe you can and you're halfway there." - Theodore Roosevelt
57.) "While you work to meet the challenge of climate change, I beg you, don't forget nature." - E.O. Wilson
58.) "We believe in the Lord, even though we cannot see Him." - Barbour Publishing
59.) "Even better blessings are in store for those who believe without seeing." - JOHN 20:29 MSG
60.) "We live by what we believe, not by what we can see." - 2 CORINTHIANS 5:7 NCV
61.) "I know I shall cry all summer." - George Barr McCutcheon
62.) "He was born to annoy people, just like the evil prince in the fairy tales." - George Barr McCutcheon
63.) "We don't let small troubles worry us very long, you know." - George Barr McCutcheon
64.) "He must be a very disagreeable person." - George Barr McCutcheon
65.) "Don't you know, dear, that there is never a fight until both sides have talked themselves out of breath?" - George Barr McCutcheon
66.) "Oh, you Americans have such a comfortable way of looking at things..." - George Barr McCutcheon
67.) "My dear, the American always lets the other fellow see the serious side of life." - George Barr McCutcheon
68.) "Her bed was not a bed; it was torture." - George Barr McCutcheon
69.) "Fatigue was her only friend in that miserable hole." - George Barr McCutcheon
70.) "Eating good food helps us stay healthy. The same is true for our spiritual health. When you regularly feed your soul the best food available- God's Word-you become a stronger, healthier Christian." - Barbour Publishing
71.) "Most people don't start out liking vegetables even though they are valuable and healthy foods." - Barbour Publishing
72.) "Then Jesus said, "I am the bread that gives life. Whoever comes to me will never be hungry, and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty." - JOHN 6:35 NCV
73.) "Always get more sleep than your actors." - Orson Welles, Director
74.) "There is a sense of exhilaration that I feel every time I step into a TV studio that has not lessened over the years. For me, the studio is like my very own giant sandbox, where I can build castles and get dirt under my fingernails." - Doug Smart, Director
75.) "Lastly, love what you do; the minute you stop loving it, stop doing it." - Lauren Claus, director
76.) "Many directors expect actors to be like Apple computers: plug-and-play, performing perfectly right out of the box. Writers work months on a script; directors take weeks to create their vision. Actors are often cast only a few days before the shoot and have little-if any-time to prepare. Actors need time to catch up to everyone else on the crew. They are not machines; they are fallible humans desperate to do their best. Actors must feel safe and supported on their creative journey." - John Badham, Director
77.) "The best advice I've received about directing came from a veteran motion picture cameraman who had successfully switched to feature film directing in mid-career. The advice was this: no matter which medium, video, film, theater, etc., and no matter what kind of production-sales training tapes to news segments to documentaries to feature films-as long as people are involved, a good director must have a knowledge of the craft of acting.
    A knowledge of the actor's craft will fundamentally change your approach to directing any kind of program in which people appear on camera. I took his advice and can now declare: he was right!" - Frank Beacham, Director
78.) "A jolt of panic rises in even the most experienced actor when he starts to perform in front of other people, even if it is just rehearsal. He is putting all his talent and self-image on the line and is probably terrified that his audience may not buy into what he is doing. What if the crew hates it? It would be a personal rejection of the actor. The more he uses his own psyche to build the character, the more vulnerable he becomes. There is one key principle about working with actors: actors must feel they are in a place where they are totally safe." - John Badham, Director
79.) "If you want to be a reporter or in the news industry in any way, you better be tough, have a thick skin or be willing to develop one, be willing to work long hours for barely any money, and face constant criticism from people outside the industry and inside it." - Morgan Schutters, reporter
80.) "You can't let anything get you down." - Morgan Schutters, reporter
81.) "You have to keep your chin up, and if you don't love it, don't do it." - Morgan Schutters, reporter
82.) "Only you have the power to change self-limiting behaviors. And you are powerful enough to overcome any of these obstacles." - Jennifer Adams
83.) "Our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory." - 2 CORINTHIANS 4:17 KJV
84.) "For we are not fighting against flesh-and-blood enemies, but against evil rulers and authorities of the unseen world, against mighty powers in this dark world, and against evil spirits in the heavenly places." - Ephesians 6:12
85.) "The devil is a liar." - Major Frank Duracher
86.) "Americans love happy endings because of a cultural optimism about the freedom to pursue happiness." - Commissioner Debi Bell
87.) "Our spiritual health is at risk when we carry burdens that are too heavy to shoulder." - David E. Winters, M.D.
88.) "Saying no to trouble isn't popular, but that response makes a big hit with God." - Barbour Publishing
89.) "My child, if sinners entice you, turn your back on them!" - PROVERBS 1:10 NLT
90.) "An encouraging word makes the other person feel good. And it'll make you feel good, too." - Barbour Publishing
91.) "Destruction seems to be an instinct for humans." - Barbour Publishing
92.) "Encourage each other and build each other up, just as you are already doing." - I THESSALONIANS 5:11 NLT
93.) "Doing good doesn't always pay off in this world. Thankfully, it is a heavenly reward that we seek." - Barbour Publishing
94.) "The kindness and goodness of a follower of Christ are like salt in a wound to an unbeliever." - Barbour Publishing
95.) "Try to live with such confidence that it just doesn't matter what other people say; it only matters what Jesus says." - Barbour Publishing
96.) "Always let others see you behaving properly, even though they may still accuse you of doing wrong. Then on the day of judgment, they will honor God by telling the good things they saw you do." - I PETER 2:12 CEV
97.) "Even the hills have eyes and ears." - George Barr McCutcheon
98.) "Yet princesses can no more be choosers than beggars when the fare's in one pot." - George Barr McCutcheon
99.) "It's dimensions are as wide as the world itself." - George Barr McCutcheon
100.) "I live in a castle of air." - George Barr McCutcheon

