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I may have a mild to giant obsession with Native Mongolian cultures. Years ago, it started with my fascination for wolves which eventually led me to the country of wolf totems. Then there was of course Chinggis Khan to read about while I was at it. The analphabet who took over Asia after reuniting Mongolian tribes. How the heck is that not interesting enough to research more.

In school they just teach you there was this guy who took over this and that, during this year and that year, with an army of so and so many men. Exam, grades, goobye, next topic. They don't tell you the juicy stuff unless you go out and read the right books yourself. I'm here to break that spell of school programming.

I learned that Chinggis Khan (real name "Temujin", Chinggis Khan is more like a title) copied some of strategies and survival skills from wolves actually, as did most of Mongolians to survive in their harsh environment. There were laws about respecting each other and being a good host. And death penalties for things like running away from a fight, betraying your Khan, leaving a wounded soldier on the field, or stealing from your own people unless you paid them back nine-fold. And you weren't allowed to eat something in someone's presence without offering to share your food with them first.

HOW COOL ARE THESE GUYS.

There's a lot more to know but I'll just share the 15 Military Tactics of Chinggis Khan for now.
From the book "CHINGGIS KHAN - The golden History of Mongols" translated by Urgune Onon, revised by Sue Bradbury:

The 15 Military Tactics of Chinggis Khan

1. Crow Soldiers and Scattered Stars Tactics (also known as Ocean Waves Tactics)

When they faced the enemy, the army would split into small groups consisting of three to five soldiers to avoid being surrounded. Chinggis ordered that when the enemy scattered the Mongols should also scatter, and when the enemy regrouped they should also regroup. They were to appear suddenly, like something dropping from the sky, and disappear like lightning. The attack would be signalled by a shout or the crack of a whip. One hundred cavalrymen could surround a thousand enemy soldiers and a thousand cavalrymen could control a front thirdy-three miles long in order to attack the enemy at the right place and the right moment.

2. The Cavalrymen Charge Tactics (also known as Chisel Attack Tactics)

A group of cavalrymen would make a direct charge into the enemy line; if the first charge failed, a second and even a third group were to attack. No matter how great the opposition, even if they numbered a hundred thousand, they could not withstand the charges. Finally, in response to a signal, the Mongol cavalrymen would charge from all directions into the enemy lines in order to destroy their formation.

3. Archers' Tactics

The archers, armed with shields, dismounted from their geldings, and shot at the enemy, sometimes using the geldings as ramparts behind which to shelter. Other archers shot from horseback, the horses being trained to stop dead in mid-gallop to allow the archer to take aim. Once the enemy came under fire, their lines would be broken and they would scatter in disorder. At that point the cavalrymen would attack the enemy lines.

4. Throw-Into-Disorder Tactics

If the enemy was strong in the battlefield or was sheltering in a fort, so that there was no way to win, the Mongols would herd oxen and wild horses into the enemy lines to cause confusion. These stampede tactics always worked.

5. Wearing-Down Tactics

When the enemy stood in a defensive position with spears planted in rows, thus preventing a cavalry charge into the line, the Mongols would withdraw their main forces, leaving only a few small detachments to harass the enemy by shooting arrows into the spear-held line. Due to lack of food, water and rest, the enemy would eventually have to move. Once the weary forces were on the march, the Mongol army would launch a surprise attack.

6. Confuse And Intimidate Tactics

In 1204, Chinggis Khan ordered his soldiers to set up camp, spreading out over the Sa'ari steppe (in western Mongolia). Every able-bodied man lit five fires some distance apart, which scared the Naiman people and enabled Chinggis Khan to defeat them.
When the Mongols encountered numerically superior forces, they often sent troops to stir up dust behind their own lines by means of branches tied to the tails of their horses. On seeing this, the enemy sometimes believed that larged reinforcements were at hand and fled.
The Mongols also placed stuffed dummies, small Mongol children and females, on the spare horses to suggest that the army was much bigger than it was. This trick was used by the Mongol general Shigi-qutuqu in 1221 when he engaged Jaladin at Biruan between Kabul and Ghazna.

