The Fractal Universe

Journal Entry: Mon Aug 8, 2011, 1:01 PM

Is a photograph only a record, something created by a machine?  Can photography ever truly be considered art?  That question seems quaint and laughable these days, but if you do a little research you will find that once upon a time it was a raging debate.  Thankfully a consensus has been reached that the agency of the photographer – his or her eye and critical mind – choosing the subject and manipulating the machine (the camera that is the art instrument) is what establishes photographs as potential works of art when created by an artist-photographer.  Pretty basic common sense, huh?  So why then is there now a debate as to whether FRACTAL ART is truly art – or just something produced by poking patterns into a computer?  Isn't it just really random e-graffiti, a fibonacci button mash?

Here we go again… Hopefully it won’t take nearly a century again before fractal art is recognized as the creative expression of artistic individuals possessing, developing and executing a distinct subset of critical-analytical, emotional, and technical skills in order to create objects that can inspire, amuse, soothe, startle or otherwise engage the mind of the beholder.  It’s art for the new age, and a most welcome new player.

My Questions for the Reader

  1. How do you respond to critics who claim that fractal art is too much of the “machine” creating the artwork?
  2. What is the extent of the artist’s human agency that makes a fractal artwork the artists vision rather than just an extension of “the machine”?
  3. Is a background in mathematics or programming something that can greatly aid a fractal artist?

While writing this article I recalled a brief but mind expanding conversation I was lucky enough to have with Ray Kurzweil last year about the coming Singularity and it made me think…

  1. When we are able one day soon to use computer chips implanted in our brains to project purely imagined images onto canvases, monitors or into the air as floating holograms – will this be accepted as genuine artistry … or will these “artists” be dismissed as mere “daydreamers”?

I have only chosen a few pieces of Fractal artwork for this article so I am really looking forward to hearing your thoughts on Fractal Art in general and whom you might recommend as some of the more inspiring Fractal Artists on dA.

HoM -Hanging on Myself- by Juniae
The Mother Ship by GypsyH
FlowerLane by coby01
Reverie by Tibodo

Since posting this article on Monday

I have had the opportunity to learn quite a bit about Fractal art from the community behind these amazing works of art.   Most inspiring to me were the details around how the pieces are actually constructed and some of the unique history behind the origin of the medium itself.   The Fractal community here on dA is comprised of a very talented, passionate and generous group of people.   Thank you to everyone, who in the last week helped me to better understand this beautiful art form.

There has been incredibly inspiring discussion in the comments below around the questions that I posed to the community.   These are just a few of the deviants who have already contributed to the conversation in meaningful ways.





Add a Comment:
DeaconStone Featured By Owner Nov 13, 2012  Professional Digital Artist
How do you respond to critics who claim that fractal art is too much of the “machine” creating the artwork?
Educate and reveal the mystery. Personally I feel that like all art there are techniques we use to create that which we envision. Knowing that a particular formula will create certain effects is akin to music where 1-6-4-5 patterns or 1-4-5 patterns have resulted in many different songs. Its like asking if musicians only follow patterns. Clearly the patterns exist, but each song is unique to the artist. While two songs may use the chords E-A-D (which can be heard in many well known songs) those songs can sound very different from one another. There may be particular parameters which differ, or have been slightly altered from the standard which makes that song unique. I see fractal art in a very similar manner. You can follow the parameters, but ultimately as an artist you always alter things to your own liking. I was watching a documentary "The making of Aja" by Steely Dan and in it one of the musicians said, its not about learning the songs to play perfection, but the step beyond that where you are just playing. The machine may be the tool used, but ultimately without the artist the machine doesn't make art on its own.

What is the extent of the artist’s human agency that makes a fractal artwork the artists vision rather than just an extension of “the machine”?
The artist makes the choices. Color palette, form, shape, line, size, etc... The machine can randomize within a range, sure... but I, the artist, can go outside that range. Even further then that, I can go outside the base program and involve other techniques, and or tools to do what the original generating program could not.

Is a background in mathematics or programming something that can greatly aid a fractal artist?
I'd say yes, because after all you are using math but it isn't required in my opinion. It helps to understand what its going to do to transform the image, especially when you stack up the transforms. Sometimes I tend to experiment with different methods to get to the result I'm looking for. Knowing that using a particular set of parameters will give me some form of effect I'm looking for is a tool in the belt. In the same way, if I want deep and rich texture in a painting I might use modelling paste to build thickness. In real media, we have the same tools, and we understand them to be tools and techniques used to illicit an effect. I feel fractal art is no different. It still requires the same understanding of form, line, and composition as the other art forms to have a strong image in the end.