How Aspartame Affects the Brain:

                                                                 Aspartame’s Direct and Indirect

                                                                    Cellular Effects on the Brain.

Maggie Bomber

Unknown College

Brief Contents

    First page: Abstract

    Third page: How Aspartame Affects the Brain

    Sixth page: Method

    Seventh page: Materials

    Seventh page: Procedure

    Ninth page: Results

    Thirteen page: Discussion

    Seventeenth page:  References


    This study examined the effects of aspartame on neurotransmitter regulation, dopamine and serotonin production, electrophysiological responses, and effects on mitochondrial DNA and nucleic DNA.  The evaluation on wistar albino rats electrophysiological responses after 90 days of aspartame treatment. They predicted that aspartame treatment would significantly impair learning, memory and electrophysiological responses in the rats. Aspartame treatment had altered sympathovagal activity along with impairment of memory and learning. An alteration of EEG waves in both the fronto-parietal and occipital regions, which affect learning and memory in rats. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al 2015) However, rats metabolize aspartame faster than humans dose comparisons between rats and humans a normally corrected by a factor of 5. Therefore, suggesting that scientific tests on rats may not show the same exact aspects of effects on cognition and electrophysiological responses.  (Mejia, Vences, et al. 2006)

    Keywords: electrophysiological, sympathovagal activity


                                                    How Aspartame Affects the Brain

    Sweeteners are ingredients in numerous foods such as gum, ice cream, cookies, cakes, medicine and soft drinks just to name a few. Sweeteners like aspartame are of primary importance for nutritional guidance for people with diabetes a disease with growing numbers in developed nations. To some extent, people can control the amount of aspartame that they consume on a daily basis. However, the internal factors of consuming aspartame on a daily basis has on the brain. Can the brain be affected from consuming aspartame on daily basis? Does consuming aspartame lower the ability to remember things and cognitive function.? Can people increase their ability to remember and have a healthier brain by consuming less aspartame?

