Shop Forum More Submit  Join Login
About Traditional Art / Professional Keenan TaylorMale/United States Recent Activity
Deviant for 1 Year
Needs Core Membership
Statistics 209 Deviations 294 Comments 4,171 Pageviews

Newest Deviations

Suchomimus and Lurdusaurus by IllustratedMenagerie Suchomimus and Lurdusaurus :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 56 5 Stan with Edmontosaurus Lunch by IllustratedMenagerie Stan with Edmontosaurus Lunch :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 41 7 Oxalaia Team Spirit! by IllustratedMenagerie Oxalaia Team Spirit! :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 34 18 Deinonychus Working Papers 2 by IllustratedMenagerie Deinonychus Working Papers 2 :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 41 0 Deinonychus Working Papers 1 by IllustratedMenagerie Deinonychus Working Papers 1 :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 35 8 Mapusaurus Family by IllustratedMenagerie Mapusaurus Family :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 53 4 Happy 242nd Birthday, America! by IllustratedMenagerie Happy 242nd Birthday, America! :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 29 10 My Azhdarchidae by IllustratedMenagerie My Azhdarchidae :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 58 12 Spinosaurus Pride by IllustratedMenagerie Spinosaurus Pride :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 33 17 Sue (Tyrannosaurus rex female) by IllustratedMenagerie Sue (Tyrannosaurus rex female) :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 48 10 Stan (Tyrannosaurus rex male) by IllustratedMenagerie Stan (Tyrannosaurus rex male) :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 52 12 Arambourgiania philadelphiae by IllustratedMenagerie Arambourgiania philadelphiae :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 47 7 L'Ogre by IllustratedMenagerie L'Ogre :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 18 2 Sinornithosaurus millenni adult and juvenile by IllustratedMenagerie Sinornithosaurus millenni adult and juvenile :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 47 3 Emahari by IllustratedMenagerie Emahari :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 3 0 Concavenator corcovatus by IllustratedMenagerie Concavenator corcovatus :iconillustratedmenagerie:IllustratedMenagerie 73 20


PWW: The River Drake by Fireplume PWW: The River Drake :iconfireplume:Fireplume 8 0 At the lake by Dontknowwhattodraw94 At the lake :icondontknowwhattodraw94:Dontknowwhattodraw94 187 35 Saurian Dakotaraptor by TeraTheFeathernazi Saurian Dakotaraptor :iconterathefeathernazi:TeraTheFeathernazi 78 22 Rain... by Frank-Lode Rain... :iconfrank-lode:Frank-Lode 98 14 Sinornithosaurus full bod by RAPHTOR Sinornithosaurus full bod :iconraphtor:RAPHTOR 408 15 Caruncly Camarasaurus by Fireplume Caruncly Camarasaurus :iconfireplume:Fireplume 11 4 Mapusaurus by NordicB3rry Mapusaurus :iconnordicb3rry:NordicB3rry 54 26 death of a dragon by Dinomaniac death of a dragon :icondinomaniac:Dinomaniac 486 15 Trappertutle (Crococlemys horrida) (v2) by Dragonthunders Trappertutle (Crococlemys horrida) (v2) :icondragonthunders:Dragonthunders 165 26 Suminia by Dragonthunders Suminia :icondragonthunders:Dragonthunders 52 16 Shantungosaurus by Dragonthunders Shantungosaurus :icondragonthunders:Dragonthunders 125 28 Tyrant kings in line by Dragonthunders Tyrant kings in line :icondragonthunders:Dragonthunders 100 9 Lancian pachycephalosaurs by ijreid Lancian pachycephalosaurs :iconijreid:ijreid 38 9 Musang and Amihan by RAPHTOR Musang and Amihan :iconraphtor:RAPHTOR 500 16 Tyrannosaurus Rex Head 2 by Rexfivenine Tyrannosaurus Rex Head 2 :iconrexfivenine:Rexfivenine 20 2 Devin Townsend by Rexfivenine Devin Townsend :iconrexfivenine:Rexfivenine 4 2

Hello, folks!

