Yeah, the guillotine has had quite some history.
Though, in earlier times there were some methods, that should be painful. There is a whoule museum of torture in italia, it was quite interesting. Humans can be unbeliefable creative in orde to cause pain to others.
And some methods were... special. Most special killing method yet: Sending into the air! (The person was bound to a heat balloon and send to heaven. But since some had luck and survived when the balloon got down somewhere, it was not practised long.)