    One theory that prompted research on how aspartame affects the brain is the conspiracy theory. Two researchers who were against aspartame being passed in 1981 who were Dr. John Olney and James Turner. These two people were the people who began the conspiracy theory that aspartame was dangerous to people’s health. The idea was that aspartame which is hydrolyzed in the intestine to form aspartate (40%), phenylalanine (50%) and methanol (10%). (Mejia, Vences, et al. 2006) Which are then absorbed into the circulation and passed through the blood brain barrier. Methanol breaks down into formaldehyde, which is very cytotoxic and can cause blindness. (Humphries , P, et al. 451) The investigation of the general effects from aspartame’s metabolic components is headaches, seizures, insomnia, compromised learning, memory loss, and blurry vision.  (Humphries , P, et al. 451) During development of a fetus an investigation found maternal aspartame consumption, could lead to damage or impairment of the foetal nervous system, contributing to cerebral palsy and all-encompassing developmental disorders. (Humphries , P, et al. 458) Another study found that consumption of 9% aspartame in the diet for 13 weeks affected learning behavior in rats. (Mejia, Vences, et al. 453) While aspartame exposure of guinea pigs to 500 mg/kg during gestation disrupted odour-associative learning in pups. (Mejia, Vences, et al. 453) Since that time, research has focused basically on cognitive effects of aspartame and direct cellular effects on the brain. However, as Dr. John Olney, psychiatrist, neuropathologist and professor at Washington University in St. Louis (1978) point out, the effects of aspartame on rats showed a high rate of brain tumors which is not normal.  While P. Humphries states through studies on humans, rats, rabbits, mice and various species that excessive aspartame ingestion might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain mental disorders. ( Humphries , P, et al. 451)

    The relatively numerous research done on cellular effects of aspartame on the brain has left room for more possible further research. First, much of the research has been done on rats that are given certain levels of aspartame daily in either food or drink. While not enough research was done on humans who consume random amounts of aspartame at any given time. Second, some of the findings have been found to be contradictory. One study found that consuming aspartame may play a role in implicating in the pathogenesis of  developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder. (Humphries , P 2006) However, research has found that aspartame consumption and memory loss have been conducted on humans and rodents and no relationship was found. (Mejia, Vences, et al. 2006) Third, not all groups of people and animal studies have been sufficiently studied. The effects of aspartame on a rat is different from a human. Experimental studies on humans psychological, cognitive and electrophysiological responses to aspartame is limited for numerous safety reasons. Studies have been down on consumption during early brain development. In the study was found that prenatal consumption of aspartame might result in mental retardation, impaired vision, birth defects, and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006)  Fourth, not all electrophysiological responses have been studied in complete detail. A study on rats consuming aspartame had a an index of overall HRV, was reduced. HRV is an independent indicator of adverse prognosis in cardiac disorder. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) Another study focused on aspartame found that temperature of aspartame exceeds 86 degrees its methanol converted into formaldehyde and then formic acid, which then causes metabolic acidosis. The average human body is 98 to 97 degrees warm enough to convert methanol into formaldehyde and then into formic acid. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006)