    I'm now taking DeviantArt Commissions! Most of my professional work has been in Natural Science Illustration. I specialize in birds, mammals, and dinosaurs, yet am happy to illustrate plants, fish, insects, and any other living subject. 

    I am familiar with a range of media; including colored pencil, graphite, pen and ink, oil paint, watercolor, and many others. This image can be sent to you digitally in your preferred format (i.e. jpeg, PDF, photoshop file, tiff, etc.), or I can mail you the original copy.  I prefer to create with an open dialogue with my client, ensuring that the illustration fully meets their needs.  Examples of how my commissions can be used include an educational poster, a natural science website, and for personal use.  Images intended for commercial use or reproduction will have a higher price. 

    I have designed several business logos and thoroughly enjoy that process as well.

    Most of my work comes to $20 an hour (a typical full-color illustration takes between one and two hours of research and sketches, and two to five hours for the final drawing) so it can range from around $60 to $140 depending on the subject and media. I've mostly used PayPal, although I am flexible.

    Message me if you're interested. Thanks, folks!




Suchomimus and Lurdusaurus
*Apologies for the poor quality. I'm out of town. I'll scan it properly on Monday and upload it then!

"The young Lurdusaurus had not been long from his mother. Eventually, every child must wander. The moment his mother and aunt wandered into the mangrove trees, he slipped away from his siblings and cousins and meandered out into the wetlands. Although nothing was new to his eyes, seeing his home without the protection of his relatives is thrilling. He waddles through the marches. Here and there he stops to eat, but mostly he just wants to explore.

"Normally the female Suchomimus would have to wander deep into the wetlands towards the deeper river to catch the sort of meal she needs, but this young Lurdusaurus is only a short walk from her nest on the base of the foothills and he seems to be alone. Instinct kicks in. She's not going to miss this opportunity.

"Before the young Lurdusaurus sees her, the Suchomimus is upon him. Thin jaws latch onto the young ornithopod's neck. She reels her head back. As soon as the Lurdusaurus' body hits her chest, the hooked claws on her forearm pierce his torso like meathooks. His cries are silent; his lungs are punctured, robbing the young ornithopod of his voice. The Suchomimus returns to her nest, ignoring his protest. The more he struggles, the deeper her claws dig into him, further damaging his organs. Despite the young Lurdusaurus' struggle to escape, it's no use; he is totally restrained. His efforts are his demise."

During research for my illustration of Stan and how Tyrannosaurus may have used their arms instead of their jaws to carry food, I came across a fascinating article written by Duane Nash on how theropods like Allosaurus and Suchomimus may have used their arms to dispatch prey. It was a compelling theory. Killing with their arms would protect their eyes and faces from retaliatory strikes from prey. Much like my idea of Tyrannosaurus carrying with their arms to bring the payload closer to the point of balance, clutching struggling prey in the arms would be easier to hold. Struggling prey would kill themselves on on the predator's claws. Nash's idea is compelling and his description was so vivid that I knew I would have to commit it to paper.

So here it is; Suchomimus using its arms to kill prey rather than their jaws, in a way both practical and horrifying.

Skeletal reference: Suchomimus tenerensis Skeleton as taken by Philoceratops

Duane Nash's post:…
Stan with Edmontosaurus Lunch
"On a cool evening in Hell Creek, a king surveys his domain. Stan has been trailing this Edmontosaurus herd for a few hours now, keeping a sharp eye and keen nose while he remains in the cover of the forest. So far, they are unaware of his presence. As the darkness advances, so does the tyrant. Soon he is near the edge of the trees, his eyes locked on target.

"A juvenile Edmontosaurus is near the edge of the herd. She will do nicely. As soon as she meanders away from the cow that stood between Stan and the juvenile, the tyrant makes his attack. There is no roar. No warning of his assault. Pads on his feet make Stan silent as he rushes from the foliage. By the time the young hadrosaur sees him, it's too late. As she turns to run, Stan's jaws clamp down on her hips, sacral vertebrae instantly fracturing or breaking on impact. The juvenile's herd scrambles in chaos, and she can do nothing but watch as the silent king dispatches his prey.