7. Lure-Into-An-Ambush Tactics

As soon as battle started, the Mongol soldiers would make a feigned retreat. They deliberately threw away gold and silver and other impedimenta. Such tactics were used sparingly- for example, if they could not break into heavily fortified cities or through a strong pass. In 1211, when the Mongols first attacked the Jin territory in north China, Chinggis Khan sent Jebe and Guyigu Nek as vanguards to attack the famous Chabchiyal pass. The Mongols could not break through this pass because it backed onto mountain cliffs and was strongly fortified. Instead they decided to lure the enemy out by slowly retreating. The Jin army thought that the Mongols had given up, so they chased after them, and were surprised, after riding a certain distance, to see the retreating Mongol soldiers suddenly turn to counter-attack. At that moment, the main ambush slaughtered the enemy until their bodies piled up as far as Chibchyal like rotten logs. Jebe stormed the gate of Chichayal, and took the pass.
In May 1222, the two Mongol generals, Jebe and Sube'etei, and 20'000 Mongol cavalrymen pursued the fleeing Kypchaks (or Cumans) from the west side of the Caspian Sea towards the north-west, to Kiev. The Mongols met the joint forces of the Russians and the Cumans, 30'000 men, on the eastern bank of the Dnieper river. Some say that Sube'etei, with only 2'000 Mongol cavalry, lured the -russiasns and Cumans for nine days towards the little Kalka river which flows into the Sea of Azov, where the main Mondol cavalrymen numbering 20'000 were waiting. Under the direction of Jebe and Sube'etei, the Mongols attacked the enemy at the end of May and destroyed most of their forces.

8. Arc Formation Tactics

The Mongols would send out two detachments in a wide curve, as in the tips of a bow, but with the main forces staying at the centre of the arc, hiding in shady plces to await the enemy. These two detachements went first to engange the enemy, shooting to infuriate them and lure them to the place where the main forces were waiting. These two detachments also closed in from the flanks of from behind the enemy. The Mongols called these tactics "bow tactics".
The Cossacks also used these tactics in successfully defeating their enemies.

9. Lightning Attack Tactics And Surprise Attack Tactics

These two tactics were perhaps the most important of all: the lightning attack meant speed, and the surprise attack meant suddennness. In 1203, the Mongol attacked Ong Khan, who had erected a golden yurt and was feasting. For three nights and three days, under Chinggis's command, they fought, and in the end Ong Khan and his son managed to escape, though his entire army surrendered. This was an example of Chinggis's "surprise attack" tactics.
In 1213, the Mongol army, commanded by Jebe, failed to take the city of Dungchang (Mukden), so they retreated for six days over a distance of about 170 miles. The enemy who were defending the city thought that the Mongols had given up, but Jebe with his Mongol cavalrymen returned to the city, covering the distance in one night and launching a surprise attack. This was an example of "lightning attack" tactics.

10. Outflanking Tactics

When the Mongol cavalrymen could not attack the enemy from the front, they would leave a small detachment in front to draw the attention of the enemy. Meanwhile the main force went round the back, via almost impassable roads, to attack the enemy from the rear. There are two examples to illustrate these tactics in the History. In 1207, Chinggis Khan ordered Dorbei-doqshin to attack the Tumer people in the northern part of Mongolia. He left a small detachment on the main road, and orderer his best soldiers  to travel on the paths made by the red deer. They climbed the highest mountain, then suddenly came down as though descending from Heaven, finishing the enemy while they were feasting.
In 1213, when the Mongol cavalrymen under Chinggis Khan wanted to take Chabchiyal pass, the Jin army fortified it strongly and spread iron spikes on the road to the north to prevent the advance of the geldings. The entrance to the pass was also reinforced by an iron gate. Chinggis left a small detachment to shoot at the Kin army, then took his main army west and back to the southern end of the pass. He captured a place called Nan Lou, and went on to take the pass.

11. Encircling Tactics

Chinggis used these tactics many times in order to destroy his enemies completely; they were based on the enemy's strengths and formations. If the enemy openly exposed their flank and rear, and the city defenders were weak, the Mongols would encircle them from all sides. If the enemy deployed their forces by the rivers, exposing two or three flanks, then the Mongols would encircle the them from all sides of the river bank.
In 1221, Chinggis destroyed Kalaldin Magubirdi, who had deployed his soldiers on the west bank of the Indus, by attacking on two or three sides. Plano Caprini (who was in the Mongolia in 1246) records that the Mongols always sent the captured personnel and non-Mongol soldiers in first, led by a few Mongols, to fight the encircled enemy. Only then would the strong regular army gradually appear from nowhere to reinforce the stronghold, outflank the enemy on both winds and then destroy them.