    According to some researchers, most of the results indicate that aspartame causes neurological disturbances in sensitive individuals. Phenylalanine an metabolic component in aspartame can follow only two pathways. A part is converted into tyrosine in the liver. (Caballero and Wurtman 1988) The rest of phenylalanine that’s not converted will bind to a large neutral amino acid transporter and be carried over the blood-brain barrier. ( Humphries , P, et al. 2006) These neurotoxic agents might cross the blood-brain barrier and deteriorate the neurons of the brain. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006) To date, aspartame and its metabolic components numerous research studies show that cellular damage may occur. Although, with over 20 years of people consuming aspartame further studies need to be created to find the exact risks that aspartame has to the human health. In fact, cross-sectional research on groups of people consuming aspartame and what effects that has throughout life compared to other groups of people their age at the time. Longitudinal research on people consuming aspartame their whole lives compared to people who never consume aspartame can reveal the effects throughout life. Another study finds that aspartame mixed with other artificial ingredients changes the variability that aspartame alone is cause for neurological disturbances. Testing through electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging give detail imaging aspartame related damages. Measuring mental activity of a person after taking aspartame can help give an image to parts of the brain affected by aspartame. If aspartame damages neurons, dendrites, and axons then a detailed image with magnetic resonance imaging will give researchers a view. Aspartame metabolites also showed impairment of learning and memory by alteration of EEG waves in both the fronto-parietal and occipital regions, which may affect learning and memory in rats. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) Therefore, the study help us understand that aspartame effects fronto-parietal and occipital regions of a rat brain. That numerous studies on humans and animals result in aspartame metabolites might be causative factors in neurological changes and compromised learning. Specifically, the study on methanol and how it turns into formaldehyde and how it causes blindness, dizziness, headaches, tinnitus, vertigo, cramps, numbness in the legs, shooting pains, anxiety, slurred speech, memory loss, and spasms. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006) This predicts that large  amounts of aspartame metabolite methanol may can cause problems. Although, more research has to be done since methanol is only 10% of aspartame metabolites.


    Participants were experimental animals that were maintained under standard laboratory conditions that were allowed food and water ad libitum. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al 2015) These animals were kept in standard laboratory conditions with controlled temperature of 26 celsius. They were also kept in a controlled light exposure of 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness. The experimental animals were healthy, inbred adult male Wistar albino rats. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al 2015) The rats weighted around 200-220 g. The rats were divided into fours groups at random and each group contained six rats.


    The HRV monitoring by using the radio-telemetric system was used to evaluate the cardiac rhythm regulatory response to aspartame. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al.  2015) Then the time intervals were obtained with Dataquest A.R.T analysis software (version 2.20; Data Sciences International, USA). (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al.  2015) After the 90 day experiment the electroencephalogram measurement was used to record brain waves and to eliminate variation due to circadian rhythms. All of the data was analyzed by using the SPSS with is for Windows statistical package (version 20.0, SPSS Institute Inc,. Cary North Carolina.) ( Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) All data was summarized in a table after all tests were completed.  The information for the experiment was summarized and shared with other sciences at Tabiah University for Science.


    The first group was the controlled rats that were administered a normal saline by a gavage needle. Then group two was consisted of animals feed a folate deficient. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al 2015) Group three was consisted of control animals that were given aspartame orally for 90 days. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al 2015) The rats in group three were given 40mg of aspartame everyday. Then group four was feed folate-deficient diet and treated with aspartame everyday for 90 days by a gavage needle. In the study the rats that were fed a folate deficient diet were used to mimic the human methanol metabolism. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) Since humans beings do have a very low hepatic folate content. Due to the fact that methanol metabolism, which converts in formaldehyde needs a high folate content formaldehyde into carbon dioxide. To simulate this process the rats in groups 2 and 4 were fed a special dietary regime for the first 37 days, and then given methotrexate in a sterile saline for other day for the next two weeks. The folate deficiency was confirmed by estimating the urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al.2015) The folate deficient rats showed an increase in FIGLU excretion compared to the control rats in groups 1 and 3.

    Measurements of heart rate variabilities were taken based on spectral and time domain analysis were used to analyze to cardiac rhythm regulatory reaction to aspartame. In the time domain analysis, the intervals between normal N-N waves are measured over the period of recording. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) While the NN intervals are used to establish the SD in the NN intervals and the root mean square of sequential differences to NN intervals. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) All measurements were obtained by the electrocardiography channel (RR) and analysed beat-to-beat basis with the use of Dataquest A.R.T analysis software. All of the errors that resulted from the R-wave detector were removed by using the criteria to secure normal-to-normal (NN) intervals. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) The frequency domain methods are expressed in a form of spectral density function. This spectral density function will depicts spectral power as a function of frequency.  (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) While the higher frequency is solely mediated by changing levels of vagal activity whereas low frequency is mediated by both sympathetic and vagal activity. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015)

