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Painting done some time ago for the Total War:RomeII game. Caesar with the roman fleet is going to land in the mighty port of Alexandria. The next day he will meet Cleopatra and star an affair with her.
Done just in photshop with some help from my colleagues.
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The Biggest naval battle of Spanish-American war, called Battle of Santiago de Cuba. The whole war went very unfortunate for Spain and This was a end of the hundreds years old Spanish empire, it was year 1898.
I think Its an interesting moment in history and I also like the design of the ships from this age. Especially this cruiser Infanta Maria Teresa. It was sunk with all other Spanish ships.

Done in photoshop with the help of wacom tablet. It was quiet slow picture done in about two weeks evenings. Spend ages on the old photos and plans for this ship.
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Second attempt to visualize upcoming movie Prometheus. This time some ending scene when the space jockey race arrived to earth. Their ship is ancient and should look very different and superior to human vessels. My goal was to make a ship similar to the derelict in the first alien movie, just much bigger and different configuration.
Hope you like it and we can now just wait till next summer when the movie will be released.
All done in Photoshop and wacom intuos as usual.


There are two versions of this picture. if you got a older one please delete it, this one is better.
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Ships
:icontenrecresearch:
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I like to think about history and alternative history also. This is a vision of different historical line. British empire is intervening in American civil war on the side of Confederation. The first ironclads in the world fight against each other. The biggest ships in the world at time British HMS Warrior and Black Prince against smaller heavy armored American Monitors. I've read many articles about this fictional battle, still its not clear which ship can win.
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Some old picture, that I didn't publish at the time. Done some 2 years ago, for the project Elveon. It shows Landfall of a mighty elvish race. My inspiration was Tolkien (of course):), his Númenórean race. The Ship is my creation, based maybe on some greek or roman designs. Done in photoshop, in some 35-40 hours. There is a lot of details which takes me ages to do. Hope you will like it.
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The Biggest naval battle of Spanish-American war, called Battle of Santiago de Cuba. The whole war went very unfortunate for Spain and This was a end of the hundreds years old Spanish empire, it was year 1898.
I think Its an interesting moment in history and I also like the design of the ships from this age. Especially this cruiser Infanta Maria Teresa. It was sunk with all other Spanish ships.

Done in photoshop with the help of wacom tablet. It was quiet slow picture done in about two weeks evenings. Spend ages on the old photos and plans for this ship.
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Painting done some time ago for the Total War:RomeII game. Caesar with the roman fleet is going to land in the mighty port of Alexandria. The next day he will meet Cleopatra and star an affair with her.
Done just in photshop with some help from my colleagues.
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Finally i can start to post my newer works. I have some 5 pictures and wil lpost them in next 2 months hopefully.
This is a painting for the new project of the Creative Assembly.

The name of the game is Empire: total war. As I love to paint old ships I really enjoyed working on those pictures. This is only first one, the rest is waiting to be published.
The Image captures early mornig mood in huge french harbour La Rochelle, year 1715. The big ship on the left is the grandious Le Louis Quinze, most beatifull and biggest ship of its age.
I did try to make the ship as real as possible, reference was the model in naval museum in Paris. The general mood of the picture is maybe similar to some old oils from the 18.th century, that was my small goal.

The whole pic was done in about 30-40 hours. Original size is something like 2600pix so it was somehow hard to finish.

Im hoping that you will like this picture and i'll be happy to see any comments.
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Again my favourite theme. Artwork for the game Total war:Empire. This one was my biggest and most complicated painting, so I hope It was worth the time spend I have finished this piece some year ago, but cant post it because the marketing policy.
It shows the Battle of Quiberon Bay near coast of France. The ship on the right is HMS Royal George, pride of the british navy with almost 900 souls on the board.The battle fas fought in late november so the weather was very bad. Ship on the left is french La Superbe, and this ship ended very bad at the end.
I painted the ships as they were, based on many historical resourcess: paintings, engravings and models. And of course a bit of my imagination. No other references were used.
As I said this was my biggest work till now. Original res is 3000x1500, it takes me about one month to finish. Done in Photoshop CS3 from the start. I'll be happy to see your commnets and critics.

Please dont use the picture, because its property of creative
assembly. If its something really serious just write me note.
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In the summer of 1588, one hundred and thirty ships carrying 30,000 men set out to conquer England.This is my vision of the glorious moment when the fleet is leaving Lisbon. In the foreground is the flagship San Martin. Ships design is based on reference plans that I could find on net. But its not much there about those spanish galleons of this age. So I must use my imagination
All is done in photoshop, +wacom, in about 20-30 hours
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Huge Venetian galeasse San Lorenzo. Attacking the turkish fleet in Battle of Lepanto 1571. Was the biggest battle of oarvessels, about 200 galleys on each side . Design of the ship based on old painting and some engravings. I hope its a realistic reconstruction. This was my first picture showing some ship, is about 2 years old.
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History
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Tower Guard Concept for Natures wanderer indie game
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Phoenix Palace guard for indie game Nature's Wanderer
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Concept art created for Nature's Wanderer Indie game
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The main character about glory and dishonor in the latin poem "Pharsalia" (or "Bellum Civile") by Lucan.
High, from left: Cato the Younger and Julius Caesar; in the middle, on right, the centurio Sceva.
Down, from left: Cornelia, wife of Pompey, Pompey himself and Septimius, Pompey's murderer.

The citation on the right sounds like this (in my traduction):
Oh sacred and gread labor of the poets: you (the labor) snatches everything from the destiny
and gives to deadly people the eternity!
Caesar, don't feel envy for this sacred glory:
people of the feature will read me and you: our "Pharsalia"
will live forever and we won't be damn at darkness by any ages.
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John Hurt - Outlander movie.
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Ships
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Another old quick picture. This one was done for empire total war game as some concept, got a lots of those mostly unpublished. Its the galley of Venice near the town Dubrovnik. Done is some 2-3 days. I cannot spend more time on this so its a bit rough.
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I like to think about history and alternative history also. This is a vision of different historical line. British empire is intervening in American civil war on the side of Confederation. The first ironclads in the world fight against each other. The biggest ships in the world at time British HMS Warrior and Black Prince against smaller heavy armored American Monitors. I've read many articles about this fictional battle, still its not clear which ship can win.
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Another work for Napoleon total war. HMS Victory in fierce duel with french Bucentaure at begining of the Trafalgar battle.
The biggest and most important battle between Britain and Napoleon empire. Sadly the Admiral Nelson fell on this ship.
The ship is currently sitting in dry dock in navy museum in Portsmouth and Im seeing her quiet often:) Looks amazing, also to think she was launched in 1765. She is the oldest naval ship still in commission.
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a speed painting.... if it can be called a speed...break too many times before finishing it...
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Transports
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Huge Venetian galeasse San Lorenzo. Attacking the turkish fleet in Battle of Lepanto 1571. Was the biggest battle of oarvessels, about 200 galleys on each side . Design of the ship based on old painting and some engravings. I hope its a realistic reconstruction. This was my first picture showing some ship, is about 2 years old.
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Finally i can start to post my newer works. I have some 5 pictures and wil lpost them in next 2 months hopefully.
This is a painting for the new project of the Creative Assembly.