12. Open-The-End Tactics

If the enemy was very strong and willing to fight to the death, the Mongols would leave a gap in their ranks. In this way, the enemy might think they saw an escape route, become scattered and start to run. At that precise moment the Mongols would fix upon a suitable place to kill their fleeing enemies one by one.

13. The Combination Of Swords And Arrows Tactics

The Mongols avoided hand-to-hand fighting if at all possible, prefering to use bows and arrows, with a range of 200 to 300 yards, to kill the enemy. Plano Carpini records:
If it is possible to avoid it, the Mongols never engage in hand-to-hand fighting. They always use arrows first to kill the enemy and their horses. After kiilling or wounding the enemy and their horses, making them too weak to fight, the Mongols move in to finish them off.

14. Hot Pursuit Tactics and Dispersing Tactics

If the Mongols were winning, they would pursue the enemy so that no one escaped alive. If they were losing, however, they would disperse in all directions, so the enemy was unable to catch them.

15. Bush Clump Tactics

These tactics involved dividing the soldiers into many small groups which, although keeping contact with each other, maintained a low profile as they advanced. Such tactics were also used at night time, and on dark or cloudy days.
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:iconuzumaki1632:
Uzumaki1632 Featured By Owner Sep 25, 2017  Hobbyist
I still wonder why this guy doesn't have an entire course devoted to him at every military academy in the world.
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Sep 25, 2017  Professional
Maybe because the rest of the world are sore losers, lmao.

I also read he valued the advice of his mother and main wife (which were both described as quite badass and intelligent), not sure how popular that is in the world of war. Mongolia has more respect for their women than many other countries in the world.
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:iconunclebob11:
UncleBob11 Featured By Owner Aug 4, 2016
As you may have guessed by the discussion we had about the anthros wearing helmets I have always found historical warfare very interesting. It's such a shame that school never seems to get to the real meat of these accounts. An even greater shame that rarely do the schools truly teach history, sure they give you the dates and tell you what occurred but how often to they tell you why? But anyway I have found a bunch actually rely good history shows and channels on YouTube I could link them to you if you want.
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Aug 4, 2016  Professional
Yeah, I don't know what it is about school and making learning something dull and boring. Same counts for physics and biology. I hate these subjects at school, but find them interesting anywhere else. I mean yesterday I read about how stars come to be, and die. And about how old our sun is. And that small stars live longer than huge ones, and that our sun is (luckily) a small one compared to others. These things I always find interesting.

I usually prefer good history books over history shows. xD But yeah, feel free to send me the channels and I will give it a try!
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:iconunclebob11:
UncleBob11 Featured By Owner Aug 5, 2016
Oh believe me I know what it's like to have to sit through a pointless class. I have actually heard from a former teacher that you don't learn anything until you get to collage, and if a teacher says that than you know the system is broken.
OK now onto the videos. This one is extra history and may I recommend the Punic wars. www.youtube.com/playlist?list=…
This one is Lindy beige. www.youtube.com/user/lindybeig…
And I don't know if this one nesasarely counts as history but it does go over historical weapons. www.youtube.com/user/Skallagri…
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Aug 5, 2016  Professional
Thank you!

I experience the system is broken after school too. xD I also noticed how it depends on which country you are though, which parts of the system are questionable.

Luckily you can still find truth if you look for it. Now that we got internet access, it's much easier too. For example I could just google some facts about stars, or basic quantum physics, or the biology of whales if I wanted to know (and check on the right sites of course). I don't have to go to the library and hope good books about it are available at all. I don't even have to pay extra for learning about these things. And the best part is you don't get stressed out about grades.
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:iconunclebob11:
UncleBob11 Featured By Owner Aug 5, 2016
You are welcome.

Yeah when you spend an entire year in a subject and come out knowing less about it than when you went it there is a problem. That is what hapend to me one school year. Or the year the sent me my math book about a month late.