"After gulping down her severed head, Stan kneels down and latches his arms around his meal in a death-grip. He stands and retreats to the wood. The herd is reorganizing, and he's not interested in sticking around for when they get their bearings. For an adult Tyrannosaurus rex, one Edmontosaurus isn't a problem, but just a few years ago he watched his brother trampled and beaten to death by three bulls. Besides, there are four little mouths to feed back at the nest, and Stan's mate does not like to be kept waiting..."

The function of T. rex's infamously tiny arms is the source of a lot of debate in the paleo community. A study in 1990 suggested that each bicep could curl 400+ pounds, and combining that with the massive shoulder and chest muscles means that these comparatively-tiny arms could actually generate a tremendous amount of force. The most common speculation in books when I was young was that the arms would assist the tyrant in standing. It's also been proposed that they helped facilitate mating or held prey in place as they delivered their devastating bite. Recently Dr. Stanley caused quite a bit of media attention when he suggested that T. rex used their powerful arms to wound prey in conjunction with their bite.

I think a few of these proposals have merit. I think the arms may have been helpful in standing, but I think they'd be better off standing like penguins*, using their snouts and hands together to stand. Even the highest estimates of force don't seem sufficient to push them to a standing position using just the arms. Facilitating mating makes perfect sense to me. As for the arms taking a role in active hunting, I'm not so sure. Dr. Holtz remarked that they would have to compromise the effectiveness of their bite in most situations in order to employ their arms. For a theropod like Allosaurus or Suchomimus that invested in those nasty meat-hook hands that's a reasonable trade (more on that for my Suchomimus picture), but any wound that an adult T. rex could deliver with their arms would be 10x worse with a bite.** In most situations I just don't see the point.***

Now, employment of the arms post-hunting seems a lot more reasonable to me. Carrying their kills would make use of the strong arms without putting them under tremendous stress. Holding food in their arms rather than their mouths not only frees up the mouth to bite anything that tries to sneak a meal, but leaves their eyes free to look about, and also brings the payload closer to the center of balance (the hips) thereby making it easier to carry.****

Cheers, folks!


*Penguin standing up:…

**Juvenile T. rexes may have used their arms a lot more in active hunting than their parents. If Bloody Mary is a juvenile T. rex, for example, those hands are definitely large enough that they might have been used in place of a bite in some circumstances. Even more conventional reconstructions of juvenile rexes have proportionally larger hands so I wouldn't be surprised if their hunting strategy was more hand-oriented.

***An examination of Sue's arm bones in 2016 found that, while there were significant muscle attachments on the arm bones of T. rex, there was minimal stress applied to these joints. At least in the case of Sue, there doesn't seem to have been frequent use, at least not frequent enough to push her limbs beyond their (albeit impressive) limit. However, a study in 2008 by Lipkin et al. showed at least 3 specimens of Tyrannosaurus rex that did show pathologies on the forelimb bones and furculae. I was unable to determine the source of these pathologies, but if they were stress-related, then that would be an interesting contrast to Sue's study. 

****I remember reading that Dr. Horner suggested the arms would be used to carry scavenged remains as part of his proposal that T. rex was an obligate scavenger, I couldn't find any reference connecting him to the theory so I'm either misremembering or I missed it in last nights search. What I found actually implied that he thought the arms were useless so I might be giving him too much credit. The only other suggestion I found of T. rex using their arms to carry meat was Duane Nash in a fascinating post about theropods using their arms to dispatch prey. This was a fascinating article, and 100% inspired my next piece:…
Deinonychus Working Papers 2
Working papers for the Deinonychus antirrhopus project that I did in 2016:

"Do properly reconstruct an animal, especially one that is extinct and therefore has no photographs, an anatomical study in necessary. The skeleton was easy enough to reconstruct. Deinonychus is a well-studied animal and there is plenty of reference material. 