    On the last session of the treatment the rats were implanted with electrodes. The rats operations was performed to ethical guidelines by administration of saline, antibiotics to prevent sepsis and to prevent any fluid loss during surgery. The electrode was placed on the scalp and glued with dental acrylic resin, and the incision was closed and sutured, exposing the electrode. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) After the rats recovered the electrode was connected to electroencephalography (EEG) using the model RMS EEG-24 brain new plus: RMS- Recorder and Medicare systems. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) The electroencephalography was recorded on the rats for about ten minutes. All the signals were filtered between 1 to 70 Hz. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) Then the recordings were analyzed by the RMS EEG-24 Super sec version 1.1 and then expressed in terms of amplitude and frequency. All of the recordings were recorded as statistical analysis. The whole experiment was performed at the exact time of day for 10-12 am. Therefore, to eliminate all variations due to the circadian rhythms.  


        All of the results were summarized in a table one. In both the group three and four (folate-deficient rats) that were treated with aspartame for the whole 90 days. Those two groups of rats showed a significant increase in their RR interval compared to the rat groups not treated with aspartame. The control and folate-deficient rats also showed significant decreases in the total spectral power and higher frequency and significant increases in lower frequency compared to groups of rats not treated with aspartame. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) Although, the folate-deficient rats were similar to the control rats in the total numbers of NN intervals (PNN50). (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) However, in both the control and folate-deficient rats that were treated with aspartame for 90 days did significant decreases. These decreases were in the SDNN, RMSSD, and the PNN50 compared to the rats in the control and folate-deficient rats not treated with aspartame. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) Then in both the control and folate-deficient rats treated with aspartame for those 90s day had significant decreases in frequency and increase in amplitude. Which is compared to the control and folate-deficient animals not treated with aspartame. The rats treated with aspartame in the control and folate-deficient groups has a significant differences compared to the groups not treated with aspartame.

    The prediction was the rats in control and folate-deficient groups treated with aspartame would be similar to the groups not treated with aspartame. That aspartame would have little to no effect on heart rate variability and parameters that reflect learning and memory in the fronto-temporal occipital lobes. However, after the 90 days of treatment the findings proven the prediction wrong that aspartame has little to no effect on the heart rate and the parameters that reflect learning and memory as stated above. After the experiment was completed all were euthanized. The rats after euthanasia they were sent to another laboratory for further analysis. Their liver, heart and brain were removed for a biopsy to further examine the effects of aspartame at the cellular level.


    (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015)

        Laboratory animals such as Wistar albino rats have been used on an ongoing basis for experiments to study the effects of aspartame on heart rate, fronto-temporal and occipital lobes and the liver. Although, experimental studies on aspartame’s effects to human’s heart rate, occipital and frontal-temporal lobes and liver is limited do to safety reasons. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) The folate-deficient model was designed to mimic the human methanol metabolism in the Wistar albino rats. While the time interval between heartbeats is not very constant. Due to the fact, that variability occurs due to a variety of physiological process that affect the heart rate at different frequencies. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) The measurements of the tachogram of the HRV is basically a reflection of all the different interacting phenomena. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) When the PSA of the HRV divides the overall variability into a separate frequency. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) Which then enables the identification of the activity of the various affecting components. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) Basically, this is a noninvasive technique that gives a detailed information for physiological process of the cardiac and neurogenic effects of aspartame.