Thanks for the great article and the solid questions. Rock on :)
DsyneGrafix Featured By Owner Feb 9, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
For those interested here is a short list of some Fractal Artist Superstars:

To see a great gallery of Fractal Art goto: [link]
oohamuffin Featured By Owner Nov 27, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
1. that would be like saying a pencil or a paintbrush or a piece of charcoal does all the work. I say the artist does all thework because they actually come up with the art.
3. probably.
4. if it comes from someone's imagination still, i say it's art.
tyris-stark Featured By Owner Nov 27, 2011
As far as question four goes: all art, without exception, is mere daydreams. The "projectors" will just be more obvious about it.
Imahimonoonna Featured By Owner Nov 21, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I personally think Fractal art is very beautiful. I wish I knew how to do it.
Hetronicle Featured By Owner Nov 21, 2011
mmmm ...I just had lamb brains for dinner ...lovely
OK ..some of us have answered these questions to our own satisfaction ...should this be enough ...still, would be amusing if someone could collate all the negative responses to these questions ..c'mon dev-gurus give a look-see eheh
GreatToaNui Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2011  Hobbyist Writer
Actualy, as long as it is a picture, it is 'traditional' art no matter how it was made.



<rant over>

any questions?
GreatToaNui Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2011  Hobbyist Writer
It is not the machine that makes the art, it just renders it into picture form.
sracha1713 Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2011  Student Digital Artist
I really like photography. It is my second favorite art. Yes, sad art because i also feel that photography is an art. It is the person who takes the photos and manipulates them and changes the way they look. Some pictures i take are of flowers, but seen in another perspective the flowers looks totally different in the photos. Taking picture allow one t pulte the world into something even more fantastic.
BohemiannConections Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2011
Haha! This artwork reminds me a Theory of Chaos.
AndreNiel Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
How can there be a difference between brushes or your fingers, or a Steinway and tin can beaten with sticks? If it expresses then it’s art! Live in Africa long enough and it becomes clear. So why should a Mac with Photoshop be dubious, or a Nikon? Art = Expression? The means of expression is the artists choice.
thebinarydragon Featured By Owner Nov 19, 2011
Sure it's art. A computer is a machine. A man made device. So is a camera, a paint brush, a pencil, a marker, and a crayon. They are all man made devices that require a human to make them operate. The actual work of art itself comes from the creativity of the artist. The computer or camera is just a tool that is used to make the physical image just as a paint brush is used on canvas to make a physical image. So yes, I agree that it is art.
1Ukiyoe Featured By Owner Nov 19, 2011  Professional Digital Artist
My comment:
The use of a computer to "create ART" is no difference then using a pencil, a pen, a paint brush or a printing press to enable the user to complete their process, ie: the drive to enable the viewer to journey into the mind of the artist.
W.A.CURTICE, 2011.
1Ukiyoe Featured By Owner Nov 19, 2011  Professional Digital Artist
My comment:
The use of a computer to "create ART" is no difference then using a pencil, a pen, a paint brush or a printing press to enable the user to complete their process, ie: the drive to enable the viewer to journey into the mind of the artist.
W.A.CURTICE, 2011.
1Ukiyoe Featured By Owner Nov 19, 2011  Professional Digital Artist
My comment:
The use of a computer to "create ART" is no difference then using a pencil, a pen, a paint brush or a printing press to enable the user to complete their process, ie: the drive to enable the viewer to journey into the mind of the artist.
W.A.CURTICE, 2011.
YoshiArt24 Featured By Owner Nov 19, 2011  Student Digital Artist
1.Well,I'd respond to the critics who think art is taking too much stress or labor in the computer:Why should we?If you're going to critic on deviations saying it's taking too much on the computer,go ahead,I ain't stoppin' ya but I'm staying on the critic side which has:Art Does Not Take Too Much On The Computers!

2.The extent for n artist's human agency that allows them to create anything that comes into their brain is their brain.Because,without it,we'd do nothing,and our life and doings are meaningless,so would our existence.But with it,We can create anything,think anything,even decide to do anything e want.