The name of the game is Empire: total war. As I love to paint old ships I really enjoyed working on those pictures. This is only first one, the rest is waiting to be published.
The Image captures early mornig mood in huge french harbour La Rochelle, year 1715. The big ship on the left is the grandious Le Louis Quinze, most beatifull and biggest ship of its age.
I did try to make the ship as real as possible, reference was the model in naval museum in Paris. The general mood of the picture is maybe similar to some old oils from the 18.th century, that was my small goal.

The whole pic was done in about 30-40 hours. Original size is something like 2600pix so it was somehow hard to finish.

Im hoping that you will like this picture and i'll be happy to see any comments.
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I like to think about history and alternative history also. This is a vision of different historical line. British empire is intervening in American civil war on the side of Confederation. The first ironclads in the world fight against each other. The biggest ships in the world at time British HMS Warrior and Black Prince against smaller heavy armored American Monitors. I've read many articles about this fictional battle, still its not clear which ship can win.
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My latest picture, just finished 5 mins ago. I'm long time fan of the obsolete planes used in Vietnam war. So I've decided to paint a something like a hommage to this old workhorses originally build in second world war.
The picture shows two A-26 Invaders going for the night hunt over Vietnam. I spend more time on colour shades and light, trying to learn something new, so hope you'll like it.


If you see some perspective issues. let me know in the comment I can fix that eventually.
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I was inspired by the event that happened some days ago. Its a very strong theme for an artist so this is my try. Operation Neptune's Spear in Pakistan town Abbottabad. In that moment OBL is still sleeping probably...
Also this operation is a great opportunity for me to visualize the secret stealth Blackhawk helicopter. The machine is based on all the info I can find on internet but still the real thing can be different. The house and location is also based on real place, which was a bit pain to do it.
I hope its not too dark, I was tweaking the night picture that its not totally dark, its ok on my monitor at least.
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Some older commision for Uk edition of PC gamer magazine. My first big character, and I must say it was hard:).
Some of my friends helped me with the face and hands and some other details. Picture was done again for the game Empire : total war.
Im aware of some not natural proportions of the guy, but its just my first one. The picture was done quiet qick in some 10 days.
Done in Photoshop on wacom intuos.
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In the summer of 1588, one hundred and thirty ships carrying 30,000 men set out to conquer England.This is my vision of the glorious moment when the fleet is leaving Lisbon. In the foreground is the flagship San Martin. Ships design is based on reference plans that I could find on net. But its not much there about those spanish galleons of this age. So I must use my imagination
All is done in photoshop, +wacom, in about 20-30 hours
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Ok, here it is. My favourite ship form Star Wars. Its not very well-known, maybe because it was seen only for some seconds at the beginig of episode one. But i think the design of it is great. Corellian diplomatic cruiser, lost years ago on some dark planet. I hope I can make some story about it, maybe connected with some other SW pics in the future.
Strarted as a quick pic, but somehow i started to play with details so it was about 30hours at the end. Wacom intuos+photoshop as always.
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Finally i can start to post my newer works. I have some 5 pictures and wil lpost them in next 2 months hopefully.
This is a painting for the new project of the Creative Assembly.

The name of the game is Empire: total war. As I love to paint old ships I really enjoyed working on those pictures. This is only first one, the rest is waiting to be published.
The Image captures early mornig mood in huge french harbour La Rochelle, year 1715. The big ship on the left is the grandious Le Louis Quinze, most beatifull and biggest ship of its age.
I did try to make the ship as real as possible, reference was the model in naval museum in Paris. The general mood of the picture is maybe similar to some old oils from the 18.th century, that was my small goal.

The whole pic was done in about 30-40 hours. Original size is something like 2600pix so it was somehow hard to finish.

Im hoping that you will like this picture and i'll be happy to see any comments.
Show
Add a Comment:
 
No comments have been added yet.

Again my favourite theme. Artwork for the game Total war:Empire. This one was my biggest and most complicated painting, so I hope It was worth the time spend I have finished this piece some year ago, but cant post it because the marketing policy.
It shows the Battle of Quiberon Bay near coast of France. The ship on the right is HMS Royal George, pride of the british navy with almost 900 souls on the board.The battle fas fought in late november so the weather was very bad. Ship on the left is french La Superbe, and this ship ended very bad at the end.
I painted the ships as they were, based on many historical resourcess: paintings, engravings and models. And of course a bit of my imagination. No other references were used.
As I said this was my biggest work till now. Original res is 3000x1500, it takes me about one month to finish. Done in Photoshop CS3 from the start. I'll be happy to see your commnets and critics.

Please dont use the picture, because its property of creative
assembly. If its something really serious just write me note.
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History
:iconvarezart:
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A cover for a new magazine that will hopefully be successful - Ancient History magazine, about the less militaristic aspects of life in the Ancient world.
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Painted for Medieval Warfare Magazine in February
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===================


The Crusader States to 1291

Looking back across the centuries separating us from the medieval world, perhaps no tales speak more to the modern imagination than those of the western crusaders marching to conquer the Holy Land. What drove the Latin West to send tens of thousands of men on so ambitious an endeavour so far from home over a period of nearly two hundred years? To distil the truth from the tales, we must look through the facade of religious fervour and place the Crusades into the much bigger pattern of cultural, military, economic and religious expansionism which constituted the rise of the Latin West during the High Middle Ages.

