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Resolution of Ornithischia

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By Dennonyx   |   Watch
Published: October 20, 2017
© 2017 - 2019 Dennonyx
Mega-tree with >400 genus-level OTUs describing the evolution of ornithischians, a group of dinosaurs extinct 66 MYA along with Sauropodomorpha. This tree was not a result of a single analysis but is a sort of puzzle made of multiple selected analyzes (strict consensus) on each tree area (4 areas with 70-150 taxa and about 500 characters each) checked/joined together by 3 "bonding" topologies (with similar sample numbers) performed in the intermediate areas between each of the 4.

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Cladistic nomenclature: 
01 - Heterodontosauridae
02 - Heterodontosaurinae
03 - Genasauria
04 - Thyreophora
05 - Eurypoda
06 - Stegosauria
07 - Stegosauroidea
08 - Huayangosauridae
09 - Stegosauridae
10 - Dacentrurinae
11 - Stegosaurinae
12 - Scelidosauridae
13 - Ankylosauria
14 - Ankylosauridae
15 - Minminae
16 - Ankylosaurinae
17 - Pinacosaurini
18 - Ankylosaurini
19 - Nodosauridae
20 - Polacanthinae
21 - Nodosaurinae
22 - Neornithischia
23 - Cerapoda
24 - Marginocephalia
25 - Pachycephalosauria
26 - Goyocephala
27 - Pachycephalosauridae
28 - Stegocerinae
29 - Pachycephalosaurinae
30 - Prenocephalini
31 - Pachycephalosaurini
32 - Ceratopsia
33 - Chaoyangsauridae
34 - Psittacosauridae
35 - Neoceratopsia
36 - Archaeoceratopsidae
37 - Coronosauria
38 - Leptoceratopsidae
39 - Leptoceratopsinae
40 - Protoceratopsia
41 - Protoceratopsidae
42 - Bagaceratopsinae
43 - Ceratopsoidea
44 - Ceratopsidae
45 - Centrosaurinae
46 - Nasutoceratopsini
47 - Pachyrhinosaurini
48 - Centrosaurini
49 - Chasmosaurinae
50 - Chasmosaurini
51 - Pentaceratopsini
52 - Triceratopsini
53 - Ornithopoda
54 - Orodromidae
55 - Jeholosauridae
56 - Parksosauridae = Thescelosauridae
57 - Elasmaria
58 - Iguanodontia
59 - Rhabdodontomorpha
60 - Rhabdodontidae
61 - Dryomorpha
62 - Dryosauridae
63 - Ankylopollexia
64 - Styracosterna
65 - Hadrosauriformes
66 - Iguanodontidae
67 - Hadrosauroidea
68 - Probactrosauridae
69 - Hadrosauromorpha
70 - Bactrosauridae
71 - Euhadrosauria
72 - Hadrosauridae
73 - Saurolophidae
74 - Lambeosaurinae
75 - Tsintaosaurini
76 - Parasaurolophini
77 - Lambeosaurini
78 - Saurolophinae
79 - Brachylophosaurini
80 - Gryposaurini
81 - Saurolophini
82 - Edmontosaurini

Stegosaurus includes S. ungulatus and S. sulcatus.
Gastonia includes G. lorriemcwhinneyae.
Tarchia includes T. teresae.
includes all species except P. mazongshanensis.
includes A. yujingziensis.
includes P. hellenikorhinus.
Pachyrhinosaurus includes P. perotorum and P. lakustai.
Chasmosaurus includes C. russelli.
includes A. mavericus.
Pentaceratops includes P. aquilonius (when excluded Pentaceratops nests in a dichotomy within Utahceratops).
includes A. longirostris.
Torosaurus includes T. prorsus.
includes T. dossi.
Rhabdodon includes R. septimanicus.
Zalmoxes includes Z. shqiperorum.
Mochlodon includes M. vorosi.
includes P. tubicen and P. cyrtocristatus
includes C. intermedius.
includes L. magnicristatus.
includes G. latidens.
includes S. angustirostris.
Edmontosaurus includes E. annectens.
Pinacosaurus doesn't include P. mephistocephalus.
doesn't include T. utahensis.
doesn't include B. kyzylkumensis.
Lapampasaurus is encompassed within the chimeric taxon Willinakaqe.