3.Yes;Without the programming,then all this metal and chips and bolts are just scrap metal and the programming allows us to do or use the mechanism to do our activities,create and upload stuff and even save a document into tiny parts in the Hard Drive and RAM.Plus,without the mathematics,how would we be able to calculate and carefully get the proper amounts of a special material when building an object or lean to program the mechanism?Without mathematics,We wouldn't EVEN BE ABLE TO do any of this that is existing to today.

4.Hmm...It could work or not.But having the computer chips implanted into our brains...I don't it such a good idea because it could cause:A.Abnormal Behavior.B.Out-of-control powers.C.People are going to want to know how they do that and last but not least:D.It may cause death or permanent brain damage due to brain surgery to implanting a computer chip inside one of our vital organs to maintain life.

One last thing I wanna say before i'm out:LIFE RULES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
YoshiArt24,out.Later,DA Team!
YoshiArt24 Featured By Owner Nov 19, 2011  Student Digital Artist
That's so cool,dA HQ!
Hansmar Featured By Owner Nov 18, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
I think most of us here agree: fractal art is art.
1. It may be made by the machine, but if that would be all too it, all of these fractal works would be highly similar of non-descript. The choice of result that someone presents is the more 'human' part in the process. And official art-critics generally find that 'concept art' is art, even if nothing is actually produced. So why would something produced with help of the computer nog be art?
Though, I do partly agree with those that state that it is more or less 'easy' compared to more manual works. However, some 'abstract' art is also often called 'easy' ("My five year old can do that"). But, this is NOT true. I know, I am a somewhat experienced traditional hobby artist (painter) and it took me quite some time to create abstract art that I personally like. So it probably is just as difficult to make a 'good' fractal art.
2. See above.
3. I don't think so. I am also not so sure that you need to understand human skelets and muscles to be able to paint very realistic human figures. Realistic painting is all about looking closely. Fractal art is also all about looking closely (and making decisions).
4. Artists for sure! They would be the real conceptual artists, no longer needing many helping hands.
Euxiom Featured By Owner Nov 18, 2011
Fractals have been found in nature, I've watched a whole show on them. Art is often easily seen in the world, is it not? Photography was invented, I'd think, to capture the art that is already there, that only needs a keen eye with a camera in hand to capture and convey it.

Moving back to fractals, they are in the mountains and the tree branches. They're a curious, repeating pattern, made possibly by math. While they may not always be my cup of tea, they qualify as art to me.

Effort was involved, by both the person creating the fractal software, the person using it, even the machine itself, crunching numbers to create something. And if there is one thing I definitely know about art, it is that effort is always involved, no matter how small or how large.
paulbrittgarcia Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
I luv fractal art! Check out my zazzle merchandise at: ([link])
griffinfinity Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
Well, Kostabi has machines (assistants) do his work...they paint his 'patterns' and he slaps his name on them. I don't see what the fuss would be over 'fractals'. Warhol did the same with his screenprints. It's the patterns or fractals themselves that ultimately become viewed and interrpreted as art...
patiblackcat Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
i think that the critics are just too much into one kind of art (traditional) and setting a deffinition of art based only on that one branch.Althrough a machine is doing most of the composition, ther are many skills required to create a masterpiece instead of a mishmask of stuff that doesn't compose well with each other. just learning ho to make such art is impressive.

i realy hope the debate ends soon and those criticks that think only one way will for once stop being so annoying... deal with it THERE IS NO SET DEFFINITION OF WHAT ART IS!!!!!!!!! jeeez... EVERYONE HAS THEIR OWN POINT OF VIEV ON WHAT ART IS!!!
*short rant over***sorry sor spelling**
DXGr1mReap3rXD Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Student Writer
As much as I believe that everyone is entitled to have and support their own opinion, I despise it when that "support" is merely flaming and trying to push your beliefs onto others. But in this case, I am very much hoping that it will not be so. When someone claims that fractal art is mainly the work of the machine, I respond that that may not be entirely the case, seeing as how the coding for the design is inputted by the person creating it. I would believe that the design becomes the visionary's art when it is used for expressing the way - or an alternative way - the artist sees something. It is when the human uses the skills imprinted into their own essence and combine it with the works of the computer that the fractal wonders become true art. Thirdly, yes, I would most likely think so, seeing as how fractal art is the use of algorithms and calculations to create pieces of still art, animation, and media. As for the last question, well, I quite enjoy the way it makes my thoughts come together and converse as to what should be my answer. I love to think that they will be counted as true artists because they are using their own thoughts, ingenuity, creativeness, and imagination to produce these images. Even if they are the mere result of random-day-dreaming-turned-design, so what? It is still their own works, made by their own brains, with their own uniqueness finely in-tuned into these things.
Cassaba19 Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
We are already living in the future. There are already many artists who have made the transition from traditional pigments and paper to a purely digital medium, where the only tangible artwork is a print out of those digital files.