The end of the Viking and Magyar invasions halfway through the tenth century allowed the peoples of western Europe to spend successive decades working towards a degree of stability and prosperity unseen since the days of Charlemagne almost two centuries earlier. The shadow of war having somewhat faded, agricultural production boomed and instilled generations of steady population growth while the major political entities of the era cemented their position. From these roots blossomed the Latin West’s earliest expansionist tendencies, which gained an increasingly bold and religious character as the eleventh century progressed.

Four theatres of expansion served as a precedent for the ultimate rise of the crusader movement. First of all, disgruntled knights from Normandy arrived in southern Italy, establishing a firm foothold by 1029 and subsequently attempting to carve out a kingdom at the expense of the Byzantines and Arabs. In this they were supported by the papacy, which recognised the Norman leader Robert Guiscard as duke of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily in 1059 and thereby encouraged the Normans to invade Islamic Sicily, which they did in 1061. Secondly, the dissolution of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031 allowed the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula to further the advance of their Reconquista. They too received full approval from the papacy, which in 1064 promised all who joined the Christian ranks a full indulgence of their sins, prompting soldiers from all over western Europe to do so. Half of the Iberian peninsula had fallen into Christian hands again by the end of the eleventh century. In this way, the idea of waging a holy war against Muslims in return for salvation gained its appeal on the battlefields of Sicily and Spain. Thirdly, the rising population of western Europe caused peasant colonists from the Holy Roman Empire to migrate into the Baltic, the last bastion of paganism in Europe. This eastern settlement (German: Ostsiedlung) ultimately turned into a crusade of its own against the remaining pagan peoples of Europe during the twelfth and thirteenth century. Lastly, the eleventh century saw an increase in east-west trade activities as Italian traders from Amalfi, Genoa, Pisa and most importantly Venice introduced western Europeans to the riches of the Byzantine Empire and the Levant. By the end of the eleventh century, the Latin West boasted the strength and ambition to set its eyes on what lay beyond its immediate frontiers, an attitude fitting in with the increasingly belligerent speech of the papacy.

Was the Holy Land really in peril at the end of the eleventh century? Were Christians being prevented from visiting their holy places? Were they being oppressed and persecuted by the Islamic empires of the Middle East? In other words, was there a degree of truth in the propaganda which aimed to justify the crusader movement?

To be sure, the Islamic rulers of the Middle East generally exercised a great deal of tolerance to the other ‘peoples of the Book’ living within their dominions. Christians and Jews were allowed to retain and practice their faith so long as they recognised Islam’s political dominance, which helps to explain why a population of some 200,000 Muslims managed to govern about 10 million people of greatly differing ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious backgrounds for centuries. The Christians which the western crusaders claimed to be in danger represented a melting pot of doctrines which the Roman Catholic Church had long declared heretical but which continued to exist under Muslim rule: Nestorians, Maronites, Monophysites, as well as a sizeable number of Orthodox adherents answering to the patriarchates of Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem or Alexandria. Unsurprisingly, the authority of the Roman Catholic Church was non-existent in these lands.

The idea of Christians being under threat found its most vivid illustration in the westward advance of the Seljuk Turks throughout the eleventh century, immortalised in their decisive victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. Seljuk rule subsequently fell over most of Asia Minor and penetrated into the Middle East. While The Seljuk Turks were certainly conquerors, there is little or no evidence of them persecuting Christians in the Middle East, destroying Christian holy sites or preventing western pilgrims from visiting. Moreover, the originally nomadic Seljuk Turks found great difficulty in establishing a governmental framework for their vast empire which found itself crumbling under dynastic struggles and weak central authority after 1092. Nevertheless, the Seljuk advance prompted the Byzantine emperor Alexius II to petition pope Urban II for military help in 1095. At the Council of Clermont in November that year, the pope called on western Christians to put aside their differences and come to the aid of their Orthodox counterparts in the east, conquer the Holy Land and in so doing secure the salvation of their souls. A new avenue of unparalleled expansion thus opened itself to the Latin West


1095
+ March 1095: Byzantine emperor Alexius II sends pope Urban II a plea for military help against the Seljuk Turks
+ 27 November 1095: Pope Urban II urges western Christians to come to the aid of their eastern counterparts in an enthusiastically received sermon (‘Deus vult’ – God wills it) at the Council of Clermont

1096
The People’s Crusade of Peter the Hermit is crushed by the Seljuk Turks in Anatolia

1096 – 1099: First Crusade
+ August 1096: crusader armies set out under the leadership of Godfrey of Bouillon, Robert of Normandy, Baldwin of Boulogne, Robert II of Flanders, Raymond of Toulouse, Bohemond of Taranto and Tancred of Taranto
+ May – June 1097: Byzantine-crusader victory over the Seljuk Turks at the Siege of Nicaea
+ 1 July 1097: Seljuk Turks defeated at the Battle of Dorylaeum
+ 21 October 1097: the crusaders begin the Siege of Antioch
+ March 1098: Christians of Edessa surrender the city to Baldwin of Boulogne – County of Edessa founded
+ 2 June 1098: Antioch taken – Principality of Antioch founded
+ 7 June 1099: the crusaders reach Jerusalem
+ 15 July 1099: Jerusalem taken
+ 22 July 1099: Godfrey of Bouillon declared ‘Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre’ – Kingdom of Jerusalem founded
+ 12 August 1099: crusader victory at the Battle of Ascalon

1102
County of Tripoli founded

1119
Knights Templar founded

1142
Krak des Chevaliers built

1144
Edessa captured by the Muslims – County of Edessa ceases to exist

1145 – 1149: Second Crusade
+ December 1145: in response to the fall of Edessa, pope Eugene III calls for a new crusader effort in his bull ‘Quantum praedecessores’
+ 1146: the Second Crusade is preached by St. Bernard of Clairvaux
+ June 1147: two crusader hosts set out under the leadership of the French king Louis VII and German king Conrad III – pope Eugene III extends crusader status to Germans campaigning against the Wends in Pomerania, an effort known as the Wendish Crusade
+ 1 July 1147: a crusader contingent from England en route to the Holy Land stops to help the Portuguese in their Siege of Lisbon against the Moors
+ September 1147: the Byzantines defeat the German crusaders at the Battle of Constantinople
+ 24 October 1147: Lisbon taken
+ 25 October 1147: Seljuk victory over the German crusaders at the Battle of Dorylaeum
+ 6 January 1148: Seljuk victory over the French crusaders at the Battle of Mount Cadmus
+ 24 – 29 July 1148: aided by the Kingdom of Jerusalem and still led by Louis VII and Conrad III, the Franco-German crusaders attempt but fail to siege Damascus