    (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015)


        The purpose of this study was to test how aspartame affects the cardiac system, the neurological system, and electrophysiological responses. In the aspartame treated rats clearly shows that the cardiac parasympathetic modulation is reduced in these animals. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015) Previously, in past experiments it was reported that aspartame could cause disturbances in the medulla. The medulla controls the involuntary life sustaining function such as breathing, heart rate and swallowing. The changes in the heart rate could be caused by aspartic acid and phenylalanine crossing the blood-brain barrier and deteriorating neurons of the brain. (Humphries , P, et al 2006) Although, no tests states about changes in abilities to breath or swallow which are controlled by the medulla. The rats could have changes in cardiac function caused by different effects other that aspartame. The animals that were treated with aspartame had an index of HRV reduced overall. An reduced HRV is an independent indicator of adverse prognosis in a cardiac disorder. (Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. 2015)

    The findings of this study a consist with the study created by University City of Mexico and the Biomedical Research Institute. In their study they used twenty-four male Wistar rats in three groups. Two groups were give aspartame treatment by a gavage needle. Group one was give 75 mg/kg of aspartame daily. The second group was given 125 mg/kg of aspartame everyday.  While the third group was given no aspartame treatment whatsoever. After 30 days of treatment the rats were euthanized and had their cerebrum, cerebellum and liver removed and examined. (Mejia, Vences, et al. 2006) A finding in this study found that aspartame metabolites: aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol are not CYP-inducing agents in the liver. (Mejia, Vences, et al. 2006) They were able to find that aspartame consumption leads to an increment in the concentration and activity of CYP2B1/2, CY2E1 and CYP3A2 in rat cerebral and cerebellar microsomes. (Mejia, Vences, et al. 2006) Then the highest increment in a CYP-associated activity that was induced by aspartame in a rat brain was that of 4-NPH corresponding to CYP2E1. (Mejia, Vences, et al. 2006) The CYP2E1 activity was up to 25-fold over controls over the rats not treated with aspartame. The CYP2E1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 that is involved with metabolism of xenobiotics in the rat body. CYP2E1 is a variable among the different parts of the rat brain. Therefore, in this respect the enzyme systems used for metabolism and detoxification of foreign compounds ae of special interest as the changes in their function could lead to changes in the susceptibility of an organ to the harmful effects of the increasing variety of contaminants found in the environment and in food products.  (Mejia, Vences, et al. 2006)

    Research on the effects of aspartame by the Department of Anatomy and the University of Limpopo of South Africa did their own investigation. They did various studies of aspartame on humans, rabbits, mice, rats few other various species. They found no adverse effects that are visible after a single large dose of aspartame. Although, further studies revealed the effects of aspartame vary from no effects observed to severe adverse effects. A study was directed and found indirect cellular effects of excessive aspartame ingestion might be involved in the pathogenesis of of certain mental disorders and compromised learning. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006) Aspartame metabolic component phenylalanine was found in different studies to interfere with brain development and fatty acid metabolism. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006) One study by Mehl-Madrona in 2005 found that phenylalanine and aspartic acid might cross the blood-brain barrier and deteriorate the neurons of the brain causing memory loss. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006) The findings is that aspartame breaks down in 50% phenylalanine which about half turns into tyrosine in the liver. While the rest of phenylalanine passes through the blood-brain barrier and targeting neurons in the brain. Tyrosine can also pass through the blood-brain barrier be converted into dihydroxyphenylalanine by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Also oxygen, tetrahydrobiopterin and iron help break down tyrosine. In high concentrations of  tyrosine hydroxylase is very necessary to prevent a large amount of dopamine being produced. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006) However, if phenylalanine, competes with tyrosine for NAAT, then a compromised dopamine production with result. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006) Due to the fact, that phenylalanine will bind more freely and frequently with than tyrosine do to its higher concentration. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006) Therefore, their will be lower levels of dopamine concentration in the brain. Dopamine is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter. Thus, it could potentially disrupt a wide range of processes in the brain, including neuronal function, protein structure, nucleic acid integrity and endocrine balances. (Humphries , P, et al. 2006)