Personally, I think that what we call art is an end result of the artist applying a decision based process to create something interesting. No one would deny that the patterns made on metal using early milling machines was artistic, all those overlapping shiny circles, but the decision about where to use that technique and how much to use it was an artistic one.
yori1976 Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Professional Photographer
Everything that someone decides to call art is art.
Then worth of this art is in the eye of the beholder, some pieces of art are appreciated by more observers than others.
Fractal images could be created randomly or intentionally, but at the end of the day, IMHO, art involves a decision by the artist somewhere in the process, and a selection of artwork to display. Fractal is just another medium - if some makes (not even creates) a fractal design, and chooses to call it art - it is art!
bvidgo Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
It is absolutely art :gallery:
adorety Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Professional Digital Artist
I don't need in depth knowledge to know creating fractals is art. Someone is interacting with something and manipulating the media to create an image or vision. Whether it is spontaneous or planned is of no consequence. As long as someone is interacting with the machine, then it is human art. When the computer reaches a level where it "decides" on its own to create fractal images, well...then you have true computer art. But it will still be art.
ziroks Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Student Digital Artist
god damn it people its still art, why would someone not think its art? everything around us is art but for some reason or another some people seem to think other wise.
BlurWing Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
For those who think it is the machine creating the image, please download one of the free fractal programs and see how quickly you can make a fractal similar to those posted by the best fractal artists here on deviantART. Bet it will take much longer than you think. Then check out the winners from the 2011 Benoit Mandelbrot contest [link] ... Some of us who do this on a regular basis may never reach this level of control and expression. Many of the deviants in these pages have a style of their own. Their work can usually be recognized from the thumbnails and previews. It's no easy task to mimic the style of the fractals that catch your eye. If it were just the machine, that task would certainly be easier. There are some in-depth discussions on this very topic authored by the mathematicians who write the formulas that serve as the starting platform for most modern fractals. Ron Barnett's Hidden Dimension Galleries [link] is a good place to start for some basic information. Then find Kerry Mitchel's work and publications and study them. A good starting point might be this link [link] in Wikipedia's pages. Fractals are both a mathematical playground and an art form depending on your interest, but a masters in math isn't needed to create beautiful images. Once one has a working knowledge of how to control or use a fractal generating program, the result is the artistic expression of each individual that simply uses the machine to create it...
AnastasioF Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
la diversidad del pensamiento del hombre se ve y siente en esta perspectiva.
Horus78 Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
These worlds u talk about are REAL .. there many universes out there , filled with


etc...... Ray Kurzweil is right BUT u don't need computer chip to do this .

ALLAH already gave everyone of us that CHIP , we call that BRAIN BUT most of us

can't use it WHY.. well ALCOHOL & DISBELIEVE ,, ALCOHOL destroy ur BRAINS NERVE

CELLS and DISBELIEVEING destroys ur SOUL ,, so both MACHINE ( brain ) and the FUEL

( soul ) are gone. this kind of person is an IDIOT , IF U GUYS KNEW ABOUT THE


most of us r DEAD people, even when we r breathing.

Ellrot Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
I find this response very odd, almost closing in on bigotry, and intolerance. Someone talking about Faith, Allah and belief so strongly sounds very penitent. Your reasoning about idiots is very juvenile. The word faith means to believe in something even though it can't be proved. Many people need faith in their lives to give them purpose... Those who can create their own purpose don't need religion... Please try open you mind to others perspectives before sweeping those who aren't creative under the same rug as those who waste their lives away...
adorety Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Professional Digital Artist
Agreed. This response is not even on subject and more of a typical religous rant and intolerance for diversity. Alcohol is not the only killer of the brain and soul. Strict dogma and teachings of only one way are a bigger killer to the mind and soul than anything else.
GreatToaNui Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2011  Hobbyist Writer
I agree, to often people kill themselves by accepting other's judgement's over their own.