1171
Kurdish general Saladin comes to power in Egypt and quickly expands into the Middle East, establishing the Ayyubid dynasty

1187
+ 4 July 1187: at the Battle of Hattin, Saladin obliterates the army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and captures its king Guy of Lusignan
+ 2 October 1187: Saladin takes Jerusalem – Kingdom of Jerusalem ceases to exist

1189 – 1191: Third Crusade
+ May 1189: Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa sets out at the head of a crusader host said to number close to 100,000
+ August 1189: Guy of Lusignan, former king of Jerusalem and recently released from captivity, begins the Siege of Acre after being denied control of Tyre by Conrad of Monferrat
+ 18 May 1190: decisive crusader victory over the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Iconium
+ 10 June 1190: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns while crossing the Saleph, causing most of his army to return home – The remaining crusaders continue under the leadership of Frederick’s son Frederick IV of Swabia
+ July 1190: Philip II of France and Richard I the Lionheart of England join the crusade
+ 20 April 1191: Philip II arrives at Acre
+ May 1191: Richard the Lionheart conquers Cyprus
+ 8 June 1191: Richard the Lionheart arrives at Acre
+ 12 July 1191: Acre falls to the crusaders
+ 31 July 1191: Philip II returns to France, leaving Richard the Lionheart in command of the crusade
+ August 1191: Richard the Lionheart leads the crusader army south from Acre along the coast
+ 7 September 1191: Saladin attacks the crusaders at Arsuf but is defeated
+ April 1192: Cyprus revolts
+ 8 August 1192: decisive crusader victory at the Battle of Jaffa
+ 2 September 1192: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin agree to the Treaty of Jaffa which includes a three year truce, free passage of Christians to Muslim-held Jerusalem and Christian control of a coastal strip reaching from Tyre to Jaffa

4 March 1193
Saladin dies in Damascus

1198
+ March 1198: originally German caretakers of a hospital at the Siege of Acre, the Teutonic Order is turned into a military organisation based in Acre
+ August 1198: Pope Innocent III calls for an attack on Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt

6 April 1199
Richard the Lionheart dies of a crossbow wound while besieging Châlus in France

1202 – 1204: Fourth Crusade
+ November 1202: crusaders take the port city of Zara from Hungary for Venice in exchange for being transported by the Venetian fleet – pope Innocent III excommunicates the crusaders and Venice
+ 1203: Byzantine prince Alexius IV offers the crusaders vast payments if they capture Constantinople and support his deposed father Isaac II’s claim to the Byzantine throne – The Venetians, expelled from Constantinople since 1182, eagerly divert the crusade there
+ 6 April 1203: Constantinople is reached by the crusaders
+ 17 July 1203: Constantinople is taken for the first time by the crusaders – Isaac II and Alexius IV become Byzantine co-emperors
+ February 1204: the Byzantine nobility deposes Isaac II and murders Alexius IV
+ 12 April 1204: Constantinople is taken again and thoroughly sacked by the crusaders – Latin Empire founded with Baldwin of Flanders as emperor

1209 – 1229
Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars of southern France

1212
Children’s Crusade: two separate crusader movements, allegedly involving thousands of children, march through France and the Holy Roman Empire. The former, led by the 12 year old Stephan of Cloyes, is largely dispersed in Paris at the command of the French king Phillip II; the latter, led by one Nicolas of Cologne, crosses the Alps into Italy and reaches the Papal States, from where most participants are sent home at the behest of pope Innocent III. Another version of the Children’s Crusade tells of a host of some 30,000 child crusaders attempting to reach the Holy Land by setting sail to Alexandria from Marseilles. Most participants are allegedly sold into slavery by the merchants commanding their ships.

1215 – 1221: Fifth Crusade
+ April 1215: Pope Innocent III calls for a new crusade in his bull ‘Quia maior’
+ August 1217: led by Andrew II of Hungary and transported by the Venetians, a crusader army sets out to the Holy Land
+ October 1217: Andrew II reaches Cyprus, from where he sails for Acre
+ November – December 1217: Andrew II and his forces campaign fruitlessly against the Ayyubids
+ February 1218: Andrew II returns to Hungary
+ June 1218: a German crusader army arrives to besiege the Ayyubid port city of Damietta in Egypt
+ November 1219: Damietta falls to the crusaders – Crusader advance towards Cairo
+ November 1220: Damietta retaken by the Ayyubids

1228 – 1229: Sixth Crusade
Despite being excommunicated for not honouring his crusader vows, Holy Roman emperor Frederick II leads a host to the Holy Land and negotiates a treaty with the Ayyubids which leaves him in control of Jerusalem, Jaffa, Bethlehem, Nazareth and Sidon – Kingdom of Jerusalem restored

11 July 1244
Jerusalem falls to Muslim control again – Kingdom of Jerusalem falls but formally continues to exist at Acre

1248 – 1254: Seventh Crusade
+ 1248: French king Louis IX and his crusader army set sail for Egypt
+ June 1249: the crusaders reach and take Damietta
+ November 1249: the crusaders begin marching towards Cairo
+ 11 February 1250: Ayyubid victory at the Battle of al-Mansurah
+ 6 April 1250: Ayyubid victory at the Battle of Fariskur

1250
The Ayyubid sultan Turanshah is murdered by his slave general Aybak – Mamluks take over Egypt

1261
Byzantine Empire restored

1268
Mamluks take Antioch – Principality of Antioch ceases to exist

1270: Eighth Crusade
French king Louis IX launches a crusade to take Tunis but dies soon after landing

1271
Krak des Chevaliers falls to the Mamluks

1289
County of Tripoli conquered by the Mamluks

1291
Mamluks take Acre – Crusader States effectively cease to exist in the Levant

© 2015 – 2016 undevicesimus.deviantart.com


===================
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Viriato, leader of the Lusitani who was famous for resisting Roman occupation of Western Hispania (Portugal). Here he leads the Lusitani in an ambush attack against a column of a Roman legion in marching order. Such guerrilla tactics are commonly used by the Lusitani and its the preferred style of warfare in the rugged terrains of the Spanish peninsular.

