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This is so really error size of the T-Rex that's impossible >:(
Tyrannosaurus Rex Scale- UPDATE
It's finally here! (UPDATE- including sources at the bottom- if you have any questions, please check these out first)!

After brushing up on my dinosaur anatomy knowledge, and with new discoveries about near relative's skin surfaces, I became increasingly tempted to correct my previous image (now in the scrapbook).
About a week ago I asked myself "I wonder if they've made any new discoveries about that?" so I hit google and found a news article published a mere few hours ago! It cited a study that provided practically all-but-confirmed evidence that Tyrannosaurus was a purely squamous animal (see below for description, and sources). After reading the original scientific report and scrutinizing it just to be sure I wouldn't be wasting my time, I got to work.

Keep reading for a list of interesting facts that drove the manner I depicted this creature!

1- Size and Shape.
As I stated in the description, T-Rex was probably the heaviest theropod to have existed. Scott Hartman did some estimates and calculations comparing the weight of T-Rex to the second-most-robust non-Tyrannosauroid theropod, Giganotosaurus, and found the T-Rex would have likely been the heavier dinosaur. Despite being about the size of a large elephant, it probably weighed less, thanks to its hollow bones (a major reason why dinosaurs could so easily grow to large sizes). This T-Rex is scaled fairly close to the largest size (about 12m long, with a 1.5m head). Compared to this is a 1.8m (6 foot) man.

2- The Jaws.
We know "It had the most powerful bite of any land animal"... but that doesn't capture how intensely powerful its bite was.
The jaws are extremely thick, and the teeth are shaped not like shears or shark's teeth like other theropods, but bananas with sharped edges- being adapt for bone.
Various models and estimates place the bite-force at between 3600kg to over 5000kg- enough to break, or even shatter bones (as some scale-models demonstrated). Fossil evidence cited by DePalma et al (2013) demonstrates a T-Rex tooth crown embedded in a hadrosaurus bone.... that actually started to heal (meaning the T-rex attacked it, but the hadrosaur got away and started healing). This offers simultaneous proof of predatory behaviour, as well as how easily it can puncture the bones of other large animals.

3- The Eyes, Nose and Ears.
The rough anatomy of dinosaur eyes is fairly similar as the rough anatomy of birds; including the optic disks that the eyes are attached to- that aside, its a feature that birds largely evolved from dinosaurs anyway; making it a safe bet to err to the shape of bird's eyes (I used Eagles and various other birds as part of the inspiration, but mainly just looked at anatomy charts to know the absolute parameters I should stick to). Curiously, T-Rex had another unique physical adaptation; rather than achieving binocular vision by its skull simply being wider towards the back, the lateral flanks around the cheeks actually protrude outwards, each eye sitting snuggly on top (this gives it a slightly wider field of binocular vision than other theropods).
The ears of all dinosaurs are simply sockets that rest directly behind the skull (lower section) and before the muscles that make the lower jaw open.
The nose is, well, obviously where it's supposed to be. I thickened some soft-tissue at the tip (a feature all dinosaurs with non-beaked noses seemed to have). Unsurprisingly, T-Rex had an acute sense of smell.

4- The Legs and Tail
The biggest flaw in my previous design, now fixed nicely. When someone tells you "The tail directly attaches to the legs", THEY MEAN IT.
Unlike mammals, whose thigh muscles and tail muscles more-or-less attach via the pelvis only*, every dinosaur has a long pair of muscles that run along the upper half of the thighs, and straight along the sides of the tail for some distance from the base, bypassing the hips entirely. This means there is a muscle directly joining tail and thigh, that pull on each other (lifting the leg makes the tail wag, and vise-versa). Because of this, dinosaurs were able to move more swiftly (and run faster) than previously believed; an extreme case being Carnotaurus, whose tail bones were evolved to accommodate a massive version of this muscle.
Compared to this, T-Rex's muscle was more "Typical", but still rather large (the tradeoff being it could turn tighter corners than Carnotaurus). It also likely had the thickest thighs, indicating it made very heavy use of them (that again, is nothing due to its size, as Giganotosaurus had slimmer legs).
*Strictly speaking, it's the same for mammals; but the structure of the pelvis restricts the muscles to the immobile part at the base of the tail... including the human tailbone.

