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Cerviņe talpe


Phonology


Consonants


/p t c k ʔ/ p t c k
/pʰ tʰ cʰ kʰ/ ph th ch kh
/b d ɟ g/ b d j g
/bʰ dʰ ɟʰ gʰ/ bh dh jh gh
/s ɬ ç h/ s ł ç h
/m n ɲ ŋ/ m n ņ ng
/ɾ l/ r l
/ʋ j/ v y

Vowels


Monophthongs


/i ɨ u/ i î u
/e o/ e o
/ə/ â
/a/ a

Diphthongs


/ai ei əi ii oi ui ɨi/ ai ei ii oi ui îi
/au eu əu iu ou uu ɨu/ au eu âu iu ou uu îu
/ia ie iə io/ ia ie iâ io
/ua ue uə uo/ ua ue uâ uo
/eo ea oa/ eo ea oa
/ae ao/ ae ao

Syllable structure


CCVCC

Accent


Stress accent on penultimate syllable.

Morphonology


Fricative + Plosive, Plosive + Fricative → Pʰ

t k → c _F
tʰ kʰ → cʰ _F
d g → ɟ _F
s ɬ h → ç _F
n ŋ → ɲ _F

Nouns


Gender


Masculine             -a    manga 'man'
Feminine              -e    jeņe 'woman'
Non-Human Animate  -î/-i  varji 'wolf'
Inanimate             -u    danghu 'sky, heaven'

Demonstrative affixation


Indefinite        -nâ
Definite proper  -sâ
Definite distant  -tâ

Number


Singular  -    manga 'man'
Dual      -k  mangak 'two men'
Plural    -i   mangai 'men'

Case


1. Nominative    -         manga 'man'           mangak 'two men'            mangai 'men'
2. Genitive       -s/-âs    mangas 'of man'       mangaks 'of two men'        mangais 'of men'
3. Instrumental  -ņi/-âņi  mangaņi 'with man'    mangakņi 'with two men'     mangaiņi
4. Dative         -m/-âm  mangam 'for/to man'  mangakâm 'for/to two men'  mangaim 'for/to men'
5. Ablative       -t/-ât    mangat 'from man'    mangakât 'from two men'     mangait 'from men'
6. Locative      -r/-âr    mangar 'in/on man'    mangakâr 'in/on two men'    mangair 'in/on men'

Verbs


Preverbs


bî- 'to beat'

Towards     do- dobî- to beat down, to fasten
Away from  od- odbî- to beat away, to bounce, to reflect
Inside       en- enbî- to beat in, to stick
Outside      vî- vîbî- to beat out, to knock out

Voice


Active              -      jid- 'to be seeing'
Causative          -ra-    jirad- 'to be showing'
Passive            -ņi-    jiņid- 'to be seen'
Passive-Causative  -me-  jimed- 'to be shown'

Tense


Past remote  -la-  jidla- 'to be seeing long ago'
Past proper  -sa-  jidsa- 'to be seeing recently'
Non-past     -     jid- 'to be seeing (in present or future)'

Aspect


Imperfective  -     jid- 'to be seeing'
Iterative      -ya-  jidya- 'to be seeing many times'
Perfective    -ta-   jidta- 'to see (action is performed)'
Resultative   -vî-   jidvî- ' to see (result of action)'

Person


Thematic


   Singular  Plural
1. -âyo      -âmi
2. -âçi       -âci
3. -          -âi

Athematic



   Singular  Plural
1. -yo       -mi
2. -çi        -ci
3. -          -i

Modal particles


bî 'would'                    bî   jidâyo   'I would be seeing'
mâk 'might'                  mâk jidâyo  'I might be seeing'
yâl 'may'                     yâl  jidâyo  'I may be seeing'
vâi 'should'                  vâi  jidâyo  'I should be seeing'
her 'want'                   her  jidâyo  'I want be seeing'
em 'go'                      em  jidâyo   'I am going to see'
mut 'must'                  mut jidâyo   'I must be going'
cel 'need'                    cel  jidâyo   'I need be seeing'
rîh 'let'                      rîh jidâyo   'I let to be seeing'
ņi  'whether (interrogative) ņi  jidâyo    'whether I to be seeing ?'
a '! (imperative)'            a jid-   'see!'

Negation


le- 'no, not' lejidâyo 'I am not seeing'

Non-finite forms


Participles


Adjective participle              -ç-
Adverbial participle              -ço

Gerund and infinitive


Gerund    -nu  jidnu 'seeing'
Infinitive  -rî   jidrî  'to be seeing'

Adjectives


Adjectives have the same ending as nouns.