Read more about the man here>> en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viriatus

Work done in 2012 for Italian history magazine, Focus Storia Wars.
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"Cuera Soldier"
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History
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Collection by
lil piece done in work.
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===================


The Roman Empire, AD 395

The Roman Empire enjoyed approximately one hundred and sixty years of administrative and military excellence under the Principate of Augustus and his able successors. From the Atlantic Ocean to the Euphrates and from the North Sea to the Sahara Desert, the Romans had successfully imposed a state of peace and stability – Pax Romana – which local uprisings, foreign enemies, deranged emperors or succession crises never managed to discredit. However, troubles within and beyond Roman control began to darken the imperial horizons as the second century progressed. History teaches that even the fortunes of a mighty empire can take a turn for the worse in a heartbeat and Rome was no exception

At the death of emperor Hadrian in AD 138, Rome’s power stood at its zenith: the imperial frontiers had been thoroughly strengthened, peace abroad seemed secure and internal strife was trivial after Rome’s suppression of the Bar Kohkba Revolt in AD 136. Hadrian’s policies of consolidation and pacification were continued by his successor Antoninus Pius, whose two decade reign marked the most peaceful chapter in the empire’s history: the tranquillity before the storm. When Antoninus Pius died in AD 161, a dual Principate was formed by his successors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Under their leadership, Rome’s power and frontiers came under suddenly increasing pressure. Renewed aggressions from the Parthian Empire in the east led to full-scale war in AD 162 and a hard-fought Roman victory at the destruction of the Parthian capital Ctesiphon in AD 165. However, the Roman legions returned home with a devastating epidemic – the Antonine Plague – which swept over the empire as far east as the Rhine and is said to have claimed millions of lives  a demographic calamity. Among the countless dead was co-emperor Lucius Verus, who had just led the Romans to victory against Parthia. Hardly had the Parthian storm been tamed or the Romans were forced into war against the Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians who crossed the Danube frontier en masse from AD 167 onward. Population growth in the Germanic heartland around the Baltic Sea had sparked migrations which brought the weight of much of the Germanic world down on Rome’s northern frontier. In this First Marcomannic War, the Roman legions under the command of Marcus Aurelius bitterly defended the entire length of the Danube, securing victory by AD 175. Marcus Aurelius also wrote his famous ‘Meditations’ (Greek: Τ ες αυτόν) – one of the great works of stoic philosophy – during these troubled times. The devastation caused by the Antonine Plague and the wars against Parthia and the Germanic tribes consumed Rome’s resources up to a point of near-irreversible exhaustion. Although the empire emerged victoriously and intact, the Pax Romana had at last lost its glory.

To worsen matters further, the Second Marcomannic War broke out in AD 177 and Marcus Aurelius made his worst mistake in appointing his son Commodus as co-emperor. When Marcus Aurelius died in AD 180, Commodus took power as emperor, concluded a disadvantageous peace with the Germanic tribes north of the Danube and isolated himself in Rome. Commodus’ megalomania, decadence and tyranny left the empire rotting for over a decade. His assassination in AD 192 and the subsequent internal power struggle made for a more than ominous finale of the second century.

But the Roman Empire did not fall apart so easily, having dealt with perilous times on more than one occasion in its history. Order was restored from AD 193 onward by Septimius Severus, a gifted administrator and commander who threw the entire weight of his power behind the army, believing that only the Roman military could restore the Pax Romana. Under Severus’ leadership, the Romans quickly turned the tide both internally and externally: pretenders were eliminated, monetary reforms enacted, the army enlarged, barbarian hordes halted and the Parthians driven back. Subsequently, the Roman legions launched a massive counter-offensive in the north, east and south, proving all the more how far the empire really was from imploding. The armies of Severus smashed the Parthians in a retaliatory war, culminating once again in the destruction of Ctesiphon in AD 197. Severus then annexed sizeable territories east of the Euphrates and reinforced the limites defending the empire against the Arabian tribes. Next, the Romans put an end to the continuous raids of the Garamantes, a Berber people living in the Sahara Desert. Never before had a Roman army advanced so far south, ending the war victoriously by razing the Berber capital Garama in AD 203. Severus’ subsequent war against the tribes of Caledonia (Scotland) was cut short when he fell ill and died in early AD 211.

Septimius Severus’ accomplishments were largely the result of his autocratic rule. The semi-republican facade of the Principate became increasingly irrelevant as the empire was put into a permanent state of emergency under the most militarised regime the Romans had known yet. This allowed Severus the freedom to efficiently sweep away Rome’s internal and external problems and leave a revitalised empire at his death. In some ways, history seemed to be repeating itself. When the Roman Republic proved no longer capable of managing an empire, it had been transformed into the semi-republican Principate by Augustus. At the dawn of the third century, it had become clear that the Principate itself was now no longer capable of dealing with the empire’s growing problems. Septimius Severus had understood this well, setting a precedent for his successors to transform the Roman government once more. However, given the difficult transition from Republic to Principate centuries earlier, it seemed likely that transforming the Principate would be equally tricky, not to say bloody. Moreover, the problems the Romans had conquered under Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus were only the overture to the even greater disasters of the third century.

Like Aurelius before him, Severus made a huge mistake in appointing his sons Caracalla and Geta as joint-successors. The Severan dynasty proved to be power-hungry and incompetent (unlike Severus himself), personified most of all in the rule of Caracalla who murdered his brother and was ultimately murdered himself in AD 217. The empire then came close to complete anarchy, initially under the continued mismanagement of Severan rulers. But when Alexander Severus was killed in AD 235, power passed to ‘soldier emperors’ – military commanders using their armies to compete for power. In approximately fifty years, no less than twenty-five emperors, anti-emperors and usurpers passed the revue, of which only one died peacefully. The empire had plunged into a permanent civil war which reduced the Roman government to near-impotence in managing even its basic affairs. The Roman economy collapsed under the weight of inflation, the heavy taxation imposed by pretenders and the resulting civil impoverishment, which in turn set the scene for widespread banditry and epidemics among the masses.

Meanwhile in Persia, the Parthian Empire had been overthrown by one Ardashir, who founded the new Sassanid dynasty in AD 224 and built a highly centralised regime with the goal of restoring the ancient empire of the Achaemenids. Though the Parthians had boasted a similar claim, the Sassanids actually found themselves in a position to try and make it a reality. The rise of the Sassanid Empire thus greatly increased the pressure on Rome’s crumbling eastern frontiers.

