Dead leaf grasshopper. Taken at night in Singapore forest.
Quote from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimicry In evolutionary biology, mimicry is the similarity of one species to another which protects one or both. This similarity can be in appearance, behaviour, sound, scent and location, with the mimics found in similar places to their models. Mimicry occurs when a group of organisms, the mimics, evolve to share common perceived characteristics with another group, the models. The evolution is driven by the selective action of a signal-receiver or dupe, such as birds that use sight to identify palatable insects (the mimics), whilst avoiding the noxious models. This creates a mimicry complex. The model is usually another species except in cases of automimicry. The signal-receiver is typically another intermediate organism like the common predator of two species, but may actually be the model itself, such as a moth resembling its spider predator. As an interaction, mimicry is in most cases advantageous to the mimic and harmful to the receiver, but may increase, reduce or have no effect on the fitness of the model depending on the situation. Models themselves are difficult to define in some cases, for example eye spots may not bear resemblance to any specific organism's eyes, and camouflage often cannot be attributed to a particular model.
Camouflage, in which a species resembles its surroundings, is essentially a form of visual mimicry. In between camouflage and mimicry is mimesis, in which the mimic takes on the properties of a specific object or organism, but one to which the dupe is indifferent. The lack of a true distinction between the two phenomena can be seen in animals that resemble twigs, bark, leaves or flowers, in that they are often classified as camouflaged (a plant constitutes its "surroundings"), but are sometimes classified as mimics (a plant is also an organism). Crypsis is a broader concept which encompasses all forms of avoiding detection, such as mimicry, camouflage, hiding etc.
Though visual mimicry is most obvious to humans, other senses such as olfaction (smell) or hearing may be involved, and more than one type of signal may be employed. Mimicry may involve morphology, behaviour, and other properties. In any case, the signal always functions to deceive the receiver by preventing it from correctly identifying the mimic. In evolutionary terms, this phenomenon is a form of co-evolution usually involving an evolutionary arms race. It should not be confused with convergent evolution, which occurs when species come to resemble one another independently by adapting to similar lifestyles.
Mimics may have different models for different life cycle stages, or they may be polymorphic, with different individuals imitating different models. Models themselves may have more than one mimic, though frequency dependent selection favors mimicry where models outnumber mimics. Models tend to be relatively closely related organisms, but mimicry of vastly different species is also known. Most known mimics are insects, though many other animal mimics, including mammals, are known. Plants and fungi may also be mimics, though less research has been carried out in this area.
Eucharitidae is a family of parasitic wasps known as Eucharitid wasps. Eucharitid wasps are members of the superfamily Chalcidoidea and consist of three subfamilies: Oraseminae, Eucharitinae, and Gollumiellinae. There are 55 genera and 417 species of Eucharitidae; most of which are members of the Oraseminae and Eucharitinae subfamilies. Most Eucharitids live in tropical regions of the world.
Eucharitids are specialized parasitoids of ants, meaning each species is usually only parasitic of one genus of ant. Furthermore, they are one of the few parasitoids that have been able to utilize ants as hosts, despite ants’ effective defense system against most parasitoids. Eucharitidae parasitism occurs year round, with a majority of it occurring during hot and humid months. However, the amount of parasitism that occurs depends primarily on the size of the ant colony and the number of host pupae in them, and not on the season.
Female Eucharitids oviposit rows of eggs into plant tissue, such as leaves and stems, away from ant colonies. The eggs are a translucent white and are about 0.019 mm long and 0.08 mm wide. They are elliptical and flat on one side. As the eggs mature they turn a brown color and ten days after oviposition they hatch. The larvae are solely responsible for their entry into the ant colony and the parasitism of their host. They are 0.13 mm long and are able to travel several inches on the leaf but do not leave the egg cluster. After six to seven days they attach themselves to foraging ants heading back to their brood; however, sometimes they will attach themselves to other insects, using them as an intermediate host. Once in the brood, the larvae will attach to their host larva. Some Eucharitdae are external parasites while others are internal parasites; however, all Eucharitid species finish their development as ectoparasites.
Limited feeding on the host occurs until the host pupates; after which, most of it is consumed by the wasp. Usually, there is only one parasite per host, but in some cases superparasitism occurs, and two to four wasps will attach to, and emerge from one host. Once the wasps emerge, the ant colony grooms and feeds them as if they were part of the ants’ brood. In some instances worker ants have been observed assisting the wasps emerge from its host. The wasps gain acceptance in these ways, and the ants show no signs of aggression because the wasps acquire their host's odor upon entry into the colony. By mimicking the odor of their host, Eucharitid wasps are able to keep themselves safe until the scent wears off, at which point they begin to leave the ant colony and begin mating.
Adult wasps emerge from the ant nest in the morning; the males emerge before the females. In most cases, the males swarm one to two feet above the nest, and as soon as the females emerge mating occurs. However, the males of certain species, such as Kapala Terminalis, calmly wait on folliage surrounding the nest until the females emerge. Many times the males will begin mating with the females before they have a chance to take flight and in some instances mating will occur while the wasps are still inside the ants nest. After mating, the females lay their all their eggs in one day. The egg capacity of each female is anywhere from 1000 to 10000.
Colour on the walls, make the world a brighter place. Fill your own personal world with colour. We are the artists, we are the dreamers, we are the story tellers and we have a gift to share; so colour on the walls and don't stop until we have transformed the way we see and the way we live. It's up to us! So pick up that paint brush, that camera, that stylus, those colour pencils, those tubes of frosting, those fabrics, that colourful clay, that make-up. ...and yes, even those crayons.
The Textron M1117 armored car, known as the Guardian or the Armored Security Vehicle (ASV), is used by the U.S. Army Military Police to protect convoys and military bases. It has better armor than a Humvee, and is lighter and faster than a Bradley infantry fighting vehicle (IFV). It is usually armed with a machine gun and a grenade launcher. An M1117 appeared at the 2014 Washington DC Auto Show, where it was easily the most distinctive "car" on the floor.
I'm glad so many of you like this pic, please understand I may not be able to respond if u comment, and yes this is a Salem book store and I don't know what would happen if u wanted a book from the bottom so don't ask! lol
photographer Scott Loring
please link back to this account if used no commercial use without permission, prints are fine no use in poor taste meaning, racist, abusive, or sexual themes please leave a link to your work for me to see on the image that you used, thanks!
'Walking on the Moon' <<<Better quality: [link]>>> Ladybugs are abound these days, marking the arrival of spring and soon, summer. I'm having fun photographing the little guys, so here's another ladybug 'portrait'.