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Alternate Cold War 1960 - Cold War in Europe by Kuusinen Alternate Cold War 1960 - Cold War in Europe by Kuusinen

This is part of the same alternative historical timeline as this one: Alternative Cold War: Soviet Empire 1960. See also: 
Alternate Cold War 1960 - Europe Political
Soviet Finland and the USSR in Northern Europe

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The map depicts the division of Europe into the communist and non-communist camps; east and west. Following is a short description of the main regions:

 

Scandinavia: The Soviet Union defeated Finland in the Winter War in 1940 and established a puppet government in the country. Later in the war, Soviet troops crossed the borders into Norway and liberated Northern Norway from the German occupying forces. When the Germans surrendered in late 1945 and the US-backed Norwegian government-in-exile returned, some Soviet troops had reached as far south as Trondheim. The Red Army liberated Denmark in the autumn of 1945. Post-war negotiations between the US and the USSR lead to an agreement in 1945, in which the US and Norway agreed to the Soviet annexation of Finnmark and Troms regions of Northern Norway, in addition to the town of Narvik , as well as sovereignty over Svalbard. In return, Stalin agreed to withdraw all troops from Denmark and the remaining Norwegian territories leave them to join NATO. The Norwegian population of the annexed territories were deported southwards, and the area was repopulated by Russians over the course of the next decade. According to the agreement, the Americans agreed to look the other way when the Finnish Democratic Republic was fused with the Karelian SSR in 1949, in other words, as Finland was annexed by the Soviet Union. In response to all this, Sweden found herself forced to join NATO in 1950 out of fear of Soviet aggression.

Western Europe: The nations of Western Europe were liberated mostly by American troops during 1945. After the war, they bound together and formed NATO in 1949 along with the United States and Canada, as a response to the perceived threat of the Soviet Union.

Germany: As Nazi-Germany crumbled, the Americans and the Soviets agreed to that Germany would be carved up into four states, each occupied by either power: West Germany and South Germany (USA), East Germany (USSR) and Austria, which was occupied by both at the end of the war. Negotiations on a final settlement regarding Germany and Austria dragged on in the post-war year due to mutual mistrust. In 1950, as the Cold war had settled in, the Americans went on an released a relatively independent German state in the Western and Southern zones. Stalin reacted not only by establishing an East German state, but by claiming the right to control Austria by releasing an Austrian communist state in the Soviet occupation zone of Austria. Until a settlement will be reached on the Austrian matter, the US-occupied western Austria remains integral with West Germany.

Central-Eastern Europe: Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary and Romania were gradually pupetized by the Soviet Union after liberation from Nazi-Germany. Along with East Germany and Austria, these states make up the Warsaw Pact states in Europe. Stalin initially wanted to annex Poland, but his hand was forced by the Americans and British during post-war negotiations. An officially independent Poland was the least the Western Powers could ask for, since the war had after all begun over the issue of Polish independence.

The Balkans: Yugoslavia was the only country in Europe to be almost completely liberated by partisans in the war. In the post-war years, talks between communist Yugoslavia, Albania and Bulgaria about the establishment of a Balkan Federation were supported and fuelled by Moscow until the Stalin-Tito Splilt in 1949. By that time however, it was too late for Stalin to veto the formation of the federation which was established in 1951.

Communists came to power in Greece through direct and indirect support from Yugoslavia. Greece is undoubtedly closely aligned with Yugoslavia and was projected to join the Balkan Federation. However, the Soviets enjoy enough influence in Athens to effectively halt Greece’s accession. Greece gained territories from Turkey in Thrace after the war, and Greek communists work closely with the Turkish communists and Soviet authorities in the administration of the Straits Zone, where many Greeks are living.

Turkey: Turkey entered the Axis and the invasion of the Soviet Union out of fear of Soviet expansionism in the Middle East and in order to regain its former pre-WWI standing in the region. For a number of reasons, mostly geopolitical and strategic but also based on old Russian-Turkish animosities, Stalin was especially demanding when it came to punishing Turkey after the war. Large territories were annexed into Kurdistan, parts of Turkish Thrace was annexed to Greece and some areas were annexed by the Armenian SSR. The Straits Zone remains under Soviet military administration and is still formally considered an occupation zone, but it has a joint Turkish and Greek civil administration. The remaining Turkish territories are controlled by a communist puppet government in Ankara.