The civil unrest raging within the empire at last triggered a flood of external catastrophes when emperor Decius fell in battle against the Goths in AD 251. Shortly afterwards, the Franks invaded Gaul and threatened Spain, the Alamanni and Marcomanni crossed the Danube and advanced on Italy, the Goths ravaged Greece and the Black Sea region, and the Sassanids conquered vast swathes of the Middle East and even captured emperor Valerian in AD 260. The latter tragedy provoked several key regions of the empire to break away and form usurper empires: Gaul, Britain and Spain declared the Gallic Empire (Latin: Imperium Galliarum) and in the east the Kingdom of Palmyra (Latin: Regnum Palmyrae) was founded around the city of Palmyra, controlling Egypt, the Middle East and most of Asia Minor. The Roman Empire at last seemed to be facing its irreversible defeat, but the Romans were not about to let it happen like that. To them, their empire was still supreme and therefore superior to all others: there could be no empire besides that of the Romans and accepting its defeat was unthinkable even in the darkest of times. It must be noted that Rome’s trademark fanaticism and self-confidence ultimately not only saved the empire but also allowed for a powerful resurgence of the supremacy it had enjoyed while the Pax Romana lasted. Such a recovery could however only be realised if the Roman government reinvented itself and reasserted its authority without compromise.

Having come to this conclusion, Rome resorted to drastic measures in sweeping away the calamities piled up on its doorsteps and achieving the imperial revival. The first architect of this was undoubtedly emperor Aurelian, who came to power in AD 270. Like many before and after him, Aurelian was first of all a military commander, but indeed one of exceptional ability and dedication. By building upon the army reforms and renewed victories of his predecessors Gallienus and Claudius II, Aurelian set out to seize the initiative Rome needed. Roman forces decisively defeated the Alamanni within a year and drove them out of Italy before turning east to clear the Balkans of Gothic marauders. Aurelian decided not to reclaim Roman Dacia beyond the Danube, but instead marched against the Palmyrene realm of the usurper queen Zenobia in the east. Before the end of AD 272, the Romans stood victorious at Palmyra and Aurelian paraded Zenobia as a trophy in the streets of Rome. All the territories ruled from Palmyra were retaken by AD 273, culminating in the triumphant destruction of Palmyra itself after a renewed revolt. Having restored Roman authority in the east, Aurelian’s next objective was to dissolve the Gallic Empire in the west. His able predecessor Claudius II had managed to retake Spain for Rome, but all of Gaul and Britain were at this point under the wavering rule of one Tetricus and his son. The armies of Aurelian scored a crushing victory at the Battle of Châlons in AD 274 and thus secured Rome’s territorial restoration. Aurelian was hailed by the Romans as “Lord and God” and “Restorer of the World” (Latin: Dominus et Deus, Restitutor Orbis). Rome seemed poised to tame the storms of the third century once and for all…

Unfortunately, Aurelian was assassinated by the umpteenth Praetorian conspiracy and thus failed to truly rebuild the Roman governmental framework. His successors Tacitus (r. AD 275 – 276), Probus (r. AD 276 – 282) and Carus (AD 283 – 284) managed to maintain the momentum created by Aurelian, defend the Rhine-Danube frontier against the Germanic tribes and beat back renewed Sassanid incursions in the east, but none of them reigned long enough to impose the administrative reforms so urgently needed by the empire.

Though Rome’s territorial revival was orchestrated by Aurelian, the mastermind behind the empire’s new government was Diocletian. During his reign, the Romans at last did away with the outdated semi-republican facade imposed on the imperial monarchy by Augustus. From AD 284 onward, Diocletian worked tirelessly to establish a new form of government: the Dominate. Diocletian and his successors ceased to be called princeps, and openly emerged as dominus, a title already assumed by Aurelian but which was now given a two-way legitimate meaning. First of all, the Roman people were to be represented by the emperor alone. The ancient republican idea of the ‘Senate and People of Rome’ (Latin: Senatus Populusque Romanus), whereby the former represented the latter and which nominally existed during the Principate, disappeared forever. Secondly, Diocletian deified the imperial family and introduced a personality cult of religious proportions which borrowed liberally from the Hellenic kings of the past and Rome’s Sassanid nemesis in the east.

The deification of the Roman leadership was only part of Diocletian’s plan for the Dominate’s new governmental framework, which was founded on three pillars of reform. First of all, the imperial bureaucracy was expanded and given all administrative responsibilities. The Principate-era distinction between imperial and senatorial administration was thus swept away as inefficient, a move which allowed the emperor to portray himself as the only source of law and order. Even a deified ruler needed help however, to which end Diocletian relied on a newly formed ‘sacred council’ (Latin: sacrum consistorium) and eunuchs to advise and protect him. Secondly, the Dominate recreated the imperial administration itself by stressing the idea of complete uniformity: the entire empire was to be given an equal governmental status and no part favoured over the other. To increase the regime’s control, Diocletian divided the empire into an eastern and a western half, each headed by an Augustus. However, one of the Augusti – Diocletian himself – could intervene anywhere in the empire. By AD 293, this system had developed into the so-called Tetrarchy, the ‘rule of four’, and the two Augusti were joined by two Caesares who governed as co-rulers and were the designated successors to the office of Augustus. Diocletian also reformed the Roman provinces by dividing them up into smaller territories which were then grouped together into twelve dioceses, each governed by a vicarius. The dioceses themselves were then grouped together to form two praetorian prefectures. Lastly, the military and civil branches of the government were separated and the former favoured over the latter. Roman power was rebuilt around its military apparatus, upon which all policies and reforms now relied and focused. Himself a soldier emperor, Diocletian thought it useful to militarise his government to the greatest possible extent. Border fortifications and their garrisons, now known as limitatenei, were reinforced and made subordinate to the newly created position of dux. Diocletian also assembled the so-called comitatenses: mobile field armies which were not bound to a specific location and could thus quickly support threatened fronts or crush internal dissent. Unlike the limitatenei however, the comitatenses were not commanded by a dux but a magister and drew most of their strength from heavy cavalry  Rome’s answer to the growing threat of barbarian horse masters and the Sassanid cataphracts. Diocletian’s army reforms effectively deprived provincial governors of military responsibilities and vastly increased Rome’s defensive capability. However, huge numbers of personnel were needed to maintain these armies, which forced the Romans to hire more and more Germanic warriors from across the border. These so-called foederati triggered a slow but steady process of ‘barbarisation’ in the Roman military, especially in the west.

