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Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, AD 1063-1115

By coricancha
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Eight Deer Jaguar Claw (Mixtec: Iya Nacuaa Teyusi Ñaña), a powerful Mixtec king who united kingdoms of three Mixtec areas. He is most famous for his military expansion. Codex Zouche-Nuttall (British Museum) counts 94 cities conquered during his reign. According the same codex he supported the powerful Toltec lord of Cholula, Lord Four Jaguar “Face of the Night” in his attempts at expansionism. For this Eight Deer was awarded a turquoise nose ornament. During a coronation ceremony a priest pierced his nasal septum and inserted the turquoise nose ornament (Codex Nuttall, page 52). Eight Deer married several women in positions of influence as part of a political strategy to achieve dominance. One of them, Thirteen Serpent, was the daughter of his own stepsister. Eight Deer’s archenemy was Eleven Wind Bloody Jaguar, king of the city “Xipe’s Bundle”, who also had rights to the throne of Tilantongo. The city was finally conquered by Eight Deer in 1101. In 1115 the youngest of Eleven Wind’s family, Four Wind, who fourteen years ago was spared because of his age, captured Eight Deer in battle and sacrificed him. According Pohl (2002) he lived from 1063 AD to 1115 AD, according Miller (1975) from 1011 AD to 1063. He is dressed as Xolotl. His dress is made of a variety of materials: feathers of different birds, gold, animal skin, wood (helmet, shield), turquoise, jadeite, pearls, shells, obsidian and bark paper. The loincloth is made of finely woven cotton. The shield is covered with featherwork, the helmet with cougar fur or alternatively with woven fake fur.

The reconstruction is based on Codex Zouche-Nuttall, page 75, as well on archaeological evidence like objects found in thomb 7 of Monte Alban.…

For any kind of publication use of the drawing. permission must be requested in writing from the author.

Image size
3049x4137px 990.56 KB
Shutter Speed
1/64 second
Focal Length
55 mm
ISO Speed
Date Taken
Jun 23, 2016, 10:59:45 AM
Sensor Size
© 2016 - 2020 coricancha
anonymous's avatar
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atisuto17's avatar
atisuto17Professional Traditional Artist
Is beautifu!!
coricancha's avatar
coricanchaProfessional General Artist
Thank you, it's very appreciated as it comes from an expert!
Ludo38's avatar
Ludo38Professional General Artist
This portrait is absolutely wonderful. It gives the full power and drama o such historical character. This man has been of importance similar to that of Napoleon, and we have so few depictions of him, at least no realistic depictions, until now, thanks to great artists like you. Thank you for breathing him live again. Mesoamerica archaeology deserves more art of this level <3
coricancha's avatar
coricanchaProfessional General Artist
You nail it. Western civilizations often forget that there were important people in other cultures as well, as has been ruler Eight Deer Jaguar Claw. A great comment! Thank you!
Ludo38's avatar
Ludo38Professional General Artist
I want to add that I love how you gave him this sad and serious mood, giving the sense of huge responsabilities and divine dimensions in his mind. Like gods on Earth...
Not unlike pharaohs, actually...
Juwes's avatar
He is precious.... Heart Heart Heart Heart Heart Markiplier Jumping Quickly 
coricancha's avatar
coricanchaProfessional General Artist

Thank you Juwes for commenting and for your kindness. I really appreciate it.

coricancha's avatar
coricanchaProfessional General Artist
Always great to get such a comment. Thank you!
bloodyash24's avatar
bloodyash24Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Gorgeous work as usual.
coricancha's avatar
coricanchaProfessional General Artist
Comments make this make me so pleased to hear. Thank you!
ucumari's avatar
you're right, I guess also the not fighting directly, he gave orders

tienes razón, ademas supongo que el no combatia en forma directa, el daba las ordenes
coricancha's avatar
coricanchaProfessional General Artist

From an european perspective yes.

But because of the large number of representations and the Spanish accounts there is no doubt they were. Besides the fact that such suits also offer effective protection and that people were trained to fight in them, one should also consider the non-european point of view that dressed as god (as Xolotl was) also meant to have the power and the strength of a god.

Desde una perspectiva europea sí.


Pero debido a la gran cantidad de representaciones y de las cuentas españolas no hay duda. Además del hecho de que tal trajes ofrecen una protección eficaz y qué la gente fueron entrenados para combatir en ellos, se debe considerer el punto de vista non-europeo que vestido con un traje de tales también significaba a tener la fuerza de un dios (Xólotl).

ucumari's avatar
powerful lord really was, I like the design but I have always had doubts if they went into battle in a suit so complicated

poderoso señor realmente fue, me gusta el dibujo pero siempre he tenido dudas si iban a la batalla con un traje tan complicado
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