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The many types of avian wings. part 3



Ngh, this took some time. But it was a fun project, and I hope all this time was well spent.

Most of the information in this tutorial comes from
-Fåglarnas ekologi

The many types of avian wings
Part one, Standard wing types:
Part two, Aspect ratio and wing loading:
Part three, Wing types based on flight patters and foraging styles:

Creating winged creatures
Part one, Wingspan:
Part two, wing shape:
Part three, abilities:
Part four, extant and extinct animals:
Part five, mythological beasts:
Part six, creating your own creature:


Most photographs found in this tutorial are stock images from the wonderful photographers of Deviantart.
Some belong to the contributors of Wikimedia.

Darwin's Finches, by Michael Dvorak (2010),…
galianogangster Barn swallow
A1Z2E3R Magnificent frigatebird
stock-mon Wandering albatross
BetaDraconis Northern gannet
Sassy-Stock Whooper Swan
Common swift, by Amikosik (2010),…
happeningstock Horned puffin
Peruvian Diving Petrel, by Roar Johansen (2008)…

FeatheredSamurai American kestrel
Pallid swift by Snowmanradio (2010)…
EdgedFeather Lanner falcon
galianogangster Barn swallow

thiselectricheart Ruby-throated hummingbird
Purple-throated Carib, by Charlesjsharp (2010)…
Giant hummingbird by, Arturo Nahum (2011)…
Bee hummingbird by, gailhampshire (20016)…

alisab-stock Arctic tern
SalsolaStock Ring Billed Gull
FMNelly Osprey
88-Lawstock Australian pelican

Quiet-bliss African fish eagle
EdgedFeather Augur buzzard
aipstock Turkey vulture
mimose-stock Griffon vulture

88-Lawstock White-faced heron
Cassy-Blue Sandhill crane…
fillyrox Jabiru
EveLivesey Grey crowned crane

fadamii Black redstart
Vivid niltava, by Ron knight (2008)…
Momotte2stocks European robin…
Ame-Stock Scissor-tailed flycatcher

LRG-Photography Snowy owl
EdgedFeather Eurasian eagle owl
LRG-Photography Pale chanting goshawk
Disneyhorse Great horned owl

BELOST Great tit…
Redherc46 Long tailed tit
88-Lawstock Splendid fairywren
AdrianDunk Reed warbler

Tasastock Common starling…
SalsolaStock House sparrow
photographyflower House finch
TheIntellect Blue jay

AustriaAngloAlliance Pied avocet
BetaDraconis Eurasian oystercatcher
animalphotos African jacana
88-Lawstock Spur-winged plover

DrachenVarg-stock Sharp tailed grouse
NickiStock Eurasian oystercatcher
Synaptica-stock African jacana
SalsolaStock Spur-winged plover

FrankAndCarySTOCK Mute swan
happeningstock Horned puffin
Nevada216 Mallard
gurukitty Canada goose

Image size
2480x24716px 28.02 MB
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seionara's avatar
You may have switched up the aspect ration and wing loading in the third category of birds that fly for a long time by accident, the chart and common sense indicate they have a low to medium wing loading and a medium to high aspect ratio. You wrote that they have a low to medium aspect ration and a medium to high wing loading.

I'm also not so sure about mallards having a hard time taking off, they can manage a vertical takeoff in areas where they're fed by humans less frequently. It's actually quite impressive.
Though, that's probably more a matter of having to throw them in somewhere.