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Welcome! All You Devious Monsters out there are welcome from a request by any of our members, or just simply request to join yourself. Our biggest Contributer (So Far) is Teratophoneus!

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Facts: Pristichampsus - Crocodilian Nomen Dubium?,

https://youtu.be/EdxhDD4ocDY

IntroductionHi, welcome to Enchiridion. I am very excited to share with you these facts on Pristichampsus. Pristichampsus was a crocodilian from France and possibly Kazakhstan that is part of the monotypic Pristichampsidae family. As the type species, Pristichampsus rollinatii was based on insufficient material when described in 1831 and 1853, leading it to be considered non-diagnostic. The taxonomic status of the genus is in doubt, and other species have been referred to other genera, primarily Boverisuchus. DescriptionPristichampsus is a crocodile that has all the traits of a terrestrial lifestyle as opposed to an aquatic-centered one like today’s crocodiles. The key elements supporting this lifestyle can be observed in the legs, which indeed are longer than those of semi-aquatic crocodiles to allow for more terrestrial locomotion. Additionally, the end of the toes were hoof-like, a trait adapted for better traction on land. Its tail was also round as opposed to flattened, and this was very likely because it was not used for swimming like its semi-aquatic cousins. Although a bipedal posture is theoretically possible for a Pristichampsus running at high speed, paleontologists are confident that for most of the time and in standard low speed locomotion, Pristichampsus would have been quadrupedal because of the center of gravity being well forward of the hips. A Terrestrial LifestyleSupport for the idea of a terrestrial lifestyle comes from its teeth, which were laterally compressed — broad when seen from the side, but thin when viewed from the front — and had well-developed serrations. These types of teeth are useful for slicing through flesh, particularly the unarmored and soft bodies of mammals. Nonetheless, aquatic crocodiles have more conical teeth which are stronger and better able to grip a struggling animal as the crocodile holds it under the water to drown it. Additionally, Pristichampsus is often credited with having teeth similar to those of large theropod dinosaurs, particularly the tyrannosaurids, though in actuality, this is a poor analogy. Carcharodontosaurid-like TeethTyrannosaurids like Tyrannosaurus had round conical teeth for crunching bones, not slicing flesh like Pristichampsus. A better analogy would be that of the carcharodontosaurids, another group of theropods which indeed had laterally compressed and serrated teeth. A Capable PredatorThe temporal and geographical ranges in addition to the number of individuals of Pristichampsus suggest it was a very capable predator. The early Eocene is characterized by abundant warm forests which would have provided numerous ambush locations for a predator like Pristichampsus to surprise prey. The warm climate also helped with a reptilian cold-blooded metabolism, allowing Pristichampsus to be more active. A Shift To A Drier And Cooler ClimateNonetheless, as the Eocene progressed, things began to change — global temperatures began to slowly drop which triggered a shift towards a drier and cooler climate. First, crocodiles are cold-blooded, so those like Pristichampsus would have gradually become lethargic, or slower in terms of movements and reactions. Second, the forests that held so many ambush locations and hiding places began to thin out and become replaced by grasslands, though not yet to the same magnitude of later periods. Third, the animals that Pristichampsus preyed upon were also changing, developing longer legs to help cover the wider distances between growths, which also meant that they were becoming faster and harder to catch. Additionally, the mammals were also proving to be additional competition as highly-developed predators like nimravids and creodonts began appearing. The Decline of Terrestrial CrocodilesAlthough crocodiles would continue into modern times, they would do so by being more specialized hunters of aquatic environments while the terrestrial crocodiles like Pristichampsus would gradually and steadily decline. HistoryPristichampsus was first described and named as a species of Crocodilus, Crocodilus rollianti, by John Edward Gray in 1831 on the basis of remains from the Lutetian of France. In 1853, Paul Gervais assigned this species to its own genus, creating the new combination Pristichampsus rollianti. Other species have been referred to this genus. The genera Boverisuchus and Weigeltisuchus from the Lutetian of Germany as well as Limnosaurus