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Wild Trees IV - Baltic Sea I by Fladrif Wild Trees IV - Baltic Sea I :iconfladrif:Fladrif 11 0 Morning Break, Venasque, France by FredaSurgenor Morning Break, Venasque, France :iconfredasurgenor:FredaSurgenor 186 71 Whimsical house (2) by AdrStefanska Whimsical house (2) :iconadrstefanska:AdrStefanska 293 34 Bolverk Camp ver2 by haryarti Bolverk Camp ver2 :iconharyarti:haryarti 910 15 Viking Village by Nele-Diel Viking Village :iconnele-diel:Nele-Diel 917 43 Iron Orc by baklaher Iron Orc :iconbaklaher:baklaher 319 14 Beg for rain by TimMcJimFromPL Beg for rain :icontimmcjimfrompl:TimMcJimFromPL 17 6 WoA - Magnificent fantasy town of Dwyrgai by alexine-pankhurst WoA - Magnificent fantasy town of Dwyrgai :iconalexine-pankhurst:alexine-pankhurst 31 17 -Lonesome Socrates- by RiEile -Lonesome Socrates- :iconrieile:RiEile 114 24 Medieval Marketplace by svenart Medieval Marketplace :iconsvenart:svenart 120 12 Cover illustration for Khanty Fairytales by Nikkolainen Cover illustration for Khanty Fairytales :iconnikkolainen:Nikkolainen 15 6 Life at the border fort by PenUser Life at the border fort :iconpenuser:PenUser 236 24 Chapter 3, Panel 101 by daniellieske Chapter 3, Panel 101 :icondaniellieske:daniellieske 715 24 Back Stair Street by SirInkman Back Stair Street :iconsirinkman:SirInkman 775 104 Three moods by AncientKing Three moods :iconancientking:AncientKing 262 9 1125 by LeValeur 1125 :iconlevaleur:LeValeur 351 7

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Vastseliina piiskopilinnus (ver 0.75)
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Pealkiri: Vastseliina piiskopilinnus
Title: Vastseliina bishop's castle
=============================================

A hypothetical reconstruction of the medieval Vastseliina Castle.

Vastseliina (also known as: Novum castrum, Neuhausen ['the new castle']) castle was a border castle at the place where trade and war roads connecting Tartu and Pskov (and later: Riga and Pskov) were crossing the Piusa river (see the map for details).
It was the easternmost castle of the Bishopric of Dorpat, and, perhaps, a crown jewel among the castles of the Bishopric, standing out as a heavy stronghold, and a renowned site of pilgrimage [1].

According to written sources, construction of the Vastseliina castle begun at year 1342.
Though the castle was built on the lands of the Bishopric of Dorpat, the initiator of the construction was actually the Livonian Order [1].
The first "castle" was likely a tower house that consisted of a cellar, a chapel, and one or more upper floors for armoury and defence.
In 1379, the tower house was extended to a camp castle ("Lagerkastell").
15th-16th C, the castle gained round cannon towers and the outer walls, and works on improving the fortifications continued until the Livonian war [1].

During the coming centuries of conflict, the castle changed owners several times.
In the Livonian war (1558–1583), it was conquered and held by Russians, up until the very end of the war.
Then, it served the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth / Rzeczpospolita until 1625, when it was conquered by Swedes.
The castle was heavily damaged in the Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658), and finally ruined at the beginning of the Great Northern War (1700–1721) [1].

There are several legends surrounding the castle.
It was believed that a miracle took place in the chapel of the castle: people saw a white cross floating in the air.
Therefore, following the Pope's orders, Vastseliina was declared a sacred place, where pilgrims could get their sins forgiven [1],
[2].
Another legend tells about a miraculous bow or a crossbow that was used for breaking a Russian siege.
According to the legend, the castle suffered an exhausting siege by (Muscovite) Russians in 1381.
When the strength of the defenders begun to melt down, the commander of the castle turned to a long prayer, and afterwards made a miraculous arrow shot that killed the commander of the siege (who was, according to the legend, the grand duke of Moscow himself).
So, enemies of the castle had to end the siege, and return their dead master's body to homeland.
While the legend is likely made up (in 1381, borders of the Moscovia were rather far from the Old Livonia, and Muscovites were busy enough with their close neighbours), it was believed that the "miraculous" crossbow was hanging over the altar of the chapel ever since, and it was reportedly seen by Philipp Olmen, a concionator / stipendarius of Dorpat in 1551-1558 [3].
In this picture, I also used the crossbow (miraculous or not) as the symbol of the castle.