5- Arms and Posture.
A common mistake among artists (but not me, hehe!) is in depicting the arms.
Firstly, the correct posture is they were NOT held like a kangaroo's arms or a dog "begging"; but more like a gunslinger, palms facing each other. This is because T-Rex arm bones were, like almost every other dinosaur, unable to rotate their wrists and point their hands downward. Similarly, T-Rex was unable to fold its arms like a bird folds its wings.
Secondly, and more strangely, is to depict arms according to the belief that they were weak, brittle "de-evolving" limbs that were becoming more and more useless as to allow the animal to have a bigger head.
They were actually the exact opposite. T-Rex's Tyrannosauroid ancestors never had long arms to begin with; even at an early stage, the infamous tiny two-digit limbs already present, which T-Rex merely inherited.
Stranger still, analysis of skeletal flexibility and muscle-scarring indicates T-Rex's arms had evolved to be terrifyingly strong (for their size, which is similar in length to human arms). Each arm was capable of lifting a few hundred kilograms... each. Furthermore, they likely had impressive flexibility, and were well adept for lashing forward and grabbing things (as every other theropod could boast). Source is Carpenter 2002.

6- And finally, the skin!
Bell et al's (2017) findings identified a specimen with multiple remaining skin fragments spread across its entire body- some 30cm wide. Tail, neck, body, lateral, ventral, dorsal... yet found no trace of feathers.
This alone already indicates it had a purely scaly hide (or alternatively, a mottled patchwork of scales and feathers, and by amazing coincidence, the feathers simply didn't fossilize).
But they go a step further and cite recent findings of close relatives; Albertosaurus, Tarbosaurus, Gorgosaurus and
Daspletosaurus (all within the Tyrannosauridae family, the Tarbosaurus and Daspletosaurus specifically sharing the specific Tyrannosaurinae sub-family with T-Rex. Again, skin fragments in different areas (enough to collectively form a near-complete hide), no feathers were found at all between any of them. This means that T-Rex belongs to a family that belongs to a specific family of Tyrannosauroids that show only scales (more specifically, the all evolved from an ancestor, and 'coincidentally' all had scales); in contrast, fully-feathered Yutyrannus is a far more distant and ancient relative of a completely different group within the tyrannosauroid super-family. Needless to say, the evolutionary evidence of scales is substantially stronger than the alternative that it somehow retained feathers while its very nearest relatives and ancestors did not.
This study aside, I should point out that fully-scaled dinosaur mummies of hadrosaurs that lived in the same time and place as T-Rex have been unearthed- also fully scaled; suggesting a climate in which even animals half T-Rex's size had evolved to be scaly in (countering any thermoregulatory basis to be covered in thick down).

7- T-Rex was extremely common and widespread across North America during the Late Cretaceous Period.
Fossils of this creature are in great abundance, which aside from reflecting on its success, also make this animal WAY easier to reconstruct.
(If anyone is wondering, this is a major reason I keep illustrating this animal- long story short, we KNOW what its entire skeleton looks like, and can infer its shape very easily. Giganotosaurus is known only from only half a skeleton, and Spinosaurus a couple or ribs, vertebrae, mandibles and recently, a fine pair of legs- meaning there is a lot we don't know about the latter animals)

Bell et al (2017)'s Study into scales;

"Your Dinosaurs are Wrong" for a fun and brilliant rundown on dinosaur anatomy…

Scott Hartman's T-Rex vs Giganotosaurus weight calculations (also check out the rest of his work, it's brilliant!)…

DePalma et al (2013) Evidence of predatory behaviour AND how powerful T-Rex's bite could be…

Carpenter (2002); For Theropod limb mechanics…

Hi it's just to tell you that when I create something, I can not tell you who this person is, because I invent and create for the years before 
For you My Friends, Billy Creator Cartoons really good of you
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Creator Cartoons
Artist | Professional | Film & Animation
Français : J'aimerais bien dessiner beaucoup de choses et surtout de ce qui me plâit parce que c'est quelque chose que j'ai toujours aimé de dessiner comme les Walt Disney Don Bluth Milt Kahl, et de faire plein de choses aussi et surtout le plus c'est tous les sortes de personnages ce que je fais et même aussi les anciens personnages d'avant, où des années d'avant

exemple :
1928, 1940, 1967, 1993, 2000

etc. et comme ça, ça sera la plus meilleure du monde entier de ce que je fais, je sais faire plein truc, je vais tout ce que je veux et ce que je peux aussi, moi oui c'est vrai sur Paint. Net je vais toujours au calque mais après je me débrouille trop bien mais après je peux faire sans calque ne vous niquetez pas voila et pour finir demandez-moi ce que je dois dessiner s'il vous peut merci beaucoup les amis.

English : I would like to draw a lot of things and especially what pleases me because it is something that I always liked to draw like the Walt Disney don Bluth Milt Kahl, and to do lots of things too and especially the most it's all kinds of characters what I do and even the old characters from before, where years before

1928, 1940, 1967, 1993, 2000

etc. and that way, it will be the best in the whole world of what I do, I know how to do a lot of things, I'll do everything I want and what I can too, yes yes it's true on Paint. Net I always go to the layer but after I'm doing too well but then I can do without tracing do not niquetez voila and finally ask me what I have to draw if you can thank you very much friends.


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