from North America was synonymized with Pristichampsus and their type species were reassigned to it. In 1975, Langston found Limnosaurus to be based on non-diagnostic remains, and therefore considered it to be its own genus, as a nomen dubium. He also reassigned Crocodylus vorax from the Lutetian of Wyoming and West Texas to Pristichampsus. In 1988, Efimov named two additional species of Pristichampsus, Pristichampsus birkjukovi and Pristichampsus kuznetzovi from the Middle Eocene of Eastern Kazakhstan. Following a revision of the genus Pristichampsus by Brochu in 2013, Pristichampsus rollinati was found to be based on insufficiently diagnostic material and therefore is a nomen dubium. Boverisuchus was reinstated as a valid genus, and the species Weigeltisuchus geiseltalensis was considered to be synonymous with Boverisuchus magnifrons. In 2013, Brochu also reassigned Pristichampsus vorax as the second species of Boverisuchus. According to Brochu in 2013, material from the middle Eocene of Italy and Texas may represent other species of Boverisuchus. NamingPristichampsus means “saw crocodile”.Named ByIt was named by Gervais in 1853. Scientific ClassificationIt belongs to the Kingdom Animalia, the Phylum Chordata, the Class Reptilia, the Order Crocodilia, the Family Pristichampsidae, the Genus Pristichampsus and the Type Species Pristichampsus rollinatii. SpeciesSynonyms include Crocodilus and Limnosaurus ziphodon. Species include the Type Species, Pristichampsus rollinatii and two other species, Pristichampsus geiseltalensis and Pristichampsus vorax and doubtful species include Pristichampsus birkjukovi and kuznetzovi, both named by Efimov in 1988. DietIt was a carnivore. SizeIt was roughly 9.8 feet, or 3 meters long. Known LocationsIt has been found in North America and Eurasia, and it is particularly well-known from North America. It lived in terrestrial, lacustrine, marine, estuary and bay, and shoreface environments. Time PeriodIt lived throughout the Eocene, 47.8 to 41.2 million years ago, or roughly 50 to 40 million years ago. Fossil RepresentationFossil representation includes many individuals, though throughout the years some have been re-assigned to other genuses and its taxonomic state is currently uncertain, possibly a nomen dubium. OutroAnd with that, thank you for watching! Who doesn’t love prehistoric crocodilians? The simple fact that their size, structure, morphology, paleobiology, and lifestyle is so diverse and interesting makes me a fan of them! Expect to see more crocodilian videos and summer is incoming so get ready for huge documentaries. The videos per week have been reduced to two and we are about to surpass a little bit more than 650 subscribers which again, thank you for your support. The paleontological community is one I really appreciate because there are so many connections between paleontologists and paleo-artists and artists making skeletal reconstructions and 3D models so much love to them! As always, thank you for watching! This is Enchiridion, see you next time. #Enchiridion #PrehistoricBeasts #PristichampsusTable of Contents:0:00 - Introduction0:32 - Description1:20 - A Terrestrial Lifestyle1:58 - Carcharodontosaurid-Like Teeth2:15 - A Capable Predator2:39 - A Shift To A Drier And Cooler Climate3:28 - The Decline Of Terrestrial Crocodiles3:42 - History5:22 - Naming5:26 - Named By5:31 - Scientific Classification5:45 - Species6:07 - Diet6:10 - Size6:14 - Known Locations6:28 - Time Period6:36 - Fossil Representation6:48 - Outro_____Audio Source:Walking with Dinosaurs OST, 11 - Jurassic ForestSources:Brochu, C. (2012). Phylogenetic relationships of Palaeogene ziphodont eusuchians and the status of Pristichampsus Gervais, 1853. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 103(3-4), 521-550. doi:10.1017/S1755691013000200Pristichampsus. (2021, March 14). Retrieved March 25, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PristichampsusPristichampsus. (n.d.). Retrieved March 25, 2021, from http://fossilworks.org/bridge.pl?a=taxonInfo&taxon_no=38456Www.prehistoric-wildlife.com, D. (n.d.). Pristichampsus. Retrieved March 25, 2021, from http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/p/pristichampsus.html
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Prehistoric Beasts - Stupendemys - Massive Turtle,

https://youtu.be/scnPumRur58