Some tree areas are extremely weak. Several polytomies were solved thanks to bootstrap and/or ACCTRAN/DELTRAN methodologies. Regnosaurus, TatisaurusAcanthopholis and Glishades were added a posteriori and their precise positions are purely hypothetical and based on personal observations.


This cladogram should NOT be used as an official source, mentioned in wikipedia, or copied in whatever kind of publication.
It is here represented in order to provide a detailed view of ornithischians evolution and to be used as a reference for paleoartists in order to depict unknown body parts as the most closely related taxon known for those specific body parts.
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anonymous's avatar
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Wikkler's avatar
WikklerHobbyist General Artist
Does Hypacrosaurus include H.? stebingeri?
Does Thescelosaurus include T. garbanii and T. assiniboiensis?
Does Struthiosaurus include S. languedocensis and S. transylvanicus?
Does Wuerhosaurus include W.? ordosensis?
Dennonyx's avatar
Dennonyx Traditional Artist
No, yes, no, yes
Gamerey's avatar
Do you plan on doing Sauropomodorpha as well?
Wikkler's avatar
WikklerHobbyist General Artist
Were Goyocephale and Homalocephale coded as adults here? I'm pretty sure that they're juveniles.
Puma74's avatar
That's incredible!
TheTerritorialTrike's avatar
Love the chart! However, why include dubious specimens like Ceratops and presumed individuals with birth defects like Nedoceratops.
Dennonyx's avatar
Dennonyx Traditional Artist
Well, even if they are dubious they were still part of a species so this tested their potential synonyms. Taxa such as Nedoceratops, Tatankaceratops, Brachyceratops and all the ontogenetically immature taxa were coded or checked paying attention to those characters which are probably influenced by allometric and growth factors (when clearly altered by ontogeny the trait was coded as unknown). About Ceratops montanus I personally think it is a valid taxon. It shows a unique combination of traits, most of which shared with Medusaceratops and/or with Spiclypeus. I also think that if Ceratops will be universally considered invalid, then the name Ceratopsidae should be questioned, just as in the recent issue about Troodontidae. 
Dinosaurlover83's avatar
Dinosaurlover83Student Artist
Very nice! Glad to see this released.
bh1324's avatar
Is Pisanosaurus an outgroup or you decided to code it as an Ornithoschian in spite of it's dubious position?
Dennonyx's avatar
Dennonyx Traditional Artist
I have only coded two taxa external to Dinosauria so its position is probably influenced by sample artifact/disproportion. Btw your question is conceptually misleading, when you code a taxon you code it and that's all. Then running data in the matrix software will give you a "position". It's not something you hypothesize a priori.
AndreOF-Gallery's avatar
AndreOF-GalleryHobbyist Traditional Artist
Nice, I've being waiting for this :D
Dennonyx's avatar
Dennonyx Traditional Artist
I knew that :')
AndreOF-Gallery's avatar
AndreOF-GalleryHobbyist Traditional Artist
Party So now that is out I'm going to celebrate it Party  
bhut's avatar
Thanks for sharing this.
RajaHarimau98's avatar
RajaHarimau98Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Damn this is interesting. Perusing through it, I must say you introduced me to some new taxa! Of course, ornithischians are more of a weak area for me.
Dennonyx's avatar
Dennonyx Traditional Artist
Great! Which taxa?

I can get you, personally I could say the same thing for sauropodomorphes
RajaHarimau98's avatar
RajaHarimau98Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Dongyangopelta, Sirindhorna, Koshisaurus, Ratchasimasaurus, and Riabininohadros are all brand new to me. Sauropodomorphs I'm rather weak on too, but I blame the confusing taxonomy of both ornithischians and sauropodomorphs haha
anonymous's avatar
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