To finance his military and administrative reforms, Diocletian needed to revitalise and control the Roman economy. To this end, the Dominate required all citizens to pay a new imperial tax and directed an individual’s employment and social position, which future generations were also bound to. In other words, if someone’s father had been in the army, that person was to serve in the army too, regardless of personal ambitions or talents. These policies bear witness to the authoritarian nature of the Dominate but should not be overestimated: the Romans typically lacked the time, resources and knowledge to control the affairs and people of their empire down to a local level. Any comparison of the late Roman Empire to totalitarian states of the modern era is therefore irrelevant and wrong. In retrospect, the emergence of the Dominate may be called a mere delay of the empire’s disintegration but it was nonetheless a significant one. In the west, the Dominate allowed the Romans to stand their ground for another century. It was only after the empire’s final division in an eastern and western half (AD 395) that the west went down the road to final dissolution, triggered by renewed economic troubles and successive waves of barbarian invasions. In the east meanwhile, the Dominate became the foundation of another millennium of Roman imperial history.

The powerful resurgence of the empire in the late third century finally allowed Rome to settle a number of open accounts with external and internal enemies. Under Diocletian’s guidance, the Romans smashed the barbarian invaders of the Danube frontier, destroyed uprisings in Egypt, secured peace with the tribes of Nubia and organised the greatest anti-Christian persecutions yet. In the east, the Sassanids once again declared war on Rome in AD 295 but now found themselves face to face with the more than eager armies of a revived empire. The Romans ended the war victoriously after the destruction of the Sassanid capital at Ctesiphon in AD 299.

Diocletian abdicated in AD 305 (the only Roman emperor to do so willingly) and died in AD 311, leaving a restored Roman Empire. However, the Tetrarchic succession collapsed under the weight of dynastic factors and after the umpteenth civil war, Constantine emerged as the sole ruler of the empire by AD 324. Despite Diocletian having failed when it came to the succession, most of his reforms survived him and were continued or improved by Constantine: the two existing praetorian prefectures were divided to add another two and the fragile Roman economy was strengthened by the creation of a new coin  the golden solidus. To further emphasise the empire’s rebirth and the strength of the Dominate, Constantine also founded a new capital: Nova Roma Constantinopolitana (soon known as Constantinopolis – Constantinople), the New Rome which would become the empire’s beating heart for another thousand years. But unlike Rome itself, the new capital was Greco-Roman and ultimately Christian! Christianity had been brutally persecuted under the conservative Diocletian, who viewed its monotheistic doctrines as incompatible with the Dominate. Christianity was nevertheless officially tolerated by Diocletian’s successor Galerius in AD 311 and given the formal right to exist in AD 313. Constantine himself became the first Christian emperor, recognising the new faith’s usefulness in strengthening the Dominate. Christianity thus became the religion of the regime.

‘Of the regime’ indeed in a quite literal sense. Constantine worked hard to bring Christianity under his personal command by appointing his followers to prominent positions within the Church and interfering in its organisational structure and even in the Christian doctrine itself. To Constantine, there could be no doubt that the emperor of a Christian Roman Empire was still the dominus, albeit no longer as a god in human form. Instead, Constantine introduced the idea that the emperor was God’s chosen representative on earth and therefore no ordinary mortal, but a half-god who ruled the empire by the grace of the Lord. Constantine thus brilliantly used Christianity to strengthen both the unity of the empire and the imperial personality cult propagated by the Dominate. The Christians accepted these policies for now, in the idea that Christianity needed the Dominate too, if it was to survive and become the sole religion of the empire and its people. A smart move, for the Christian message spread ever more rapidly as its ties to the highest ranks of the Roman elite strengthened. Christianity’s dominance was ultimately secured when emperor Theodosius officially made it the imperial religion in AD 391, purged the imperial court of any remaining anti-Christian sentiments and banned the Greco-Roman polytheism. Within less than a century after the state-orchestrated persecutions of Christians under Diocletian, the tables had turned completely: Christians were no longer the hunted, but the hunters. Indeed, the very first thing they set out to do was to forcibly convert or murder the remaining pagan people and destroy any still active pagan temples and sanctuaries.

Aside from Christianity’s increasing power within the empire, there was little else the Romans could boast about as the fourth century progressed. After the death of Constantine in AD 337, the east and west drifted further apart. Constantine had largely focused his reign on the east and had neglected to ensure his succession, sparking a civil war between his three sons which left the western empire dangerously weakened. Rome now no longer had the power to either hold its borders against external enemies or enforce yet another revival of its collapsing supremacy. Without the stabilising influence of the east, the west saw its ailing economy crumble rapidly under the weight of infighting and mismanagement. Meanwhile, even greater catastrophes were brewing beyond the northern frontier. The Germanic world was suffering severe food shortages in these times and increasing numbers of Germanic people attempted to penetrate the fertile lands of the Mediterranean which belonged to Rome. More importantly, the violent westward journey of the Huns from the steppes of central Asia sparked massive migrations among the Germanic tribes. By AD 370, the Huns were ravaging the realm of the Ostrogoths near the Black Sea and drove the Visigoths across the Danube. The Goths received asylum from the Romans but ultimately betrayed their hosts: at the Battle of Adrianople in AD 378, a large Roman army under emperor Valens was massacred by the immigrants. Theodosius emerged as the new emperor and temporarily restored order, reuniting the Roman Empire one last time. However, another renewal of Rome’s power was out of the question and at his death in AD 395, the empire was formally divided among his two young sons, making the division between east and west an irreversible fact. Hardly fifteen years later in AD 410, the Eternal City of the Seven Hills – Rome itself – was besieged and sacked for the first time in nearly eight centuries

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Happy Trafalgar Day 2006! ^_^

Today, of course, is the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar, marking both Admiral Lord Nelson’s victory over the combined French and Spanish fleets, as well as his premature death on board his flagship, H.M.S. Victory. There’s not likely to be as much merriment on this Trafalgar Day as compared to last year, but being the Nelson buff I am, I couldn’t pass up the opportunity to do something for this day. So here we are, Nelson in the midst of the battle!