Degrees of comparison


Positive       -       bhas-     'good'
Comparative  -eçk-   bhaseçk-  'better'
Superlative   -lak-    bhaslak-     'best'

Adverbs


Degrees of comparison


Positive       -       bhaso     'well'
Comparative  -eçk-o  bhaseçko  'better'
Superlative   -lak-o   bhaslako  'best'

Numerals


    Cardinal Ordinal
1. âik-       âikr-
2. kuâ       kuâr-
3. saņi       sangr-
4. tkaemi    tkaemr-
5. paryai    paryar-
6. haçci     hastr-
7. vaçkai    vaçkar-
8. oroi      oror-
9. riemei    riemer-
10. samha   samhar-
11. âikaçahi âikaçahr-
20. kuâsamha kuâsamhar-
21. kuâsamha âik- kuâsamhar- âikr-
100. çaha   çahar-
101. çaha âik- çahar- âikr-
120. çaha kuâsamha çahar- kuâsamhar
121. çaha kuâsamha âik- çahar- kuâsamhar- âikr-
200. kuâçahai
1.000. kîrya
10.000. samha kîryai samhar- kîryar-
100.000. çaha kîryai çahar- kîryar-
1.000.000. gaora kîrya

Multiple        -râk-
Multiplicative  -kîrt-
Rankinging     -rand-

Pronouns


Personal pronouns


   Singular               Dual     Plural
1. me                     mak     mai
2. tî                      vak      vai
3. an                     ank      aņi

Declension of 1.SG


1. Nominative    me
2. Genitive       mes
3. Instrumental  meņi
4. Dative         mem
5. Ablative       met
6. Locative      mer

Declension of 1.DUAL


1. Nominative    mak
2. Genitive       maks
3. Instrumental  makņi
4. Dative         makâm
5. Ablative       makt
6. Locative      makr

Declension of 1.PL


1. Nominative    mai
2. Genitive       nas
3. Instrumental  naņi
4. Dative         nam
5. Ablative       nat
6. Locative      nar

Declension of 2.SG


1. Nominative    tî
2. Genitive       tîs
3. Instrumental  tîņi
4. Dative         tîm
5. Ablative       tît
6. Locative      tîr

Declension of 2.DUAL


1. Nominative    vak
2. Genitive       vaks
3. Instrumental  vakņi
4. Dative         vakâm
5. Ablative       vakt
6. Locative      vakr

Declension of 2.PL


1. Nominative    vai
2. Genitive       vais
3. Instrumental  vaiņi
4. Dative         vaim
5. Ablative       vait
6. Locative      vair

Declension of 3.SG


1. Nominative    an
2. Genitive       ans
3. Instrumental  aņņi
4. Dative         anâm
5. Ablative       ant
6. Locative       anâr

Declension of 3.DUAL


1. Nominative    ank
2. Genitive       ankâs
3. Instrumental  ankņi
4. Dative         ankâm
5. Ablative       ankât
6. Locative       ankâr

Declension of 3.PL


1. Nominative    aņi
2. Genitive       aņis
3. Instrumental  aņiņi
4. Dative         aņim
5. Ablative       aņit
6. Locative       aņir

Possessive pronouns


   Singular               Dual    Plural
1. mây-                   kây-    nas-
2. tvây-                   ucy-    vas-
3. ay-                     aņc-    aņ-

Possessive pronouns are declining in the same way as nouns and adjectives.

Correlative pronouns


Definite proper demonstrative


Place               sau     'here'
Source              ossau  'from here'
Purpose direction  dosau  'to here'
Path                satu   'this way'
Time                sava   'now'
Method             sat    'in this way'
Quantity            saci   'so much'
Qualify             samî   'like this here'
Reason             saye   'for this reason'

Definite distant demonstrative


Place                tau    'there'
Source              ottau  'from there'
Purpose direction  dotau  'to there, so far'
Path                tatu   'that way'
Time                tava   'then'
Method             tat    'in that way'
Qualify             tamî   'like that'
Reason             taye   'for that reason'

Indefinite demonstrative


Place                nau    'somewhere'
Source              onnau  'from somewhere'
Purpose direction  donau  'to somewhere'
Path                natu   'some way'
Method             nat    'in some way'
Qualify             namî   'like something'
Reason             naye   'for some reason'

Interrogative / Relative


Human being                            ka     'who ? which ?'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  va     'what ? which ?'
Place                                    kau    'where ?'
Source                                  okkau  'whence ?'
Purpose direction                      dokau   'whither ?'
Path                                    katu    'which way ?'
Time                                    kava    'when ?'
Method                                 kat     'how ?'
Quantity                                kaci    'how much ?'
Qualify                                 kamî    'which one ?'
Reason                                 kaye    'why ?'