Now, about the reconstruction of the castle.
Compared to other castles of the Bishopric, the Vastseliina Castle has been a popular subject for reconstructions.
A notable reconstruction drawing has been made by Reinhold Guleke in the end of 19th C (a glimpse of the drawing can be seen here: [4]).
There is also a model of the castle at the Vastseliina Castle Museum (a glimpse of it: [5]).
My reconstruction is based on a ground plan by Kaur Alttoa.
To an extent, I followed the example of previous reconstructions, however, here and there you can also spot some differences.
Most notable difference is in reconstructing the central part of the castle: the tower house / the chapel.
According to a Polish revision from 16th C, the tower house had 6 floors: a cellar, a chapel, and an armoury, and 3 defensive floors above them [6].
However, both Guleke's drawing and the model leave an impression that the chapel floor is the uppermost one, and defensive floors (which should have loopholes in different directions) are simply not present.
In my drawing, I also tried to bring out the upper defensive floors.

A loose end.
I have read from several sources about a borough nearby the castle, but none of them specify the exact location of the borough.
In this drawing, a part of the borough can be seen at south of the castle, around the location of nowadays Piiri tavern.
Not sure that it is historically accurate, though.

A technical note.
While most of my previous reconstructions were made entirely in GIMP, in this work, I tried out a combination of GIMP and Krita.
I used GIMP for the initial drawing: for doing the ground layout and the height guidelines, both of which required an amount of measuring.
And I used Krita for final drawing and coloring, due to its more diverse set of brushes and painting functionalities.

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Vastseliina piiskopilinnuse oletuslik rekonstruktsioon.

Vastseliina (ladina: Novum castrum, saksa: Neuhausen) oli Tartu piiskopkonna piirilinnus, mis paiknes kohas, kus Tartu-Pihkva (hilisem Riia-Pihkva) kauba- ja sõjatee ületas Piusa jõe (vt ka kaardilt).
See oli piiskopkonna idapoolseim kants ning võimalik, et tähelepanuväärseim piiskopkonna linnuste seas, olles nii võimas kindlus kui ka tuntud palverännakute sihtkoht [1].

Kirjalike allikate järgi alustati Vastseliina linnuse ehitamist aastal 1342.
Kuigi linnus rajati Tartu piiskopkonna maadele, oli linnuse rajamise algatajaks hoopis Liivi ordu [1].
Esimene "linnus" oli tõenäoliselt tornlinnus, mis koosnes keldrist, kabelist, relvaruumist ning ühest või rohkemast kaitsekorrusest.
Aastal 1379 laiendati tornlinnus ristkülikukujuliseks nn laagerkastelliks.
15.-16. saj sai linnus ümarad/poolümarad kahuritornid ja välismüüri (zwingeri) ning tööd linnuse kindlustamisel jätkusid kuni Liivi sõja alguseni [1].

Järgneval suurte sõdade perioodil vahetas linnus mitmeid kordi omanikke.
Liivi sõja ajal (1558–1583), langes see venelaste kätte ning oli nende käes kuni sõja lõpuni.
Seejärel läks linnus poolakate (täpsemalt: Rzeczpospolita) kätte ning oli nende käes kuni 1625ni, mil see vallutati rootslaste poolt.
Linnus sai rängalt kannatada Vene-Rootsi sõjas (1656–1658) ning viimaks muutus varemeteks Põhjasõja (1700–1721) alguses [1].