I’ve always wanted to do a Trafalgar battle scene, and although this is quite minimal in detail, I’m pleased with the result and can at least see that I’ve improved on last year’s artwork based on Nelson (as well as, once again, learning a few new digital painting techniques). I’ve paid particular attention to Nelson’s uniform, his vice-admiral’s undress coat, which is accurate to the one he wore at Trafalgar. Even his orders of knighthood are all true to the actual ones on his coat, and are also positioned correctly. They are (from top to bottom); the Order of Bath, Order of the Crescent, Order of St Ferdinand and Order of St Joachim.
There are two aspects of this image that are incorrect (one of which is now severely bugging me). The first concerns Nelson’s teeth. I’ve given him his top teeth, yet I read somewhere that Nelson had lost these by this time (having been pretty battered about during his lifetime). Whether this is true or not, I don’t know, but for the purpose of aesthetics I gave him his teeth. The other concerns the figure directly behind Nelson. He is supposed to be Hardy, Captain of the Victory. The thing that’s bugging me is his hair (or all things… gah!), which is the wrong colour. I based him on the way the artist Arthur William Devis had portrayed him in the painting ‘The Death of Nelson’. This I find, after some research, is inaccurate. Hardy would have still had his mop of reddish-brown hair at the time of Trafalgar. You’re probably wondering, ‘why is this such a big deal?’ Well the simple answer is, that it is… to me. I like accuracy when I’m working from actual history.

Btw, anyway, that’s that. As for Nelson’s expression, I really don’t know why I made him look so concerned. From what I read, he went into that battle pretty unafraid, standing in full view. All I can say is that there are French snipers up in the rigging there in the background. Perhaps he’s about to turn around and receive his deathblow.

Not much more to say, apart from this was planned, composed and painted entirely within Photoshop and took a whole day’s working (non-stop) to complete. I hope you like the result as much as I do (throwing aside any niggles about hair colour that is!) :)

(Image © Leona Preston 2006)

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In spring of 217, the year after Hannibal’s arrival in Italy, two new consuls are closing off the Apennine passes to stop Hannibal from leaving the north of the country. Hannibal has chosen an unguarded road, but due to flooding of the area round the river Arnus in Tuscany, his army is having a hard time getting to drier ground. Hannibal himself suffers from ophthalmia and there's little chance to treat the illness properly. Maharbal (right), the chief commander of his cavalry, has just returned from an extensive scouting mission.

Writing snippet! More here: goldseven.wordpress.com/2013/0…

”You’ve been thorough?” Hannibal asked Maharbal, who was watching his friend with worry written across his face. “Any news on the consuls?”

“Thorough? You know me. – Hannibal, you need to get that treated.”

“I am getting that treated, but look around. – The consuls?”

Maharbal caught Mago’s look that said, How many times do you think I’ve told him that? “Servilius is still in Ariminum,” the cavalry commander reported at length. “A couple of men from Faesulae we captured yesterday are definite that Flaminius is still in Arretium – perched on the road to Rome like Iuppiter Stator in person and wondering when and where we’ll be crossing the Apennines.” He grinned. “Baal Hammon, I wish I could see his face when he finds us right in front of him.”

“Enemy scouts?” Hannibal wasn’t smiling, his voice clipped in pain.

“None. Not a horse’s tail in two days. It seems our friend Flaminius doesn’t believe in such Punic treachery as ambushes, or scouting. A fine, stout Roman. Bah.”

“Perfect. Servilius is completely out of touch and Flaminius isn’t expecting us. We need to make sure it stays that way."


Schmincke and Daniel Smith watercolours in watercolour sketchbook. The elephant is indeed an Indian one, believed to be the only Asian elephant Hannibal had with him, called "Syrus" by Cato the Elder.
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"He said to bring in the Libyans as reinforcements if things go bad. Things are going bad. Maybe he’s in no position to give the order."
"He also said to act on his signal, or on mine. He hasn't given it, and neither am I. Stay in your position. That's an order."

On a quiet corner of the battlefield, one of Hannibal's infantry commanders (right) is impatient to join the fray. Maharbal (left), who is coordinating the different wings across the mile-long field, tells him to stay put.

Watercolours on watercolour paper, A3 size (the cinemascope version). Will be a splash page in the book. :)

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Tell him to bite off my head, if he dares by Gold-Seven 'Darkness over Cannae' - six days left! by Gold-Seven Darkness over Cannae on Indiegogo! by Gold-Seven 
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England, year 1607, the 3 ships are preparing for a voyage that resulted in the founding of the first permanent English settlement in North America. So generally this is a first step towards a colony which became the United States.
The Biggest one was called Susan Constant. My imagination was showing me some cold peacefull mornig in big port, so I paint it like that. I like the seagulls a lot so there are some:)

Just photoshop and intous tablet. For the ships I have a simple 3d model for basic perspective. The whole picture was a kind of slow process but I enjoyed it.

I like it maybe more than my last works, but dont know if its really better. Any commnets are welcome.
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Huge Venetian galeasse San Lorenzo. Attacking the turkish fleet in Battle of Lepanto 1571. Was the biggest battle of oarvessels, about 200 galleys on each side . Design of the ship based on old painting and some engravings. I hope its a realistic reconstruction. This was my first picture showing some ship, is about 2 years old.
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In the summer of 1588, one hundred and thirty ships carrying 30,000 men set out to conquer England.This is my vision of the glorious moment when the fleet is leaving Lisbon. In the foreground is the flagship San Martin. Ships design is based on reference plans that I could find on net. But its not much there about those spanish galleons of this age. So I must use my imagination
All is done in photoshop, +wacom, in about 20-30 hours
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One of my older works. Almost 2 years old. Its an fantasy atrwork for the Elveon project, the game will be released this year. Capital ship crushing the enemy fleet, with the help of divine artefact on the prove. The ship should look very big, full of war machines. My own design. Hope you like it.
Ps+wacom
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Some old picture, that I didn't publish at the time. Done some 2 years ago, for the project Elveon. It shows Landfall of a mighty elvish race. My inspiration was Tolkien (of course):), his Númenórean race. The Ship is my creation, based maybe on some greek or roman designs. Done in photoshop, in some 35-40 hours. There is a lot of details which takes me ages to do. Hope you will like it.
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