Indefinite


Human being                            kasa     'someone'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  vasa     'something'
Place                                    kasau    'somewhere'
Source                                  okkasau  'from somewhere'
Purpose direction                      dokasau  'to somewhere'
Path                                    kasatu   'via some way'
Time                                    kasava   'once'
Method                                 kasat    'somehow'
Quantity                                kasaci   'somehow much'
Qualify                                 kasaye   'some'

Unlimited


Human being anyone
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  kara     'anything'
Place                                    karau    'anywhere'
Source                                  okkarau  'from anywhere'
Purpose direction                      dokarau   'to anywhere'
Path                                   karatu     'via any way'
Time                                   karava     'ever'
Method                                karat      'anyhow'
Quantity                               karaci     'anyhow much'
Qualify                                karaye     'any'

Negative


Human being                            leka     'nobody'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  leva     'nothing'
Place                                    lekau    'nowhere'
Source                                  odlekau  'from nowhere'
Purpose direction                      dolekau  'to nowhere'
Path through                           lekatu   'no way'
Time                                    lekava   'never'
Method                                 lekat    'nohow'
Quantity                                lekaci   'nothing'
Qualify                                 lekaye   'neuter, indistinct'

Universal


Human being                            kao(li)   'every'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  vao(li)   'every, all'
Place                                    kaoliv    'everywhere'
Source                                  okkaoliv  'from everywhere'
Purpose direction                      dokaoliv  'to everywhere'
Path                                    kaolitu   'through all ways'
Time                                    kaoliva   'always'
Method                                 kaolit     'in all methods'
Quantity                                kaolici    'otherwise than so many'
Qualify                                 kaoliye    'any'

Alternative


Human being                            kama     'anyone else'
Inanimate object or Non-Human being  vama     'anything else'
Place                                    kamau    'elswhere'
Source                                  okkamau  'from elswhere'
Purpose direction                      dokamau  'to elswhere'
Path                                    kamatu   'which way else'
Time                                   kamava    'when else'
Method                                kamaci     'otherwise'
Qualify                                 kamaye    'other'

Reflexive, Reciprocal and Cooperative pronouns


Reflexive     çi
Reciprocal    eņçi
Cooperative  eņje

Prepositions


en - in
on - on
ono - above
upo - under
prî - beside
apo - away
enter - between
za - behind
paza - out
ambi - around
pre - before, opposite to
eņces during, in time of
pa - after

san - with
per - by
bez - without
eņçcel - instead
âņci - against
pabez - despite, though
santo - along to, according to
od - from
do - to, towards
ar - for
so - as
ła - like

Conjunctions


Paratactical conjunctions


î - and
îche - also
li - or
vâ - but
che - so

Hypotactical conjunctions


do - to, for
îta - althought
bha - because
yah - if
çi - that, providing

Particles


Polarity particles


tai - yes
le - no

Modifiers


only - âino
yet - içci

Intensifiers


âç - weak
ba - strong

Evidential particles


dî   - visual
pha - hearsay
hâ  - from other source

Volitional particle


nîh - volition or intention

Word formation


Derivation


Noun to noun


Diminutive                       -il-      vâdhu 'star' → vâjhilu 'little star'
Augmentative                    -aug-    boru 'mountain' → boraugu 'grand mountain'
Contradiction                    le-      manga 'man' → lemanga 'non-man, non-human being'
Similarity                        -abh-    saurî 'sun' → saurabhî 'pseudo-sun'
Half                             pâl-      varji 'wolf' → pâlvarji
Relational abstract I            -istu        manga 'man' → maņjistu 'humanity'
Relational abstract II           -(â)tu       teoda 'king' → teodâtu 'kingdom'
Related person                  -ar-      kaba 'cow' → kabar- 'cowman, cattle grazer'
Related object                  -(â)mu   laçu 'meat' → laçâmu 'muscle'
Place                            -ņu      tâku 'fire' → tâkņu 'campfire'
Collection of living beings      -avî      naethî 'bird' → naethavî 'fowl'
Collection of inanimate things  -(e)thu  pheoru 'feather' → pheorthu 'feathers'
Part, fragment of smth         -iâru/-yâru vaimî 'war' → vaimiâru 'part of war, war episode'
Center                          -(â)kharu   halve 'head' → halvâkharu 'center of head'
Home, house                    -Vs-tamu    thâva 'god' → thâvastamu 'church, temple'
Collabourer, participant         san-        tamar- 'inmate' → santamar- 'co-inmate'
Whole, all                       kao(l)-       jid- 'to see' → kaojidmu 'panorama'
Follower                        ar-         vaimî 'war' → arvaimar- 'pro-war person'
Antagonist                      âņci-       vaimî 'war' → âņcivaimar- 'anti-war person'
State                            -ua        cervin- 'chervian' → Cervinua 'Chervia'
Science                          -Vs-vadui talpe 'language' → talpesvadui 'linguistics'
Craft, art                       -ar-thu    zoryu 'gold' → zoryarthu 'goldsmiths'

