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No laughing matter by AnonymousLlama428 No laughing matter :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 29 14 Ex ungue leonem pingere by AnonymousLlama428 Ex ungue leonem pingere :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 31 10 Old warrior by AnonymousLlama428 Old warrior :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 31 38 This is long overdue by AnonymousLlama428 This is long overdue :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 25 11 Unwelcome dinner guest by AnonymousLlama428 Unwelcome dinner guest :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 23 24 Dreams of an old British winter by AnonymousLlama428 Dreams of an old British winter :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 32 9 MIS 5a hunt by AnonymousLlama428 MIS 5a hunt :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 70 31 Eating ass by AnonymousLlama428 Eating ass :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 31 44 Steppe brown bear by AnonymousLlama428 Steppe brown bear :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 30 15 Gonna catch dis by AnonymousLlama428 Gonna catch dis :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 8 2 ... by AnonymousLlama428 ... :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 15 30 Arctodus by AnonymousLlama428 Arctodus :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 64 50 bruh by AnonymousLlama428 bruh :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 15 62 Old griffin bust by AnonymousLlama428 Old griffin bust :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 22 5 Outgunned by AnonymousLlama428 Outgunned :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 125 70 Old griffin by AnonymousLlama428 Old griffin :iconanonymousllama428:AnonymousLlama428 35 26

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Mercy by Liang-Xing Mercy :iconliang-xing:Liang-Xing 3,004 51 The Day I Was Mean by kenket The Day I Was Mean :iconkenket:kenket 479 10 Powerful Terror Ruler by RajaHarimau98 Powerful Terror Ruler :iconrajaharimau98:RajaHarimau98 45 11
Journal
neanderbooks
i know i have never posted about this project here..... but my life force is driven by the bloodpact wherein i must read all neanderthal fiction before i can die. here is the quest as it stands from my tumblr ATM (Automatic Telling Machine):
now that i am done with my original neandereading list, its time to start getting into the expanded list that i found on goodreads. the expanded list is AS FOLLOWS:
The Last Neanderthal Clan: Raka of the Last Neanderthal Clan
by Lisa Lareau, Charlie Boring
Ki'ti’s Story, 75,000 BC 
by Bonnye Matthews
Raven’s Choice (Replacement Chronicles #1)
by Harper Swan
Savage Eden
by K.M. Ashman
The Shadow Hunter
by Pat Murphy
if you search ‘neanderthal’ on goodreads it give you all books set in pre-history. these are the ones im pretty sure have neanderthals in them, though its possible i missed a few. several of these are also the starts of a series.
i entered all titles and authors on this list into my library database, the
:iconplucky-ducky:plucky-ducky
:iconplucky-ducky:plucky-ducky 1 0
Proconsul by MartinSpurny Proconsul :iconmartinspurny:MartinSpurny 17 1 Pyra in Swimsuit :nsfw optional: by Emerald--Weapon
Mature content
Pyra in Swimsuit :nsfw optional: :iconemerald--weapon:Emerald--Weapon 200 6
Episode 14 - Candy Tongue by AngelGanev Episode 14 - Candy Tongue :iconangelganev:AngelGanev 255 10 The Middle Eastern Golden Age by AmericanDreaming The Middle Eastern Golden Age :iconamericandreaming:AmericanDreaming 53 20 Another Beached Banquet by WDGHK Another Beached Banquet :iconwdghk:WDGHK 35 4 One-Eyed Killer by FreakyRaptor One-Eyed Killer :iconfreakyraptor:FreakyRaptor 43 11 Inktober mother mammoth by zachrobinson Inktober mother mammoth :iconzachrobinson:zachrobinson 32 0 K/da Ahri II by MeganCoffey K/da Ahri II :iconmegancoffey:MeganCoffey 58 2 K/da Ahri by MeganCoffey K/da Ahri :iconmegancoffey:MeganCoffey 78 3 K/da Ahri III by MeganCoffey K/da Ahri III :iconmegancoffey:MeganCoffey 58 0 K/da Ahri VI by MeganCoffey K/da Ahri VI :iconmegancoffey:MeganCoffey 63 2 K/da Ahri V by MeganCoffey K/da Ahri V :iconmegancoffey:MeganCoffey 61 1

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No laughing matter
Inktober Day 8

yeah this shit is fucking overdue again

A paleolithic human (Homo sapiens sapiens) somewhere in Eurasia, probably the Altai region, getting jumped by a small group/clan of cave hyenas (Crocuta crocuta spelaea)
I admire these hyenas a lot, but they have a neglected representation in my gallery since I am crap at drawing hyenas, but I gave them a go. Tried to get those odd limb proportions of the cave hyena that are absent in the extant spotted hyena right, Think it turned out OK.

One of those hyenas seems to be fearful of his fallen spear.

The background is very half-assed.
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Ex ungue leonem pingere
"From the claw we may judge the lion."

Inktober day 7

It's over 60,000 years ago, In the far reaches of what will one day be Siberia, an old male cave lion (Panthera spelaea) has recently died near the banks of a river.

Depiction of the death of the Maly-Anyuy cave lion, a large male lion which was mature, but not old at the time of death, and the only skeleton of a cave lion known from Russia, with an additional preserved clump of hair possibly from the same individual, and preserve keratinized claws. His cause of death is unknown, but here I show him as being emaciated, showing ribs and bones.

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Old warrior
Inktober day 6

fuck overdue

An old male Eurasian cave lion (Panthera spelaea) with healed wounds from a battle with a cave bear many winters ago. He is blind in one eye and has had his skin/hair/flesh yanked off from one side of his face. His right ear is clipped, but I think it couldda been gone altogether.

Fossils of cave lions show that pathologies are often present around the cranium, probably at least in part due to antagonism with cave bears.
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Unwelcome dinner guest
Inktober day 5, overdue by over an hour

Ugh, the bear is too big here, and the proportions are off. The people are also meh. Yh I rushed this one a lot so it's kinda mesy, not happy with this one overall, imma try to do a better one maybe soon.

Some Gravettian hunters have killed a woolly mammoth, but their victory is short-lived as a hungry steppe brown bear (Ursus arctos priscus) is attracted to the scene by the prospects of a free meal. Shit is going to get down.
yh the sizes of the people and the perspective is all off, and I didn't bother on even a background, this is really half-assed, everything.
Let's suppose this is a small mammoth, like a young cow.

But as for the evidence, steppe brown bears almost certainly scavenged mammoth carcasses killed by humans during the Gravettian, at one kill site the remains of brown bears had isotope values suggesting that on average 33% of their diet consisted of mammoth meat, presumably scavenged from human kills. Though it seems that many of these kill sites were only seasonally inhabited by humans, and when they were present carnivores were generally at bay, but gorged themselves on the plentiful mammoth meat left behind when the humans left. But still, antagonism like this would have happened I'm sure.


tbh I think Wiktoria Gornig's piece on priscus contesting a mammoth kill from Neanderthals is better sta.sh/0795a7wbprd
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Of the various aspects of cave lion biology, one claim has been in the literature for a while, and in secondhand sources as well. The statement that sexual dimorphism was greater among the cave lions, with males being 21% larger than females in mass, as opposed to the supposed 15% seen in African lions today. But was this really the case? Well, let me find out.

NOTE: I am NOT an expert in any field, these are my own findings based on my own readings.

Sexual dimorphism is quite high among the pantherines, no doubt, and the cave lion is no exception. Indeed, it was once argued by some authors that two distinct races of lion, one large and one small, inhabited Europe during the Pleistocene, until it was shown that the morphological and size differences seen between these two apparent races fit comfortably into the known osteological and dental sex differences observed in extant lions, and was shown by Turner (1985), who concluded that they were at least as sexually dimorphic as modern lions[1].

However the statement that cave lions were more dimorphic than African lions, and the aformentioned figures, seems to have originated from Baryshnikov & Boeskorov (2001)[2]. Using mass equations developed by Jefferson (1992) using tooth measurements, they calculated the mean body mass of the Eastern cave lion (the population east of the Urals, aka. Panthera spelaea cf.vereshchagini, though this distinction is unsupported by genetic evidence) being 194kg for males, and 154kg for females - big, but actually approximately the same mean mass as the Southern African lion populations[3]. The cave lions living west of the Urals (Panthera spelaea cf. spelaea) on the other hand, grew much bigger - the smaller size for the eastern lions is largely attributed to the harsher environment[1]. The percentage difference in mass calculated for these lions ((1-(female weight/male weight))x100) is 21%, this contrasts with the apparent 15% of Modern African lions. Apparently, according to Understanding the Late Pleistocene: Cave LionThe Cave Lion
(Panthera spelaea spelaea)

Taxonomy and Relationships:

Cave lions, also known as Northern or steppe lions, lie within the big cat genus of Panthera along with the extinct American lions (P. atrox) and also lions (P. leo), leopards (P. pardus), snow leopards (P. uncia), jaguars (P. onca), and tigers (P. tigris). They’re now usually agreed to be a separate species than lions, being classified as Panthera spelaea, based on both considerable morphological and phylogenetic studies. Lions remain the cave lion’s closest living relative nonetheless. [1]
The early to middle Pleistocene Panthera spelaea fossilis is the direct ancestor of the cave lion which evolved in Eurasia about 700,000 years ago. The climate it lived in was warmer than that of the later cave lion and it was larger. [2] Its status as subspecies instead of a full species (P. fossilis) is deb
the dimorphism for the western cave lion population was even higher, at 31%, but I can find no mention of this in the literature.

I see a few problems here.

Firstly, my understanding of mass estimates is that using tooth measurements is not the most reliable way of estimating the body mass of an extinct mammal - using regression equations incorporating longbone data seems to be more reliable, since they are directly responsible for supporting the animal's weight, and thereby there is a closer relationship between longbone biometrics and body mass. However, in Russia, complete cave lion remains are quite scant, so it is understandable that this may not be possible for the Eastern cave lion population. In any case, the proportions of cave lions were fairly similar to those of modern ones[4], so the mass estimates based on equations that presumably used lion teeth shouldn't be too far off. For the sake of this journal I'll assume they're fairly veridical.

Secondly, Baryshnikov & Boeskorov (2001), as well as later authors such as Sabol (2018)[4], both cite George Schaller's 1972 book The Serengeti Lion[5] as a reference for this 15% figure for African lion dimorphism. Looking through it, I find no mention of this 15% figure, but perhaps this was calculated from some of the mean lion masses given by him.
I have tried to do some calculations on this myself in order to verify this. With the exception of a sample of Kenyan lions (5 lionesses, 14 males) from a previous paper referenced which gave a mean of 151kg for lionesses and 172kg for males, yielding a low 12.2% size disparity, the two other times in the book where figures for mean sex-specific lion mass (or ranges given whence the mean was calculable) gave size disparities of 26.7% and 29.4% between the sexes (mean 22.8%, but 28.05% excluding the 12.2% outlier). This is much higher than the supposed 15% and 21% purported for African and cave lions respectively.

Incorporating data from Schaller (1972) and other literature on mean lion mass, I found a very interesting consistency in sexual dimorphism:
Darpusan Sinkat by AnonymousLlama428
I calculated disparities of 25.8-33.8% (mean 30.55%) for differing samples across Africa using the data from Smuts (1980). Combining Schaller (1972) with Smuts (1980)'s datase I get an overall mean of a 29.7% disparity.
The outlier of 12.2% seems to be attributable to the smaller and thereby more biased sample size of lionesses (n=5), where as a more representative sample of males (n=14) was used[5].

But how does this compare to the cave lion?
While this is larger than the 21% figure for cave lions, and used dental measurements, so it may not be as accurate as it could be, and this figure was calculated for the eastern population only, dimorphism may have differed to some extent in the larger western cave lions,.

So this brings on another question........

How big was the western cave lion?


As said before, limb bones are ostensibly more reliable predictors of an animal's mass, and hence I looked through the literature for felid mass equations pertaining to longbone biometrics.
I used the equations that Christiansen & Harris (2005)[6] used to calculate the mass of Smilodon, and the felid variation of the mass equations in Christiansen (1999)[7], though I must say that as far as my knowledge goes, the former is more reliable.

While in Russia, which comprises the lion's share of the eastern cave lion's range, cave lion remains are often fragmentary (only one reasonably complete skeleton has ever been found), the same is not true for the western population; due to the cave-rich regions which they inhabited, accompanied with their predation behaviours on cave bears, attempts at kleptoparasitism on cave hyenas, and importing of their remains by hyenas into caves, we have a much larger sample of cave lion limb bones available.
Muckalkjulasjunz by AnonymousLlama428
After calculating the mean longbone biometrics (length, distal width etc.) I got overall weights of 224.87kg for male lions, and 164kg for lionesses using Christiansen & Harris (2005)'s equations and 230.69kg for male lions and 181.12kg for lionesses using Christiansen (1999)'s equations. This gives a size disparity of 27% and 23% respectively, and a mean of about 25% is we average out the masses obtained from the different equations - though, AFAIK, the 2005 study's equations seem to be more reliable.

In any case, the levels of dimorphism from 23-27% seen don't seem too far off from the apparent 21% of the eastern population, and seem to fall within, or just under the levels of sexual dimorphism seen in the African lions (25.8-33.8%).

So it seems that sexual dimorphism in the cave lion was similar to that seen in the African lion, and potentially varied across its range, though some of this may be attributable to imprecise calculations, but hey,

References:

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Hamza
Artist | Hobbyist | Varied
I have a keen interest in animals of all kinds, mainly prehistoric life.
My Quora profile:www.quora.com/profile/Hamza-Ah…

Also, here's a group of mine that you should watch:
:iconprehistory-unknown:
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:iconsappycitrussoda:
Sappycitrussoda Featured By Owner 15 hours ago  Hobbyist General Artist
Thanks For The Llama Emote Daisy thanks for watch .:Fluffy bunny and little star:. :Heart: 
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:iconanonymousllama428:
AnonymousLlama428 Featured By Owner 14 hours ago  Hobbyist General Artist
;)
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:icongabeecos:
gabeecos Featured By Owner 1 day ago  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thank you for the watch ❤️
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:iconanonymousllama428:
AnonymousLlama428 Featured By Owner 1 day ago  Hobbyist General Artist
;)
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:iconbigclaudia:
BigClaudia Featured By Owner 1 day ago  Hobbyist General Artist
thanks for watch
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:iconanonymousllama428:
AnonymousLlama428 Featured By Owner 1 day ago  Hobbyist General Artist
;)
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:iconkanyiko:
kanyiko Featured By Owner Oct 5, 2018  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Thank you very much for the :+fav:!! :hug:
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:iconanonymousllama428:
AnonymousLlama428 Featured By Owner Oct 5, 2018  Hobbyist General Artist
;)
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:iconlukajk:
lukajk Featured By Owner Oct 4, 2018  Student General Artist
Thanks for the watch, keep drawing!
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:iconanonymousllama428:
AnonymousLlama428 Featured By Owner Oct 4, 2018  Hobbyist General Artist
;)
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