    In conclusion, aspartame has been found to affect numerous parts of the brain cellular structure.  Since aspartame breaks down into three metabolic components phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%).  (Humphries , P, et al. 2006) Aspartame’s metabolic components have been able to show differential effects in studies of animals and humans alike. Which the examinations that aspartame ingestion might be involved with damage to neurons and changes in neurotransmitter concentrations. That rats in studies were found to have changes in CYPs levels in their cerebral and cerebellar microsomes after aspartame treatment for 90 days. In another study heart rate variability was markedly decreased in aspartame treated rats for 90 days. These studies point to the fact the more research and experiments need to be done on a animals and humans to give a detail record on effects of aspartame to the brain and body. With aspartame on the market for over 20 years and people unsuspectingly consuming it more studies need to be done. For any risks to the public health need to found and reported to tech people that adverse effect may be caused by aspartame. With the knowledge we know today can be built upon with further research so we can find if aspartame really has any adverse effects to even an sensitive individual . The mixed results of this study do suggest that we still have a lot to learn about aspartame and its effects to brain and body of the people who are consuming it.


    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar, et al. “Effects of Aspartame on the Evaluation of Electrophysiological Responses in Wistar Albino Rats.” Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics, Elsevier, 6 Nov. 2015,

    Humphries , P, et al. “Direct and Indirect Cellular Effects of Aspartame on the Brain.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition , Nature Publishing Group , 25 Oct. 2006,

    Mejia, Vences, et al. “The Effect of Aspartame on Rat Brain Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 2006,

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Maggie Bomber
Artist | Student | Photography
United States
Hi my names Maggie Bomber! I am a photography and video editor student that's in rolled in a local college. Since I am in classes for the spring, fall and summer which means I am not online that much. Lastly, I am very busy working and trying to find my way in this life. Although, I will try to update my page with new photographs or links to my newest videos on YouTube.

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DeerCrowShadow Featured By Owner 1 day ago  Hobbyist General Artist
Fav2 by DeerCrowShadow  
cricketumpire Featured By Owner 2 days ago  Hobbyist Photographer
Shakespeare identified the futility of 'painting the lily' as it's perfect anyway   :iconpinklilyplz: 

         The artist or photographer can only to preserve that ephemeral perfection

Thanks for thinking my submission captured some of the the beauty of that lily
 Lily - Bullet [Left] - F2U!Happy Bouncing Lily...and thanks for the fave. Have a good week Maggie...
Spiritofdarkness Featured By Owner 2 days ago
I am here  thank you very much for the +fav   :splee:
Hungaryanmiku-chan Featured By Owner 2 days ago
Thank you for the lama :3
WolfArtistic Featured By Owner 6 days ago  Hobbyist Photographer
Thank you!
Lark-Catalpa-Royal8 Featured By Owner 3 days ago  Student Photographer
Whai hai thar :hai: Your welcome. Have a wonderful day. Whatever you do remember to stay awesome. Awesome 
cricketumpire Featured By Owner Oct 31, 2018  Hobbyist Photographer
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle said "Where there is no imagination there is no horror"   Chica's Pumpkin - SPEEDPAINT - FNAF 4 - Icon GIF  
I hope my hornet submission didn't give you nightmares let's celebrate He just wanted to party!   

Thanks for befriending it Maggie     My B on a string    ...and the shark and llama faves as well   

                      Have a great Halloween my friend...    Pumpkin Bow 
Lark-Catalpa-Royal8 Featured By Owner Nov 4, 2018  Student Photographer
DANCING PUMKIN HEAD IS BACK FOR CHRISTMAS! Your welcome. I hope you did have a happy Halloween. My Halloween was alright I guess. I hope your ready for the winter holidays. Santa Pumpkie 
cricketumpire Featured By Owner Nov 5, 2018  Hobbyist Photographer
Perhaps we don't get as excited about Halloween in the UK as one seems to in the States. Our nod towards the event this year was watching a rerun of the 1978 version of "Halloween" on TV    stab 
Lark-Catalpa-Royal8 Featured By Owner 3 days ago  Student Photographer
My Grandmother who was born and raised in the UK says they did even celebrate Halloween back then. Halloween can be very crazy in the USA.
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