Noun to adjective


Possessive  -ik-/-ic-      manga 'man' → maņjik-/maņjic- 'belonging to man'
Originative  -in-/-iņ-     danghu 'sky' → daņjhin-/daņjhiņ- 'derived from sky, celestial'
Similaritive  -aod-/-aoj-  phersa 'horse' → phersaod-/phersaoj- 'similar to horse, equine'
Feature     -ît-          pîlu 'hair' → pîlît-/pîlîc- 'hairy'
Lack        le-...-ît-      tîtu 'tooth' → letîtît-/letîtîc- 'toothless'

Verb to verb


Surfeit (to many)  ono-  ardh- 'to grow' → onoardh- 'to overgrow, to surpass'
Opposite            dâ-   tuâr- 'to create' → dâtuâr- 'to destroy'

Verb to noun


Agentive                -t-               tkey- 'to speak' → tkeit-/tkeic- 'speaker'
Experiencer, adressee  -t-               dhaņiy- 'to be learned' → dhaņiit-/dhaņiic- 'disciple'
Result                  -v-               dep- 'to fall' → depvu 'fall'
Instance                -mî              vay- 'to war' → vaimî 'war'
Instrument             -k(o)lu/-g(o)lu  bî- 'to beat' → bîglu 'hammer'
Place                   -ņu              gaol- 'to kill' → gaolņu 'slaughterhouse'

Verb to adjective


Potentional  -ah-  tkey- 'to speak' → tkeyah-/tkeyaç- 'able to be pronounced'

Syntax


Word order


SOV
SOIntV
SONegV

Head position


Language is right-headed.

Copular verbs


Translative  nak- to became
Essive          ir- to be
Excessive    ce- cease to be

Onomastics


Colours


vaeme - colour
haos- - light
thung- - dark
zoryin- - golden
cerbhin- - silver
kârn- - black
ruokh- - red
kaor- - blue
ghîl- - yellow
dhâir- green
khaus- - grey
ârâng- - orange
paelh- - violet
ceut- - pink
jerm- - brown
leom- - white

Texts


Pater noster


Thâva nasa, ka irsi en danghur,
rasu Tvâyu a çi hwantçi;
teodâtu Tvâyu a gam;
duve Tvâyu a ir, so en danghur sat î en haomer.
Laebas nasas kajinîtas a eadçi mem jinasâ
î a vîden maim nasei vîkhei so î mai nasam vîkharam vîdenâmi.
Î on loukhus nas a leget,
vâ zaevat nas a vîprai.
Bha Tvâyu ir teodâtu î varda, î łave on veikas.
Amen.

Yunî î phersî (Sheep and horses)


On vatur, yunî bez phâlus phersîtâi jidlata; âikî verkus bagus vergla, kuârî baoru koçu, î sangrî mangas bhaeto bagla. Yunî do phersîis tkeilata: "Khartu mem pal, kava jidâyo va manga phersîim patru yaok." Phersî odâtkeilata: "A nîh łak, yunî, khartui nasai palâi, kava jidâmi, kat manga, korya, tvâyus phâlus on phâluces ar çim opper. Î yunî bez phâlus." Łakço sâ, yunî trâ yormâtus rengla.
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:iconjdailey1991:
Jdailey1991 Featured By Owner Feb 6, 2018
I don't understand the Phonology part.
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:iconartaxes2:
Artaxes2 Featured By Owner Feb 7, 2018  Hobbyist
Phonology is updated.
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:iconjdailey1991:
Jdailey1991 Featured By Owner Feb 7, 2018
I still need clarification.
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:iconartaxes2:
Artaxes2 Featured By Owner Feb 10, 2018  Hobbyist
Don't you know the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) ?
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:iconjdailey1991:
Jdailey1991 Featured By Owner Feb 10, 2018
I just can't imagine what each one sounds like.
Reply
:iconartaxes2:
Artaxes2 Featured By Owner Feb 10, 2018  Hobbyist
Look here and here.
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