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The many types of avian wings. part 3


Ngh, this took some time. But it was a fun project, and I hope all this time was well spent.

Most of the information in this tutorial comes from
-Fåglarnas ekologi

The many types of avian wings
Part one, Standard wing types:
Part two, Aspect ratio and wing loading:
Part three, Wing types based on flight patters and foraging styles:

Creating winged creatures
Part one, Wingspan:
Part two, wing shape:
Part three, abilities:
Part four, extant and extinct animals:
Part five, mythological beasts:
Part six, creating your own creature:


Most photographs found in this tutorial are stock images from the wonderful photographers of Deviantart.
Some belong to the contributors of Wikimedia.

Darwin's Finches, by Michael Dvorak (2010),…
galianogangster Barn swallow
A1Z2E3R Magnificent frigatebird
stock-mon Wandering albatross
BetaDraconis Northern gannet
Sassy-Stock Whooper Swan
Common swift, by Amikosik (2010),…
happeningstock Horned puffin
Peruvian Diving Petrel, by Roar Johansen (2008)…

FeatheredSamurai American kestrel
Pallid swift by Snowmanradio (2010)…
EdgedFeather Lanner falcon
galianogangster Barn swallow

thiselectricheart Ruby-throated hummingbird
Purple-throated Carib, by Charlesjsharp (2010)…
Giant hummingbird by, Arturo Nahum (2011)…
Bee hummingbird by, gailhampshire (20016)…

alisab-stock Arctic tern
SalsolaStock Ring Billed Gull
FMNelly Osprey
88-Lawstock Australian pelican

Quiet-bliss African fish eagle
EdgedFeather Augur buzzard
aipstock Turkey vulture
mimose-stock Griffon vulture

88-Lawstock White-faced heron
Cassy-Blue Sandhill crane…
fillyrox Jabiru
EveLivesey Grey crowned crane

fadamii Black redstart
Vivid niltava, by Ron knight (2008)…
Momotte2stocks European robin…
Ame-Stock Scissor-tailed flycatcher

LRG-Photography Snowy owl
EdgedFeather Eurasian eagle owl
LRG-Photography Pale chanting goshawk
Disneyhorse Great horned owl

BELOST Great tit…
Redherc46 Long tailed tit
88-Lawstock Splendid fairywren
AdrianDunk Reed warbler

Tasastock Common starling…
SalsolaStock House sparrow
photographyflower House finch
TheIntellect Blue jay

AustriaAngloAlliance Pied avocet
BetaDraconis Eurasian oystercatcher
animalphotos African jacana
88-Lawstock Spur-winged plover

DrachenVarg-stock Sharp tailed grouse
NickiStock Eurasian oystercatcher
Synaptica-stock African jacana
SalsolaStock Spur-winged plover

FrankAndCarySTOCK Mute swan
happeningstock Horned puffin
Nevada216 Mallard
gurukitty Canada goose

Image details
Image size
2480x24716px 28.02 MB
© 2016 - 2021 camelpardia
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seionara's avatar
You may have switched up the aspect ration and wing loading in the third category of birds that fly for a long time by accident, the chart and common sense indicate they have a low to medium wing loading and a medium to high aspect ratio. You wrote that they have a low to medium aspect ration and a medium to high wing loading.

I'm also not so sure about mallards having a hard time taking off, they can manage a vertical takeoff in areas where they're fed by humans less frequently. It's actually quite impressive.
Though, that's probably more a matter of having to throw them in somewhere.
camelpardia's avatar
Ooops, yeah, that's my fault. Also this whole shebang is littered with spelling errors and grammatical inconsistencies, honestly I'd need an editor for these things since you become blind to your own mistakes after staring at it for so long.

Mallards are really interesting and probably one of the hardest birds to categorize, nether entirely round or pointed wings, nor completely adapted for their aquatic or terrestrial lifestyle. They feel like a species in transition, or perhaps one that has found a precise and precarious balance.
I've actually never seen them do a vertical take-off, but that might be 'cause I live in such a cold land. It's been really hard to find good reliable information about this topic and I've mostly had to rely on an old Swedish book "Fåglarnas Ekologi (the bird's ecology) by  J. Ekman, and A. Lundberg".
I've found no other literature that uses this type of categorization and it was a bit of an issue when I did my thesis on the subject, I wanted to use this model but had to go with the more standard "four wing types" model.
seionara's avatar
Yea, I know that feeling.

That does make sense.
I didn't know either until a year or two ago when I was kayaking in a river in France. I think it was trying to hide before deciding to flee and the river was quite overgrown so it didn't have the luxury of an open water or much airspace. From what I can remember it flew up at least 3 meters for maybe 1-0.5 meters of forward movement, so at an angle of about 70-80°, before getting clear of the shrubbery and flying away more "normally".
Most of the others I saw didn't have a running start but didn't rise as steeply so I'm guessing it's something they can do if they need to but generally try to avoid.
Sweetheartbetta1997's avatar
I wonder what wing type do the owls belong to?
camelpardia's avatar
Some are definitively in the "perching while foraging, strikes prey on the ground category", I'd say most Horned Owls (Bubo) are in that category. Barn-Owls (Tyto) and Eared-Owls (Asio ) spend more time soaring than the Horned Owls, but I'm uncertain if that would be enough to land them in the "Foraging by aerial patrol or soaring, often from a perch"  category.

The thing with owls are that they're very well adapted to a vast array of different habitats which makes making sweeping statements on their wing type kind of moot.

Any owl in particular that you'd like analyzed?
Sweetheartbetta1997's avatar
Well, my favorite bird is a snowy owl
camelpardia's avatar
A good choice!
The Snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) would most likely be in the "perching while foraging, strikes prey on the ground category", they have the classic "sit and wait" predator style.
Sweetheartbetta1997's avatar
I like snowy owls because of their beautiful coloration though and they make good ninjas. 
Karlalymy's avatar
Truly amazing, thank you very much for the detailed tutorial! 
But could anybody please explain me what vegetation means? I've never heard that word before. 
camelpardia's avatar
Thank you, and you're welcome!
Oh, hm, let's see, it's a bit hard to explain and I've always sucked at explaining words, but I'll give it a try. Also, English is not my native language...
Vegetation: plant species and the ground coverage they provide, like a community of plants in an area. From a mowed lawn to a large redwood forest, all of this is vegetation.……
mimose-stock's avatar
camelpardia's avatar
Thank you!
I try my best  ^w^
Shanglon's avatar
Prepare for a huge fave bombing because i love these tutorials :D
camelpardia's avatar
Then I can tease you with the fact that I'm actually working on a fourth part in the series,it'll be about the different flight styles used by birds and how that relates to their wing structure.
Shanglon's avatar
I can't wait!
anredera's avatar
Wow! Very good tutorial. Thank you so much! Fanboy Emote Heart--- 
camelpardia's avatar
Thank you so much!! :heart:
anredera's avatar
you're welcome pink heart {big} 
OfStrangerHearts's avatar
Such a detailed, marvellous tutorial.
Thank you! :)
camelpardia's avatar
Thank you, I put my heart and soul into it!
My pleasure :3
Rahula87's avatar
This is a great tutorial, thank you so much, i had fun reading this but i think i will re-read it again because i love it. You did an awesome job :clap: :clap: :clap: :clap:
camelpardia's avatar
Once more, thank you!
It warms my soul to hear that you find them useful and interesting to read
Rahula87's avatar
You are welcome ^_^
Regolith247's avatar
Wonderfully designed, well thought, and very very useful! Thanks from everyone for making this!
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