Linnust ümbritsevad mitmed legendid.
Keskajal usuti, et linnusekabelis leidis aset ime (nähti õhus hõljuvat valget risti), ning paavsti määrusega lubati patukustutust neile, kes võtsid ette palverännaku linnusesse [1],
[2].
Teise legendi järgi paiknes linnusekabelis vibu või vibupüss, mille abil olevat murtud venelaste piiramine.
Legend räägib sedasi. Aastal 1381 kannatas linnus moskoviitide piiramise all.
Kui linnusekaitsjate jõud hakkasid raugema, pidas linnuse komtuur pika palve ja selle tulemusena õnnestus tal sooritada imetabane täppislask, mis tappis hoobilt vaenuväe pealiku (kes olevat legendi järgi olnud ei keegi muu kui Moskva suurvürst ise).
Seega ei jäänud piirajatel muud üle, kui piiramine lõpetada, et oma isanda surnukeha koju viia.
Kuigi see legend on tõenäoliselt väljamõeldis (kuna 1381 a ei puutunud Moskoovia piirid Vana Liivimaad ning moskoviitidel oli piisavalt tegemist oma naabritega, selmet teha sõjaretki liivimaalaste vastu), olevat imetabase lasu teinud vibu(püss) veel Liivi sõja eelõhtul rippunud Vastseliina linnusekabelis, altari kohal, kus seda olevat silmanud Philipp Olmen, kes oli Tartu toomhärra aastail 1551-1558 [3].
Mõneti legendist inspireerituna kasutasin ka sellel joonisel vibupüssi linnuse sümbolina.

Linnuse rekonstrueerimise kohta.
Erinevalt teistest Tartu piiskopkonna linnustest on Vastseliina linnus pälvinud üksjagu palju rekonstrueerijate tähelepanu.
Tähelepanuväärne on Reinhold Guleke rekonstruktsioonijoonis 19. saj lõpust (vt [4]).
Ning linnuse muuseumis/külastuskeskuses olev linnuse makett (vt [5]).
Minu rekonstruktsioon põhineb Kaur Alttoa koostatud põhiplaanil.
Teatud ulatuses olen jälginud eelmiste rekonstruktsioonide eeskuju, samas on siin-seal ka erinevusi.
Kõige olulisem erinevus on vast linnuse keskse osa -- tornilinnuse -- kujutamises.
Nimelt, Poola 16. saj revisjonide järgi oli tornlinnusel 6 korrust: kelder, kabel, relvaruum ning nende peal 3 kaitsekorrust [6].
Samas, nii Guleke jooniselt kui ka maketilt jääb mulje, et kõige kõrgemal korrusel paikneb kabel, ning kaitsekorruseid (millest annaksid märku laskeavad erinevatel külgedel) seal märgata ei ole.
Siin joonisel olen ka kaitsekorrused välja toonud.

Lahtine ots.
Olen lugenud mitmest allikast Vastseliina linnuse juures asunud (käsitööliste / kaupmeeste?) alevikust, aga pole seni kusagilt leidnud selle aleviku asukoha täpset määratlust.
Siin joonisel paistab aleviku ots lõunast, tänapäevase Piiri kõrtsi / külastuskeskuse ümbrusest.
Paraku pole selge, kas alevik ka tegelikult seal kandis paiknes.

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Related:
*) Otepää bishop's castle:  fav.me/d9fubf0
*) Bishop's castle of Tartu:  fav.me/d7s799f
*) Kärkna Abbey:  fav.me/d85nsse
*) Vana-Kastre bishop's castle:  fav.me/d8c9u8j
*) Uue-Kastre bishop's castle:  fav.me/d8ryty3
*) Kirumpää bishop's castle:  fav.me/davh8uf
*) Map of the prince-bishopric of Tartu:  fav.me/dbauswd
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Happy holidays to everyone!

As my premium membership is ending soon, it's time to wrap it up and make one last art feature. This feature does not have very specific focus, rather it contains works from different subcategories that I have been interested in.

:icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider2:
Fantasy / Characters


   sword of power by studiotou Troll fight by tmza I See You by aonodori

   gothic for a day by GoblinHood Townsfolk conceptart by Polymental69



:icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider2:
Fantasy / Landscapes and scenery


    :thumb205475773: The Sacred Tree - Speedpaint by zilekondic

    A Messenger by mreach   Hexentreffen by amiroteia Profcat virgin tower by CeyhunSen

    Green Stream by Howi3



:icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider2:
Fantasy / Dark scenery


   Blowing the Horn 2 by callmevargo Haunted sawmill by Zoriy Journey to Tuonela III by tuomaskoivurinne :thumb273656379:



:icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider2:
Figures and Pin-ups
  

  

Mature Content

Girl sitted on her knees by arteactive
:thumb53581679: Take a look by SabrinaDeets

Mature Content

Earth 5 by zombat
Squibbit's Pirate Girl by StMan



:icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider1::icondivider2:
Conceptual
  

   great migration by Rats-in-the-van

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kalaadrius
Siim Orasmaa
Artist
Estonia
Current Residence: Tartu, Estonia
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:iconbricksandstones:
BricksandStones Featured By Owner Mar 9, 2019
Thank you for the comment - it is always a pleasure to hear from you :) All the best!
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:iconkalaadrius:
kalaadrius Featured By Owner Mar 10, 2019
You're very welcome! :)
Keep up the great work on introducing unique medieval buildings!
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:iconfredasurgenor:
FredaSurgenor Featured By Owner Feb 17, 2019  Professional
Thanks for the :+fav: on Morning Break, Venasque, France, very much appreciated.
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:iconkalaadrius:
kalaadrius Featured By Owner Feb 17, 2019
You're very welcome!
Keep up the wonderful work! :)
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:icontimmcjimfrompl:
TimMcJimFromPL Featured By Owner Aug 21, 2018
Thanks for a fav. :-)
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:iconkalaadrius:
kalaadrius Featured By Owner Aug 21, 2018
You're welcome :)
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:iconfrancescabaerald:
FrancescaBaerald Featured By Owner Jun 19, 2017  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you very much for the Watch :+devwatch: !
:highfive:
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:iconarminius1871:
Arminius1871 Featured By Owner May 29, 2017
Great to see an artist from Estonia here :)
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:iconvarzival:
Varzival Featured By Owner Jul 7, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Merci pour le fav encore une fois!!
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:iconagartaa:
agartaa Featured By Owner Dec 8, 2012
thank you for the fav :)
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:iconkalaadrius:
kalaadrius Featured By Owner Dec 8, 2012
You're welcome :) It's wonderful work and "Ronia the Robber's Daughter" is a great topic - I wish there could be more works on it.
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:iconthedarkenedbride:
TheDarkenedBride Featured By Owner Dec 1, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
:iconcuteheartz: thank you very much for your support :tighthug:
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:iconthedarkenedbride:
TheDarkenedBride Featured By Owner Sep 7, 2012  Hobbyist General Artist
Hello :wave:
:iconrainbowsqueeplz: I'm getting together the next issue of my „friends features“, if you'd like to take part in it feel free to note me with 3 thumbcodes of your works, then pick a friend of yours and send me 3 of their works too :handshake: the feature will be released in the upcoming weeks, I'll note you with the link when it's done :salute:
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:iconelindielforeststar:
ElindielForestStar Featured By Owner Jun 16, 2012  Hobbyist Photographer
Extremely beautiful gallery!
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:iconblackmoonrose13:
Blackmoonrose13 Featured By Owner Feb 28, 2012  Professional Digital Artist
I colored a line art of yours I would love an opinion [link]
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:icondiamonx:
Diamonx Featured By Owner Sep 13, 2011
Sorry for bothering,
I want to buy art from others, but sadly I can't buy points cuz nobody lets me open my bank account. >.<
So, just asking, maybe you have some extra points to share..
Please don't be mad for asking. :(
Thank you.
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:iconkalaadrius:
kalaadrius Featured By Owner Sep 13, 2011
I ain't mad, just suprised. I can give you, but only few.
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