The Middle East: Back in the era of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, when the Soviets were effectively in a state of war with Britain, Stalin directed his attention to Central Asia and the Near East. With British influence in the region declining or gone, he managed to establish pro-Soviet regimes in Afghanistan and Iran, as well as the creation of a free Kurdistan in 1940-41. A treaty with Iran saw to it that Azeri- and Turkmen-populated areas of Iran were transferred over to the Soviet Union. Kurdistan was formed from Iranian and Iraqi territories in following Soviet-orchestrated uprisings in Iraq during the war in 1940-41, and became the bastion of Soviet influence in the Middle East.

Being the regional power in the Middle East with its solid puppet allies in Turkey, Iran and Kurdistan, the Soviet Union could affect the post-war developments in the former mandates of Syria, Palestine, Jordan and Iraq, where Soviet-supported Arab Socialist parties came to power in opposition to the former European imperialist powers. Moscow gained the Arab Socialists’ friendship more through support than threats and violence, which otherwise was often Soviet communists’ way of doing business. For example did the USSR support Syrian acquisition of Lebanon in the immediate aftermath WWII; the Soviets reconciled with Iraqi leaders in the 1950s by orchestrating the return of Mosul and Kirkuk from Kurdistan to Iraq and supported Iraqi annexation of Kuwait formerly under British influence. Furthermore, Soviet leaders gained the support of Palestinian Arab Socialists when, in 1949 they vetoed the establishment of Israel as proposed by the Western Powers.

Naturally, some government circles in other communist states, most notably in Central-Eastern Europe, would prefer that kind of relationship vis-á-vis the Soviet Union. But currently, the Red Army has the Warsaw Pact states firmly kept in rigid Sovietism behind the barbed wire of the Iron Curtain.


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EDIT 16.04.2017: Fixed "Lybia"- "Libya"; edited paper layer and revised margins.

Add a Comment:
 
:iconnichodo:
nichodo Featured By Owner Jul 25, 2018  Hobbyist Artist
The Alternate Historian on youtube did a video about this map :D www.youtube.com/watch?v=dg_5gy…
Reply
:iconmralpal95:
MrAlpal95 Featured By Owner Nov 9, 2017
This is really good 
Reply
:icontard15:
tard15 Featured By Owner Apr 21, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
seems a bit odd that there isn't a "West Austria" in there, but that is still one great map! :)
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2017  Hobbyist Digital Artist
West Austria was incorporated into the Allied Occupation Zone, and thus is part of West Germany. The official policy for is though that Austria will be reunited at some point. However if and when that will happen is not easy to tell. 
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:icontard15:
tard15 Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2017  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
nice thinking :)
Reply
:iconshionsstlc1989:
So a historian mistakenly thought this map was a real historical map and placed in a textbook? I do not know if I find this funny or just down right sad?
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Apr 22, 2017  Hobbyist Digital Artist
A bit of both, I would suggest
Reply
:iconsamthemapper:
Samthemapper Featured By Owner Edited Mar 18, 2017
Are ther any other border differences? I want to make a larger map which stretches to Pakistan and Guinea.
Reply
:icon19111995:
19111995 Featured By Owner Edited Oct 10, 2016
I faved this a long time ago, but I finally heard today that this was used in a Danish textbook. That is actually completely retarded. Unfortunately, many maps in many history textbooks worldwide have the same issue. I had a history textbook where Moscow was placed about 100 km away from St. Petersburg, Romania was labeled Poland, and many other issues.
Reply
:iconraptor-177:
Raptor-177 Featured By Owner Sep 30, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
So, did you get any watchers from this thing? XD
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Oct 1, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Well, I constantly get watchers and I really dont keep record of it. But there was clearly an increased number of pageviews during the media exposure.
Reply
:iconraptor-177:
Raptor-177 Featured By Owner Oct 1, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
HAHA! How were you, did you laugh your ass off or something when that happened? Felt honored in a bizarre way? Reminds me of that time someone put video footage of ARMA II on the news
Reply
:iconsamthemapper:
Samthemapper Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2016
Can I make a blank of this?
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Sure
Reply
:iconbluepurplebadger:
BluePurpleBadger Featured By Owner Sep 14, 2016  Hobbyist Artist
Imagine if that Danish book got into the hands of students.
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Yes its good that they spotted the error before it was distributed widely. 
Reply
:iconrobulousmaps:
robulousmaps Featured By Owner Edited Sep 6, 2016
Fascinating (as well as funny that it was published in a textbook). I'm assuming something happened to Britain and the British Empire to make it weak before WW2. Possibly Chamberlain refused to resign after Germany's invasion of Poland, sticking to the Munich peace agreement, meaning Britain didn't initially go to war, and the appeasement side won the political argument at home. Britain would've been dragged into the war later, after Germany had already become too powerful, so needed help from the US.
Reply
:icontitanica:
Titanica Featured By Owner Sep 6, 2016  Hobbyist Photographer
I just have to ask you - did they contact you or ask you before stealing(?) your map? :D
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 9, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
They did not contact me at all, as they did not know that I had made the map but thought it was real
Reply
:icontitanica:
Titanica Featured By Owner Sep 14, 2016  Hobbyist Photographer
That's weird! Because they had to visit your page to find it, I guess. And even if they found it on Google they didn't have permission to print it without checking out the copyright. What a bummer for them :)
Reply
:icontim811:
Tim811 Featured By Owner Sep 6, 2016
Really well done map. Looks very professional and has an interesting background to go with it.

It got published by mistake in a Danish history textbook. You should sue for royalties.

politiken.dk/kultur/ECE3363541…
Reply
:iconwhitecoffee007:
WhiteCoffee007 Featured By Owner Sep 5, 2016
I found your map on the Sputnik News.

sputniknews.com/art_living/201…

P.S. Nice map you have done.
Reply
:iconnickbana:
NickBana Featured By Owner Sep 5, 2016
AlternateHistory.com?
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 9, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Yes?
Reply
:iconrodrev:
rodrev Featured By Owner Sep 5, 2016  Hobbyist Artist
Du vet du har klart å lage et autentisk kart når du klarer å havne i læreboka ;) 

Himmel og hav! Uansett, flott alternativt kart :)
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 9, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Ja som sagt, det ser ihvertfall overbevisende nok ut til at de trodde Friedlander & Johnson var ekte :)
Reply
:iconrodrev:
rodrev Featured By Owner Sep 12, 2016  Hobbyist Artist
Hehe, ja. Godt det ble oppdaget før masse unge trodde dette var historie. Men vi hadde for lite "What if..." historie på skolen ;)
Reply
:iconlektortoerrdal:
lektorToerrdal Featured By Owner Sep 4, 2016
Gratulerer med fantastisk PR for ditt prosjekt! Jeg har tidligere jobbet som lærer i blant annet historie, og som lærer må jeg si at både kartet og forklaringene som du har skrevet, er en gavepakke! Hvis man bruker kun kartet, separat, kan det brukes til å lære noe om kildekritikk. Og med kommentarene og forklaringene, kan det brukes nå man lærer om andre verdenskrig og den kalde krigen. Hvordan kunne det ha endt, hvis...? En flott tankeøvelse for både elever og lærere. Lykke til videre med dine prosjekter! Dette er spennende! 
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 9, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Takk skal du ha! Så bra at du syns historien om det kartet og hvordan det havnet i en skolebok kan brukes i undervisning om kildekritikk :)
Reply
:icontitanica:
Titanica Featured By Owner Sep 6, 2016  Hobbyist Photographer
I don't know if the artist understands Norwegian. He's from Iceland. :D  English seems to be understandable.
Otherwise, I totally agree with you!
Reply
:iconhonuhawaii:
honuhawaii Featured By Owner Sep 4, 2016
Congrats on being published! =) I hope you're able to get a copy of the textbook from the publisher for posterity's sake!
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 9, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thank you, and I did receive the book, along with a little handwritten note from the publisher :)
Reply
:iconkingoflavender:
KingOfLavender Featured By Owner Sep 1, 2016
Here's one alternative map that, in contrast with the usual, has a few but realistic differences with the real. A really different alternative project!
As with Greece in which i am from, the history is that communists had liberated a part of mountain country from the nazis and at the time of liberation were the strongest military power, with relatively big acceptance from people. The way that they lost their power and battled in the civil war from a weak side is one of the most obscured parts of Greek history. Soviets did not help them and there is a possibility they even "helped them to lose".
Reply
:icondaneofscandinavy:
DaneOfScandinavy Featured By Owner Sep 1, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I can't believe this map ended up in a Danish textbook. That must feel so weird!
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 1, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Wierd yes, but also silly :)
Reply
:iconquyxz:
Quyxz Featured By Owner Sep 1, 2016
Congratulations on the publication of your work! That's such a great accomplishment, despite of it being uncredited. :P
Reply
:icondonaldist:
donaldist Featured By Owner Aug 31, 2016
Nice work, and a very strange story as to hoe this map made it into a danish text book for students. Some editors have quite red ears at the moment. I hope you'll receive your copy of th book soon - that's an example of how you should maybe not do in the publishing industry... :-)
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 2, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
That is a strange story indeed. But the folks at the Danish publisher reacted swiftly to my suggestion and mailed me the book immediately. And I received the book today so I got it right here, and the map is there :)
Reply
:iconap246:
AP246 Featured By Owner Edited Aug 31, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
You seem to have hinted at the fact that Britain played less of a role in the latter part of the war, and that the US fought almost on its own on the western front. What has changed, apart from in the middle-east? Was the UK more weakened by the war, and could play less of a part?
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Sep 2, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Well, its been a long time since I made these maps, and to be quite frank, the backstory was always kind of sketchy from the beginning. I have been more in favor recently of leaving the backstory a bit open for discussion rather than being the sole author of it. However, as you see here and in the other maps of that timeline, I have conjured some guideline of a backstory. In the description to the other map it is stated: 

"Summer 1940: Faced with humiliating and demoralizing defeats, Churchill was forced to resign as prime minister of Britain. A new pacifist government agreed to pull Britain out of the war on the conditions that German hegemony in Europe and Soviet hegemony in Central Asia was accepted."

and

"1945: The Americans managed to open Britain up for military access in order to stage an invasion of France in early 1945. The British fully re-entered the war when a furious Hitler declared war on them for their deal-breaking. Britain played a minor role in the American-lead opening of a second front in France and the liberation of France, which took place from the summer of 1945 on."

But like I said, its open for discussion.
Reply
:iconhayaba1:
Hayaba1 Featured By Owner Aug 30, 2016
Is the UAE basically a "Greater Saudi Arabia"? And maybe you should do a map of the Cold War in Asia as well?
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Aug 30, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Yes, and yes. 
Reply
:iconchmoensted:
chmoensted Featured By Owner Aug 25, 2016
This map made in to a Danish teaching book for upper secondary education:
twitter.com/chmoensted/status/768818133012480002

Caption translate to "Europe's division during the Cold War", and the credit is Wikimedia.

And you can buy the book here:
www.lru.dk/butik?c=Item&category=5972&item=33735
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Aug 25, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Whaat? This must be a joke? :D
Reply
:iconchmoensted:
chmoensted Featured By Owner Aug 25, 2016
Nop... 😞

My colleague got a review copy of the book. And could not get the map to fit, so I asked twitter for help. 😃

But your work is very nice.

A friend of mine figured that it was inspired by the
Churchill/Stalin division of Europa in 1943/44. And (after we fount this page) noted that your name is inspired by Otto Kuusinen, leader of the short lived
Finnish Democratic Republic.
Reply
:iconkuusinen:
Kuusinen Featured By Owner Aug 27, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Wow, its so strange. I can't imagine someone could have made a mistake like that, its seems too deliberate to be a coincidence. The map is obviously not on Wikimedia and not in public domain - it has my name on it, which is cropped out of the image in the book, and then of course, the content of the map itself is obviously purest fiction. Man, that's so messed up I don't even what to say!
Reply
:iconynot1989:
YNot1989 Featured By Owner Aug 31, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
How about "Pay me my money you Damned Danes!"
Reply
:iconchmoensted:
chmoensted Featured By Owner Aug 31, 2016
and now it has hit the news:

pol.dk/3363541
Reply
:iconchmoensted:
chmoensted Featured By Owner Aug 29, 2016
If you read danish, it just got even more strange:

www.facebook.com/lindhardtogri…

:)
Reply
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