Everyone should find their own truth.
Horus78 Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
u want to know what FAITH is " look inn to the mirror "

what do u see ?? just a face !! u KNOW there is more but

u can SEE IT. " Many people need faith in their lives to give

them purpose " its true, BUT tell me .. faith in what ??

faith in who ?? MAN MADE RELIGION . look around yOu ,what

do u see ,, earth is full of IDIOTS who think they know

EVERYTHING , that why we all r going to hell

tell me i'm wrong ( no offence ) ;|)
Ellrot Featured By Owner Nov 21, 2011
You're still not even talking about art!!

All Religion is man made... Your "faith" should give you more understanding/tolerance/acceptance, you seem very angry, why be religious if all it's gonna do is make you miserable????
Horus78 Featured By Owner Nov 21, 2011
ART ?? u know nothing of art , want to see ART look in to


ANGRY , yes i am , ? , because some people think they know

everything , in fact they know NOTHING of life and it's


JEWRY, MAN MADE . CHRISTIANITY, MAN MADE . ...................etc


true faith make u sad&happy in the same time,i KNOW

BEEN there , DONE that , u should try it ,it's good for

ur health 2 :^)
Ellrot Featured By Owner Dec 13, 2011
Thanks but I've lived in a few different continents during my 28 yrs on this planet and in that time I've been able to live in the cultures surrounding different religions and I've also been in more than 1 situation where cultures and religions clash... I am a very secure, content and joyful person, I've found this without the help of religion. With everything I've seen, Religion only slows down progression in society/lifestyle/communication.

It is clear that Islam gives you a good outlook on the way in which you live your life. But just stand there and say "I Believe in only 1 things and that is that" just makes you look uneducated... Were you born into Islam, I bet you were, how many people are ever born into a religion i.e Buddhism and then turn around and say, "oh you know what? my religion is wrong, I'm gonna be Muslim now"... No one does, it's usually just for marriage purposes.

Religion is written before we knew the world was spherical. Religion was developed to give people a purpose. A purpose to the age old question of where do we come from and why are we here. If we all stuck to religion we'd still think there was and edge to the world, that the sun span around us, we are the center of the universe, and the earth is only 4000 years old. Which ofc you would only believe if you're not educated..
Horus78 Featured By Owner Dec 13, 2011
there is a AGE 4 world which will ENDED in 5 months

wait and see :^)
Ellrot Featured By Owner Dec 15, 2011
Sounds good to me, IMO we're going to be the down fall of our own planet. It would also be awesome to find out all the answers once it has ended, like, is there and after life? which religion was right? what was the meaning of life?

Something similar happened in England last year, where Christians thought there was going to be a Rapture, of course they all got prepared for it, and nothing happened. Then they just turn around and say it was a test of faith. Yeah a test of faith in naivety..

So if nothing happens, will that make you question your religion? (you can still have faith)
(1 Reply)
GreatToaNui Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2011  Hobbyist Writer
How dare you just offend everyone who happens to think life actually has a purpose and a creator.
Horus78 Featured By Owner Nov 20, 2011
NamE that creator ppppllllllzzzzzz :*))
robingilby Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
digital algorithms, analog algorithms, computer keys, piano keys.

anyone can push the keys on a piano, but not everyone can touch souls when they do so.
Euxiom Featured By Owner Nov 18, 2011
I want to fave this comment.
jcGuarneros Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Professional Digital Artist
I love your answer!
jusk2ru Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Student Digital Artist
Creating fractal art is the same as photografing, only you can edit the composition in much more various ways.
It's truly a fractal universe..
DevilDogStudio Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Student General Artist
1. You are welcome to your opinion. Don't look. But then again, I never developed an appreciation for Cubism or Modernism. Can we discredit those? Please?
2. I have been playing with 3D since my Amiga days in the early 90's. I don't see any difference in manipulating parameters in one program or another. I don't hear people contesting the legitimacy of 3D anymore.
3. I don't think so. But maybe some programs I haven't tried require more of a stronger math base. This boils down to how well you know the program, and knowing what to when to yield the results you want. Some programs seem to be more random than others.
4. Art is subjective, and it is perspective. Art began as documentation. Later artists were little more than skilled labor fulfilling commissions for patrons. Now art doesn't seem to have any limits, or even rules anymore. It makes for having to wade through alot of crap. But it also frees minds to create in ways not thought of before.