"The musculature, however, posed a far greater challenge. I looked at chicken and ostrich musculature as a base, and tried to fit it onto the Deinonychus skeleton. As I didn't have access to any actually Deinonychus material, this process required a great deal of speculation. 

"Lastly, a quick sketch of the soft tissue. Before I went on with my exploration of coloration, I needed to establish a few basics. Based on phylogenetic bracketing (assumption of unknown traits based on known traits in related species) it's evident that Deinonychus would have had feathers on their wings and tail, and hair-like filaments on most of the rest of their bodies. I followed convention of leaving the snout bare of integument, but it's just as likely that the filaments extended all the way to the nostrils. I gave them 'ear tufts' reminiscent of many owl species that I speculated might be helpful in signaling during a cooperative hunt, but as cooperative hunting itself is not universally accepted, the chances of them having this feature aren't particularly high. Once this study was complete, I was ready to begin my papers for the final piece!"

Cheers, folks!

Deinonychus Working Papers 1
Working papers for the Deinonychus antirrhopus project that I did in 2016:

"I replicated the number of feathers and patagium (skin between shoulder and hand) based on Anchiornis. Although adult Deinonychus were undebatably flightless, it has been proposed that youngsters could glide. The curvature of young Deinonychus' claws is stronger than those of adults and it's been suggested that they were at least partially arboreal. Being able to glide from tree to tree would certainly have been helpful. 

"As adults, however, the use of these wings becomes a bit more interesting (in my opinion). Deinonychus was the subject of a study by Dr. Fowler et al in 2011 that proposed the Raptor Prey Restraint model: they argued that when hunting, Deinonychus would leap on top of their prey, pierce with their talons as they bit their prey, using their tails and wings to retain balance. This is seen in many modern birds of prey. It's also been suggested that flapping their wings while running would have helped them move faster and leap higher. 

"An additional use for these powerful wings would have been for social interaction. There is evidence that Deinonychus was a social animal. The complexity of this behavior is up for debate, but it is widely accepted that Deinonychus would have had a high degree of social interaction with others of its kind. Large wings could have been brightly colored on the inside to attract mates, have been quite loud when flapped, and would have made Deinonychus look quite a bit larger when spread as they tried to establish dominance at a kill. Since it seems that they at least irregularly hunted together to bring down Tenontosaurus, an animal that outweighed Deinonychus by a factor of at least ten, they would have needed great numbers to emerge victorious. After the prey was slain, however, the real fight began. These carcass fights could be quite dangerous for Deinonychus, perhaps even more dangerous than the hunt itself, as suggested by evidence of cannibalism of subadults at the carcass. With such high stakes it would have been important to establish pecking order, and I imagine these kills would have been rife with loud theatrics with wings spread wide."

Cheers, folks!


Gliding in young…
RPR attack model:…
Pack hunting and the dangers to subadults:…


IllustratedMenagerie's Profile Picture
Keenan Taylor
Artist | Professional | Traditional Art
United States
I am a natural science illustrator based in NY


Add a Comment:
Naragon Featured By Owner Jun 17, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Excellent paleoart! Keep it up!
IllustratedMenagerie Featured By Owner Jun 18, 2018  Professional Traditional Artist
Thank you kindly!
PhanerozoicWild Featured By Owner Edited Jun 9, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
hmmm Utahraptor by PhanerozoicWild finally did it

i will make one in the future with less feathers though:)
IllustratedMenagerie Featured By Owner Jun 9, 2018  Professional Traditional Artist
I love it! 
PhanerozoicWild Featured By Owner Jun 10, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
thank you :)
HUBLERDON Featured By Owner May 31, 2018  Hobbyist General Artist
Thanks for the watch!
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner May 29, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Thanks for the watch :D
IllustratedMenagerie Featured By Owner May 29, 2018  Professional Traditional Artist
You're welcome, and of course! Your work is incredible. You've found a great balance of adding realistic speculation to your extinct animals which makes them very lifelike.
Dontknowwhattodraw94 Featured By Owner Jun 2, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Thanks :)
Willy276 Featured By Owner Mar 9, 2018
Happy Birthday!

Add a Comment: