In world war I were used three class of poison gas: Tear gas - Chocking - Blister/Vescicant
At the beginning were used tear gas like bromine and chloroacetone since 1914, then chocking agent in 1915, like Chlorine and Phosgene. Chlorine was easy detected, because its evident green color and its strong smell. The countermeasure was to cover mouth and nose with a cloath dumped with water or urine, because the gas is water-soluble and it react with the urea contained in urine. The first gas maskes given to the troop were canvas funnel cointaing gauzes soaked with neutralizing substance, or gas helmet, like the british P Helmet, soaked in sodium hyposulfite. Then during 1915 come the Phosgene, the main agent of fatalities due to gas during the great war. The Phosgene was invisible and quite odorless, just an inkling of hay. Unseen and undetected it could act for hours, without evidence of effect on the exposed men, then appeared the effect, irritation of eyes, dyspnea and bronchospasm. Against the phosgene were added more gauzes soaked with different neutralizing substances, but the chemical neutralizing masks and pad were not completely reliable, furthermore, if the mask was bathing neutralizing agents were washed away.
In 1917 appeared the Mustard Gas, or Yperite, it was a blister-vescicant gas, it wasn't as deadly as Phosgene, but it was the more invalidant agent of the war, and it persisted after the launch for days, and sometimes for weeks in the trenches.
Thus they were introduced new maskes to physical absorption, rather than chemical neutralization. These maskes possessed of external filters containing layers of active carbon, usually produced from seeds of fruit, and layers of gauze containing neutralizing substances. These maskes proved very effective and were usually made of rubber or rubberized fabric, not all maskes were equipped with escape valve, and this forced the wearer to breathe the same air, or make great efforts to expel it from the filter. Mustard gas tended to infiltrate the rubber maskes, so the German army, so parsimonious in materials, produced from 1917 the leather mask impregnated with reagents neutralizing rather than rubber. The filter could last about 5 hours, during attack, so the soldier had often an old chemical neutralization mask for back-up or a spare filter. The maskes were very wide, especially below the viewers, so the soldier could insert forefingers externally in the folds of the mask and clean inside the condensation that formed on the lenses.
The gas maskes were the most precious assets of the soldiers.
Ok, you are right, I made a choice, of course I missed the ASBR and the CEM, the various types of mouth pad and the various fannel mask, or the last type type of the German leather mask with the escape valve...
I hope it's okay to write this. I was here to give a llama in return and checed your gallery as I always do when somebody give me a llama. -^^- The "GummiSchutzeMask" would be "Gummischutzmaske" in german and the "LederSchutzeMask" would be a "Lederschutzmaske". I think your translator had some problems with thies really special words. As german I'm 100% sure about this and only want to let you know this. (: I'm endless sorry if I annoy you with this. :S
The Italian anti-gas mask was the Polivalente Z. Distributed to the Italian Armed Forces since January 1917, it consisted of a waxed cloath facial with eye holes and under a gauze system (32 layers) soaked with soda. It was contained in a tin or wooden box and was carried by the shoulder strap; they existed in three sizes. The mask did not protect all gas so much that in the Conca di Plezzo in October of 1917 did not guarantee the safety of our infants. It was therefore replaced between the end of 1917 and the beginning of 1918 by the English respirator S.B.R.
The LederSchutze was a more modern type, it was made of leather, while the Gummi was made of rubber. The last models of the Leder type had an exalation valve too. It was made of Leather so that it could be impregnated with neutralizing substances. We must bera in mind that in those times Gemany had a few raw materials, because of the naval blockade, but they found it necessary to use precious leather to do better mask for the soldiers.
Gas a horrifying weapon. Excellent work Old Boy see there was a little bit of difference in gas mask design, but not much. Takes me back to the time when I was a younger man in basic training, I had to put my mask on for an exercise, once inside the gas chamber they made us take them off. CS riot gas is rather nasty and it did burn my eyes and throat, however I had every confidence in my mask after that. Also interesting to note in World War One, a soldier only needed a mask to survive a gas attack, however when I was in the US Army we were issued an entire suit not just a mask, the suit was rather bulky and heavy and in the hot sun it added an extra 10 degrees at least to my body temperature. I think newer models are lighter materials, the ones I was issued were almost like winter gear. Excellent work as always Old Boy.
Oh my God, yes, when I was in the army I was horrified durind NCB training, We tested just the mask, then a false test syringe of antidote for nerve gas. The only think that there might be something like, filled me with horror. Now Assad launched it on his countrymen, including children, what can i say?!