IntroductionHi, welcome to Enchiridion. I am very happy to share with you these facts on Stupendemys!MassiveStupendemys was a pleurodiran or side-necked turtle. They acquired such a name because their necks are so long that the only way they could fit under the shell was to fold their necks into one side. The preserved length of the largest known Stupendemys carapace, or upper shell is 5.9 feet, or 180 centimeters long, and has been estimated to be as much as 10.8 feet, or 330 centimeters long in the living animal. With the addition of the long neck, Stupendemys would have been even longer than the famously huge Archelon, a huge sea turtle that lived earlier in the late Cretaceous period. The largest freshwater turtle living in the Neotropics today is the Arrau turtle, which is Podocnemis expansa, a pleurodire closely related to Stupendemys, yet the Arrau turtle measures only 30 inches, or 75 centimeters in length.FossilsIts fossils have been found in northern South America, in rocks dating from the Middle Miocene to the very start of the Pliocene, about 13 to 5 million years ago. Size As An Evolutionary AdaptationHowever, unlike Archelon, Stupendemys was a freshwater turtle, and one that inhabited the river systems and lakes of Northern South America around the boundary of the late Miocene and early Pliocene. The huge size of Stupendemys might be a response to the predatory threats living in South America, which included massive crocodiles like the caiman-like Purussaurus, Mourasuchus, and Gryposuchus. EcologyIts weight helped Stupendemys stay under water for extended periods of time, grazing on aquatic plants. On the other hand, it was probably a rather weak swimmer, unable to move its bulk against a quick current, and thus probably avoided smaller streams. Stupendemys geographicus inhabited what is known as the Pebas system, a large wetland system that dominated northern South America during the Miocene. The wetlands seemed to have favored gigantism in other aquatic animals, like the crocodylian Purussaurus and the rodent Phoberomys. Its growth rate is similar to extant turtles, suggesting a lifespan of perhaps 110 years to get to maximum size. Though its diet was previously interpreted as carnivorous, a well-preserved jaw indicates it might have had a more generalist diet, possibly durophagous, feasting on hard-shelled animals or including fruit. Because Stupendemys geographicus fossils have been found in sites which yield a rich fossil fauna, even though little is known with certainty, much can be inferred about the ecology of these animals. Among the aquatic animals that shared the habitat with Stupendemys souzai were fish, including catfish like Phractocephalus and Callichthyidae, characids like Acregoliath rancii and the tambaqui, or Colossoma macroponum, the South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, trahiras like Paleohoplias assisbrasiliensis and freshwater rays and sharks. Crocodilians were diverse and abundant, among them such taxa like Charactosuchus fisheri, Gryposuchus, Mourasuchus, Nettosuchidae and the giant Purussaurus brasiliensis. Other turtles and tortoises found in the same deposits are Chelus columbiana, a prehistoric relative of mata mata, and Chelonoidis. Further aquatic vertebrates included river dolphins and the larger darter “Anhinga” fraileyi. Terrestrial mammals were also abundant, and the fauna included many megaherbivores like the ground sloth Acremylodon campbelli, Toxodontidae like Gyrinodon and Trigodon, Proterotheriidae, and caviomorph rodents, some of them of immense size also like Kiyutherium, Neoepiblema, Phoberomys burmeisteri, Potamarchus murinus, Telicomys amazonensis and Tetrastylus. Smaller mammals living in that time and place were the dateline monkey Stirtonia and the bulldog bat Noctilio lacrimaelunaris. Altogether, this fauna is massively dominated by large herbivores and generally lacks terrestrial carnivores. It can thus be assumed that the habitat was mostly low-lying rainforest that was seasonally flooded, as well as floodplains and swampland. The rivers must have been wide and slow-moving, as the fossil-rich rocks are alluvial, or eroded land deposits and do not show evidence of fast-flowing riverbeds that would have dug into the sediment deeply while depositing little of their own. Spikes For Combat And DisplayAdditional remains of Stupendemys shells now found have revealed that male Stupendemys grew two enlarged spikes from the front of the shell that pointed forwards alongside each side of the neck. These spikes have wear patterns or deep grooves on them and suggest that they were covered by a keratinous sheath and used in combat between rival males. The larger the spikes grew, the more advantage they would have in combat, and may have also served a display function for impressing females. Widespread Massive Pleurodiran TurtlesLarge pleurodiran turtles appear to have been very common in the river systems of South America during the Cenozoic, with another example being Carbonemys, a pleurodiran with a shell 5.6 feet, or 172 centimeters long that lived in South America not long after the dinosaurs went extinct. NamingStupendemys means “astonishing turtle.”Named ByIt was named by R. C. Wood in 1970. Scientific ClassificationIt belongs to the Kingdom Animalia, the Phylum Chordata, the Class Reptilia, the Order Testudines, the Suborder Pleurodira, the Family Podocnemididae, the Genus Stupendemys, and the Type Species Stupendemys geographicus. TaxonomyTwo species have been described to date. Stupendemys geographicus was more robust; its remains have been found in the Urumaco Formation of Venezuela and in the Villavieja Formation of Colombia. Stupendemys souzai, marginally more slender and smaller, was recovered from the Solimoes Formation in Acre State, Brazil. Nonetheless, these are currently considered part of Stupendemys geographicus, alongside remains described as Caninemys tridentata from Brazil and Podocnemis bassleri from Peru. SpeciesSpecies include the type, Stupendemys geographicus, and other species like Stupendemys souzai. DietIt was probably an omnivore, possibly eating plants, animals, and almost anything organic that would fit in its mouth. SizeThe preserved length of the carapace of the largest individual specimen was 5.9 feet, or 1.8 meters, though its estimated length was 10.8 feet, or 3.3 meters. Known LocationsIt has been discovered in the Urumaco Formation of Venezuela and the Solimoes Formation of Brazil, both in South America. It lived in fluvial-deltaic environments. Time PeriodIt lived during the Messinian of the Miocene to Zanclean of the Pliocene, between 13 and 5 million years ago. Fossil RepresentationFossil representation includes remains of two species, including the carapace. OutroAnd with that, thank you for watching! I find prehistoric turtle-like creatures so impressive. I still have the idea of making 3D models and re-building prehistory to go back in time and experience these creatures. These videos serve as the guides to learning more about paleontology, paleobiology, and ecology of these creatures. I see it as something natural and the future work platform. Deinocheirus video incoming soon! It will be an extensive Dinosaurs Unearthed episode! Thank you for requesting videos, I’m always open to suggestions and happy to help. As always, thank you for watching! This is Enchiridion, see you next time. #Enchiridion #PrehistoricBeasts #StupendemysTable of Contents:0:00 - Introduction0:06 - Massive1:00 - Fossils1:10 - Size As An Evolutionary Adaptation1:34 - Ecology4:37 - Spikes For Combat And Display5:04 - Widespread Massive Pleurodiran Turtles5:22 - Naming5:26 - Named By 5:31 - Scientific Classification5:46 - Taxonomy 6:16 - Species6:24 - Diet6:32 - Size6:44 - Known Locations6:55 - Time Period7:02 - Fossil Representation7:08 - Outro_____Sources:Www.prehistoric-wildlife.com, D. (n.d.). Stupendemys. Retrieved March 26, 2021, from http://www.prehistoric-wildlife.com/species/s/stupendemys.htmlStupendemys. (2021, March 01). Retrieved March 26, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/StupendemysCadena, E., Scheyer, T., Carrillo-Briceño, J., Sánchez, R., Aguilera-Socorro, O., Vanegas, A., . . . Sánchez-Villagra, M. (2020, February 01). The anatomy, paleobiology, and evolutionary relationships of the largest extinct side-necked turtle. Retrieved March 26, 2021, from https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/7/eaay4593Car-sized turtle fossils unearthed. (2020, February 13). Retrieved March 26, 2021, from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-51485011Stupendemys. (n.d.). Retrieved March 26, 2021, from http://fossilworks.org/bridge.pl?a=taxonInfo&taxon_no=37607
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:iconranondra:
Ranondra Featured By Owner Mar 19, 2021  Hobbyist General Artist
Monster folder is at capacity and can't accept new submissions (or that's the message I got)
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:iconichijo564:
Ichijo564 Featured By Owner Edited Mar 18, 2020  Hobbyist General Artist
Hello !
I'd like to ask something.
If the deviation that I want to post contains different monsters that are from different categories in this group, should I submit it in these folders or in 1 particular ?
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:iconargentdandelion:
ArgentDandelion Featured By Owner Feb 15, 2020   Digital Artist
I accidentally put my latest submision, Saurohound, in the wrong category. It should be in the "Aquatic Creatures" folder.
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Drochfuil Featured By Owner Jan 30, 2020
:horns:
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:iconn3ur0s:
N3ur0s Featured By Owner Sep 1, 2019  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thank you for letting me in this group, I hope you enjoy some of my art guys!
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