I choose to express myself through fractals. There is a consumer base ready to purchase such works. Which begs the question: in a country that so boisterously touts free enterprise, if a substantial demographic is buying a particular type of work, does it really matter whether the industry recognizes it or not?
Oscarinas Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
well I actually didnt want to offend you or your work, obviously computers are useful but there is a point when we abusse of them, can be in leisure or art.
We have to see a difference between how technology can help art or if technology will make the art for us.

Also i didnt write Digital art was just punching random buttons, I know is not random and it takes time and knowledge, but It separate art a step more from being a personal creation, for me is cold and far from be the instant representation of our ideas, looks more like a representation of the computer of what we type, not even instantly from our ideas.
DarkSelfie Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011  Student Filmographer
I don't see what the big deal is, people like different types of art, I don't see fractal art as any kind of a threat. You'd think that the bigger threat would be photomanipulation, because you can't tell some of that art from traditional. Many people prefer the look of traditional art, as opposed to mechanical fractal art, which is why some people are panicking. Mostly just starving traditional artists are panicking, but they have nothing to worry about(at least where fractal art is concerned). I don't have a taste for it, myself. Like photography.
TeeCee451 Featured By Owner Nov 17, 2011
When photography was first created it was a curiosity. The earliest photograph I know of that still exists was done on a plate coated with a type of asphalt that softened and became soluble in alcohol on exposure to sunlight. [ I hope I have that right, it has been a while since I looked that up ] So the dark stuff stayed and where there was light hitting the asphalt the alcohol bath stripped it off in proportion to the exposure. The light was focused with a lens from a camera obscura, which, ironically enough was often used by brush and oil artists to do up a sketch on the canvas that was to be the basis of the finished painting.

So, question one seems a bit self denial since use of this "machine" for creating "art" goes way back before someone mixed up collodion with silver halides and spread it on glass plates, perhaps I am wrong and there was an outcry about paintings created with the camera obscura also came up but, some how, I doubt it.

Number 2 is, honestly, number 2. There are many types of what is accepted as art where the artist takes a snip of this and a glob of that and even might slice bits from an old oil canvas that didn't quite work and by picking judiciously a great collage is made, or not. Often fractal patterns are mathematically manipulated so as to have a third dimension or are mapped onto other shapes there are countless ways to do this. So they are manipulated. So I ask you a favor, look up Jerry Uelsmann's manipulated work and then with a straight face tell me is isn't art.
It would be good to take note here that one of the convincing comments made in a french court was that photography was an art because of the human choices, many of them, made by by the photographer in making the image and its emotional impact.
In the end it is the artist using the machine that makes art.

For 3: I have an AA with an emphasis in mathematics from a local community college. Also, I have spent the majority of my working life dealing with computers, both hardware and software. So I feel confident that I can give you a firm "yes, kind'a sort'a maybe, perhaps, but I really don't know.
On the other hand, I'd wager that most of the masters of photoshop out there don't care about or have a clue what "do-else-if" means or what virtual ram or why blue injection lasers were rabidly wished for for so long.
How many oil and canvas artists know or care how to make their own brushes. They used to before technology came along and brush making got to be a specialty.
I honestly expect that lone of these days soon photoshop with have a fractal generator, if it doesn't already, and tools for manipulating same. So for now, yes, in my weak and flabby opinion knowing about computer hardware and software could be handy, but in the future and soon I expect the tools will be mainstreamed.

ah.. number 4

Once upon a time Benjamin Franklin created what he called his most beloved invention, the glass armonica. He got the idea from that after dinner trick of wetting your finger and running it around the wine glass edge at the right speed to make it vibrate with a clear pure and haunting tone. To Franklin it was a delightful an soothing music, then some curmudgeon spread a rumor that this music drove people mad if exposed long enough and frequently enough.
So the armonica vanished down the rat hole of history and only recently have there been attempts to revive the art of contracting them.
Moral: Any new technology will make those of weak bladder pee themselves first and grab their wallet second and then start working on a way to protect their little slice of income from any threat, real or imagined
Or to be a tad more raw and to the point, "I'm an artist, I KNOW what art is, I don't know or understand what you are doing and I KNOW WHAT ART IS, so that can't be art.
Regrettably, ever it shall be so.
I wish it were otherwise.
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