And yeah I love to learn but I hate school especially here in the US were they just pack on loads of work. I am very thankful that I do have access to the internet, as I can learn about these things. I think that over all I have learned more about history science culture, politics, religion, philosophy, craftsmanship, and mythology from the interned and my own books than many years of school. I even learned a touch of sword fighting from the internet.
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Aug 5, 2016  Professional
Yeah! And I've learned English (second language) better via internet, movies, videogames and comics than school. xD A first bit of interest can go a long way, as long as learning is made to be fun!
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:iconunclebob11:
UncleBob11 Featured By Owner Aug 5, 2016
Yeah I think I have learned more about poetry and writing from listening to songs than from of my English class. And yeah personal interest is a huge factor in how knowledgeable or skilled you are in a subject.
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:iconkronosx2008:
Kronosx2008 Featured By Owner Jul 2, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I remember that Alexander the Great , put counteract the tactics of the cavalry of the steppes , which would be used by Huns and Mongols in their invasions .
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:iconvannjaren:
Vannjaren Featured By Owner Jun 17, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Ah, interesting indeed to read! ^^ :D
Ha, in a storyline I've been developing for a while, I noticed when reading this that some of the tactics of some of my groups of characters were very similar to some of these, so perhaps I had a tiny bit more sense than I had previously thought. :XD:
Nice information though, I totally agree with you that the way history is taught in school takes a lot of the life out of it often - yes, dates and years were important as were numbers of men etc., but I find the actual processes of the events and the tactics etc. much more fascinating and "alive" to read about. <3
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:iconsutefu-kasaichi:
Sutefu-Kasaichi Featured By Owner Jun 12, 2015  Student General Artist
wow that's really cool, those are really really smart tactics! Thanks for sharing!
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:iconmolecularmachine:
MolecularMachine Featured By Owner Edited Jun 10, 2015  Student General Artist
This is an excellent resource. Do you mind if I post a link to your journal to www.reddit.com/r/worldbuilding ?
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Jun 10, 2015  Professional
What is that site about?
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:iconmolecularmachine:
MolecularMachine Featured By Owner Jun 10, 2015  Student General Artist
The worldbuilding subreddit is a place for people to share their ideas and resources regarding imaginary worlds. People post bits of world lore, writing prompts, and interesting worldbuilding-related articles for others to critique and draw inspiration from. They'd love your journal entry because it has a lot of information about an interesting culture in a concise format. /r/worldbuilding is fairly small and super friendly, so I wouldn't be worried about trolls coming through. 
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Jun 10, 2015  Professional
Okay, you can repost it then. :) Be sure the mention the book and authors it's from, so people can go buy the book and read more.
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:iconmolecularmachine:
MolecularMachine Featured By Owner Jun 10, 2015  Student General Artist
Many thanks!
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:iconxseneko:
xSeneko Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Nice :o (Brains > Force)

Did you know that the chinese build that huge wall because they were afraid of the mongolians?
And Chinggis Khaan killed the people who betrayed/left their own people to join Chinggis Khaan instead.

In a documentary they said Chinggis Khaan believed that he was "the chosen one"(chosen from god) and he wanted to take over the world. But he dieded(:P) too early, maybe he would have taken over europe if he lived longer.

Another tactic was cutting holes into arrows, which would make flute-like sounds while 'flying' past the enemies and confuse/scare them. (Or maybe that was another group, not the mongolians, can't remember)
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:iconduskripper:
DuskRipper Featured By Owner Jun 4, 2015  Hobbyist
Impressiv.

Wirklich wow, alter schwede das sind gute Wege zu gewinnen oao
Vor allem nummer 12 ist brillant.
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Professional
Die sind wahnsinnig gerissen. Ehrlich, ich würde meine Landsleute sofort verlassen, um mich denen anzuschliessen. xD Ich könnte viel mehr von denen lernen als hier. Zweitens hättest du die warscheinlich beste Armee in der Geschichte zum Freund, die höchste Werte auf Loyalität, Gastfreundschaft, Mut, und Disziplin setzt. Wie cool wäre das denn. *schwärm*

