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Horse Color Genetics

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By CastawayWish   |   Watch
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Published: April 18, 2011
Name Gene
*Theoretical

Basic


Agouti A
Wild Agouti A+
"Brown" Agouti At
Black/Red Factor E

Dilution


Cream Cr
Champagne Ch
Pearl Cp
Dun D or Dn
Silver Dapple Z

Modifiers


Pangare/Mealy Pa
*Sooty STY
*Flaxen F

Masking


Grey G
White W

Roaning


"True" Roan Rn
*"Frosty" Roan Fs
Rabicano/White Ticking Rb

White Spotting Patterns


Tobiano To
Frame Overo Fr
Sabino Sb or Sb1
Splash Spl
Appaloosa Lp
Recommended Literature
E
Equine Genetics Guide - White Pattern Genes
These are the white patterns that go over the base colors that horses have like chestnut, buckskin, black, and cremello. If you want the base colors, please look at Equine Genetics Guide - Base Colors. Another Guide will be about the Patterns and how they interact with each other(Coming soon to the page near you). Q. What does the 'n' stand for in genetics? A. Nothing. It stands as a placeholder so a person could see that it lacks a gene there.   n = no gene present Heterozygous: Means that it only has one gene effecting that area. Homozygous: Means that there are two of the Same gene effecting that area. Dominant: Only one gene is need to
G
Genetic Terms Guide
When building your own Genetics for a breed or species it is important to know all the different genetic terms.  I will do my best to explain these terms but if you have any questions just ask.  :) Gene This is Scientifically called an Allele, but most hobby geneticists prefer to use the word Gene(slightly incorrect, but is commonly used).  A single part of the genetics that make up how the animal looks. A gene controls the features of the animal, usually used for color, but is also body type and everything else.  A gene usually has a one or two letter abbreviation for the Gene name.  Three letters or more are rarer but not unseen.  It is co
B
Building colors for a Breed
The color version of Building a Breed by Conformation Have any things that need to be added? Just comment below.  Have a problem? You too, can comment below.  If you need me to eyeball some home-made genetics I totally don't mind giving ideas. Extension and Agouti Extension is the gene that allows black, or only gives red, while agouti manipulates the black pigment.  Extension and agouti should be thought of as the connected, and not as two separate genes.  Every horse has extension and agouti, even if one of the other doesn't show.  Extension isn't the 'black' gene, its the 'allows black' gene, the agouti gene 'a' is the black gene. EE/a
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© 2011 - 2019 CastawayWish
BEING EDITED/UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Helpful Sites
[link] - Horse Color.com

References


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Credits

Recommended Literature
E
Equine Genetics Guide - White Pattern Genes
These are the white patterns that go over the base colors that horses have like chestnut, buckskin, black, and cremello. If you want the base colors, please look at Equine Genetics Guide - Base Colors. Another Guide will be about the Patterns and how they interact with each other(Coming soon to the page near you). Q. What does the 'n' stand for in genetics? A. Nothing. It stands as a placeholder so a person could see that it lacks a gene there.   n = no gene present Heterozygous: Means that it only has one gene effecting that area. Homozygous: Means that there are two of the Same gene effecting that area. Dominant: Only one gene is need to
G
Genetic Terms Guide
When building your own Genetics for a breed or species it is important to know all the different genetic terms.  I will do my best to explain these terms but if you have any questions just ask.  :) Gene This is Scientifically called an Allele, but most hobby geneticists prefer to use the word Gene(slightly incorrect, but is commonly used).  A single part of the genetics that make up how the animal looks. A gene controls the features of the animal, usually used for color, but is also body type and everything else.  A gene usually has a one or two letter abbreviation for the Gene name.  Three letters or more are rarer but not unseen.  It is co
B
Building colors for a Breed
The color version of Building a Breed by Conformation Have any things that need to be added? Just comment below.  Have a problem? You too, can comment below.  If you need me to eyeball some home-made genetics I totally don't mind giving ideas. Extension and Agouti Extension is the gene that allows black, or only gives red, while agouti manipulates the black pigment.  Extension and agouti should be thought of as the connected, and not as two separate genes.  Every horse has extension and agouti, even if one of the other doesn't show.  Extension isn't the 'black' gene, its the 'allows black' gene, the agouti gene 'a' is the black gene. EE/a
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Comments (6)
JNFerrigno's avatar
Other colors would be

Champagne : Ch
Dun : Dn (or just D so long as people know you're calling it Dun and not Dilute, because in other animals D is for Dilute)
Flaxen : (doesn't have a single gene, is thought to be polygenic, but some people just use F to show the horse can pass on Flaxen)
Grey : G
Overo : (specifically Frame Overo) can be denoted as O or F, I tend to stick with O because it's more universal among other horses people.
Pangera/Mealy : Pa (believe this is a theory as well, I don't think there is a test for it)
Roan : Rn
(you can add Rb for Rabicano, but Rabicano is unknown, and breeders don't really know how it's inherited or expressed completly)
Sabino : Sb1 (or just Sb for now. Only one test is out there for Sabino, but it's believed that Sabino has different expressions depending on breeds)
Splash : Spl (currently no test for it, how it's inherited is still open for debate)
Tobiano : To
White : W (dominate white. As of this point there have been I think 12 - or more- scientifically identified mutations of White. It is not grey, and not a dilution. It's a pattern, and some times unstable.)

And thats all I can think of off the top of my head, I feel like I missed some things, but I don't have my books infront of me.
Reply  ·  
JNFerrigno's avatar
o_O I hit something and it sent twice. Grr. Alright picking up where I left off with cream.

The thing with Cp is that depending on who you talk to, it's Cp or P. The idea is that P is a mutation of Cream and that because it's a mutation it can only inherit two copies of one allele. So far the horses tested or bred, do not show to be CC/Pp, Cc/PP, or CC/PP.

So the idea is that they are not two independent alleles but actually two mutations on the same allele. So a Cream/Pearl horse can be Cc/Cp.

But the catch is that a homozygous Pearl horse looks like a homozygous cream horse, or even a champagne horse. And a Cream/Pearl horses looks like a homozygous Cream horse.

Sorry it's late and I may confuse you but I did a detailed article on Pearl here [link]
Reply  ·  
JNFerrigno's avatar
Alright well for starters I would get right of the | between alleles. It makes it super confusing when writing it. Some places you'll see it written as A/a, E/e with a (,) comma separating the groups of alleles.

If anything I say doesn't make sense, I have some articles I wrote on DA which may explain further: [link] and if you're still stumped just ask.

I'm just going to give you the simple stuff, not all the new mutations and theory's discovered. Things that are theoretical I will note.

The Basics
Alleles: E
E : Black
e : Red (Chestnut/non-black)

Pairings
EE : homozygous for Black, can never have a Chestnut-Based offspring.
Ee : heterozygous for Red, can produce Chestnut-Based offspring.
ee : homozygous for Red, foals will always inherit one copy of (e).

Alleles: A
A+ : Extreme Restriction of Black, Wild Bay
A : Normal Restriction of Black, Standard Bay
At : Very Weak Restriction of Black, Brown (also called seal brown)
a : Does not Restrict Black

So an Ee/aa will be black, while an Ee/Aa horse will be Bay because A+, A, and At all restrict the expression of black on a horse.

Alleles: Cream
C : cream dilute
c : normal color
Cp : Pearl

A Cc horse is a single cream (Palomino, Buckskin, Smoky Black/Brown)
A CC horse is a double cream (Cremello, Perlino, Smoky Cream)
Reply  ·  
JNFerrigno's avatar
Alright well for starters I would get right of the | between alleles. It makes it super confusing when writing it. Some places you'll see it written as A/a, E/e with a (,) comma separating the groups of alleles.

If anything I say doesn't make sense, I have some articles I wrote on DA which may explain further: [link] and if you're still stumped just ask.

I'm just going to give you the simple stuff, not all the new mutations and theory's discovered. Things that are theoretical I will note.

The Basics
Alleles: E
E : Black
e : Red (Chestnut/non-black)

Pairings
EE : homozygous for Black, can never have a Chestnut-Based offspring.
Ee : heterozygous for Red, can produce Chestnut-Based offspring.
ee : homozygous for Red, foals will always inherit one copy of (e).

Alleles: A
A+ : Extreme Restriction of Black, Wild Bay
A : Normal Restriction of Black, Standard Bay
At : Very Weak Restriction of Black, Brown (also called seal brown)
a : Does not Restrict Black

So an Ee/aa will be black, while an Ee/Aa horse will be Bay because A+, A, and At all restrict the expression of black on a horse.

Alleles: Cream
C : cream dilute
c : normal color
Cp : Pearl

A Cc horse is a single cream (Palomino, Buckskin, Smoky Black/Brown)
A CC horse is a double cream (Cremello, Perlino, Smoky Cream)
Reply  ·  
JNFerrigno's avatar
There's a lot of incorrect information there, I would love to help you get back on the ball.
Reply  ·  
CastawayWish's avatar
CastawayWish|Student Digital Artist
I would love the help! This was when I first learned how to use genetics. I also was very busy at the time, but I should not be making excuses.
Reply  ·  
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