Interessant war auch noch, dass Chinggis Khan für die Religionsfreiheit war. Aber ich habe auch gehört, dass dieses "Angebot" die Eroberungen der Länder vereinfachen würde. xD Wieder mal sehr gerissen. Er selbst war nicht religiös, aber spirituell schamanistisch.
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:iconduskripper:
DuskRipper Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Hobbyist
wäre episch alle fälle oao
ich bin nur ein schisser XD wäre denen keine hilfe.

oke ich kann nur staunen oo aber verständlich das es das etwas vereinfacht.
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:iconmoonymina:
MoonyMina Featured By Owner Jun 4, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
really interesting!!! thanks for sharing!
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:iconcatmandolin:
Catmandolin Featured By Owner Jun 4, 2015  Professional Traditional Artist
I enjoyed this very much--I know a tiny bit about Mongolian history but nothing to write an article about so this is very enlightening.  It's a fun read--I recognized your usage of his non-common (by american) name so that was neat to see.  I know about some of the tactics  but some I did not so thanks for the education. I good time was had by the cat.
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:icon2753productions:
2753Productions Featured By Owner Jun 4, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
I believe you mean Professor Urgune Onon right?  Not Inin?  Actually the book was co-written & edited by Sue Bradbury, with Professor Onon providing much of the translation from Mongol.
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Professional
Oh crap, typo. My bad! Fixed it. And yeah we're talking about that same book.

Thank you!
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:icon2753productions:
2753Productions Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
Thought so ;) Welcome!
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:iconwooflesart:
WooflesArt Featured By Owner Jun 4, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Is Chinggis Khan another name for Genghis Khan?  Or is it a different guy altogether?  
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Professional
Same guy.
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:icon2753productions:
2753Productions Featured By Owner Jun 4, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
It's just a seldom used variation of his name, seldom used by the western world that is. 
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:iconwooflesart:
WooflesArt Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Oh I see, thank you!
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:icon2753productions:
2753Productions Featured By Owner Jun 8, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
No problem :)
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:iconailithir:
Ailithir Featured By Owner Jun 4, 2015  Student General Artist
This is so awesome! *A*
Which books did you read? 
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Professional
I can recommend the first book which got me into Mongolian things, "Wolf Totem" by Jiang Rong.

It's about a Chinese student (the author himself) who went to Mongolia to live with the shepherds for a while. He experienced adventures and tragedies with wild wolves, as the shepherds always need to defend their live stock (mainly sheep, cattle, horses) from them, and dealing with harsh weathers and seasons at the same time. But he also learns many differences in cultures between Mongolia and China- which are differences still present to this day. And he learns the Mongol's shamanistic views of the world, about the God Tengger and the meaning behind the Wolf Totem. The ending of the book really gets you in the feels and shakes you up good.

The author actually had to change his name for the book because China HATES everything that criticizes them, burn such books and get rid of the authors. Jiang Rong still considers it a miracle he's still alive.

Mongolia VS China is almost like Native American VS England all over again. One side thinks the other are savages for what they do. Except that Mongolia still managed to keep their land and be more independent with that history of Chinggis Khan and so on.

Also here's a touching article about the shamans and general respect for nature they have:
shareably.net/mongolia-reindee…

They're pretty badass let's be honest. 8)
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:iconblackmoonvagabond:
BlackMoonVagabond Featured By Owner Jun 4, 2015
Erinnere ich mich richtig, dass er seine Abstammung nicht auch direkt vom Wolf überlieferte?
Da war doch was, aber ich weiß es nicht mehr genau.
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Professional
Ich habe da was gelesen von einem Wolf der sich mit einer Gazelle gepaart hat, aber das sind natürlich alles Legenden, die man hinterher noch gemacht hat.
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:iconblackmoonvagabond:
BlackMoonVagabond Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015
Soweit ich weiß, haben sich diese Völker aber dennoch irger eigenen Mythologie zufolge so verstanden. Das gibt es ja bei etlichen anderen Völkern immer noch, dass sie solche Abstammungslegenden überliefern.
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:iconjwiesner:
JWiesner Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015  Professional
Bei Chinggis Khan fande ich es schon interessant genug, dass er angeblich mit einem Blutklumpen in der Hand auf die Welt kam. xD
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:iconblackmoonvagabond:
BlackMoonVagabond Featured By Owner Jun 5, 2015
Nun ja... Durch mein Ethnologie-Studium habe ich etliche solcher interessanter Mythen kennengelernt.
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