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The heavily modified Tie Saber was created on the junk world of Raxis Prime by the Jedi Jawa Het Krex. Using parts from previous Jedi fighters, and the remnants of a Tie Avenger. Het Krex was a scout for the hidden Jedi Enclave in the Unknown regions led by Jedi Master T'ra Saa. His purpose was to watch the growing Jedi Knights under Master Luke Skywalkers training, and see if they were ready to be informed of the other Jedi Enclave. Master Het Krex was instrumental in taking down several Yuuzhan Vong incursions, and was a key member of the new Jedi Council that introduced themselves to Jedi Master Ben Skywalker.

Original parts by Captain Shade!
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The Sienar TIE sled, designed to take fighters to hyperspace, and to provide more firepower to the attached ships. The docking port is modular, so different types of ships can be docked.

Original parts by Captain Shade and from the Wolf Shipyards!
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~WANTED~

Sienna Sienar, Age: 17

Wanted for the theft of the Sienar Class prototype, and an astromech containing important schematics for future Sienar products.

Daughter of Wraith Sienar and Talindra Locasta Sienar.
Sienna Sienar is a known Rebel Sympathizer.
WARNING: The astromech with her is considered armed and dangerous.

Bounty: 500,000 credits alive and unharmed. 0 Dead.
Additional bounty: 100,000 credits for the return of the Sienar Prototype, and 100,000 credits for the return of the Astromech designated R2-V2, AKA: Vindicator
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A work in progress of my newest Tie Fighter. Due to the high interest in these imperial vessels I decided to create one more :)
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A work in progress of a Star Wars TIE fighter that I designed. Even though it's still a very early model, main shapes are in place.
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Another scene with my Tie Fighter. The model is finally done so I can show it from this angle (it was bare on the underside all the time).
Background is a random blurred nebula picture (probably by NASA).
Model was designed and created by me.
Star Wars belongs to George Lucas of course :)
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My Custom Tie Fighter... #1

Craft: TIE Saber
Type: Star fighter
Length: 9.6 Meters
Crew: 1
Top Speed: 102 MGLT
Weapons: 4 SFS L-s9.3 Laser Cannons
2 Proton Torpedo Launchers
Equipment: FTL drive
S-foils
Full protection Shields

Historical (My Cannon, not acual)-
With the growing decline of the Imperial factions and "Enemy" star fighters constantly improving, One Imperial leader began to design newer fighters to try to match the current generation of Republic fighters.
The first was the TIE Saber, a welcome addition to the Imperial Fleet and replaced the Tie/in as the main base deployable fighter.

Personal note-
Based on the Tie interceptor, the idea I had was that it was designed as a replacement for the aging Tie/In (the standard/common Ties) so, from the beginning, it was design to be more like the X-wing than a simple Tie. The Thought was design with the idea using "spare parts" for the Sienar Fleet Systems Tie/in and TIE Interceptor. I think it turned out well.
The only reason for the S-foil was that the wings can fold up for easy storage, allowing more room for more fighters aboard ships and at bases. As I came up with more designs, this fighter became more of a planetary/system Patrol fighter than a full fleet fighter.


Dock/landed mode @[link]
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My Custum Tie Fighter... #1

Craft: TIE Saber
Type: Starfighter
Length: 9.6 Meters
Crew: 1
Top Speed: 102 MGLT
Weapons: 4 SFS L-s9.3 Laser Cannons
2 Proton Torpedo Launchers
Equipment: FTL drive
S-foils
Full protection Sheilds

Historical (My Cannon, not acual)-
With the growing decline of the Imperial factions and "Enemy" starfighters constantly improving, One Imperial leader began to design newer fighters to try to match the curent generation of Republic fighters.
The first was the TIE Saber, a welcome addition to the Impirial Fleet and replaced the Tie/in as the main base deployable fighter.

personal note-
Based on the Tie intersepter, the idea I had was that it was designed as a replasement for the aging Tie/In (the standard/common Ties) so, from the begining, it was design to be more like the X-wing than a simple Tie. The Thought was design with the idea useing "spare parts" for the Sienar Fleet Systems Tie/in and TIE Intersepter. I think it turned out well.
The only reason for the S-foil was that the wings can fold up for easy storage, alowing more room for more fighters abored ships and at bases. As I came up with more designs, this fighter became more of a planetary/system Patrol fighter than a full fleet fighter.

Flight mode is @ [link]
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My Custum Tie Fighter... #3

Craft: TIE Trident
Type: Starfighter
Crew: 1
Top Speed: 100 MGLT
Weapons: 2 LDE-09.3 Repeater Pulse Cannons
2 Proton Torpedo Launchers
Equipment: Full protection Sheilds

Historical (My Cannon, not acual)-
With the growing decline of the Imperial factions and "Enemy" starfighters constantly improving, One Imperial leader began to design newer fighters to try to match the curent generation of Republic fighters.
With the Saber gaining aproval at Imperial bases, the design teams turned to designing a carrier based fighter. Using elements from both the Saber and Viper, the team created the Trident.
The Trident was very much like it's prediceser (the TIE/Ins) the fighter was small, manuverable, and it had no FTL drives. Overall its a good all around fighter, and it was well reseved by its pilots

personal note-
When I created the Trident, the thoughts were towards something like the origenal TIE fighter, a simple compact fighter with good speed and manuverability. (personaly I don't like the origenal TIE, namly the large hexigonal solar panals.) The thought was, I wanted a Swarm fighter (good in large numbers) but I also wanted an Idependent fighter.
So for exsample, If it came acrossed a X-wing, it had a 50/50 chanse of kicking but and coming home intact.
When I was designing the different TIEs I was playing the KotOR (Knights of the Old Republic) and seen the Sith fighter. Obviosly I was Impressed with the design, hence the look of the trident.
When I was creating the fighters I was also making the Avenger class ISD (1 of 2 ISDs I have created.)
The engine design was oringenaly included on all the TIE designs, but doing them in Skechup, this is the first fighter with the new engine design.
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A TIE-Wing starfighter. Based on and inspired by an image done by kavinveldar [link] although its not exact.

Not as clunky as the old ties, so less of a target for enemy ships and faster than its predecessors.

About 6 hours of work in google sketchup, hope you like it!

There are other screenshots coming!!!

Star wars belongs to George Lucas.
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Well its been forever since Ive submitted anything, but I finally got some time to finish some of the models I started. Its nice to pick my hobby up again!!

Well here is another TIE variant I made, I love making these things haha. This one is like a TIE version of the X-wing fighter. I took the concept image of a chiss clawcraft and used it to create the base then added the wings. Pretty simple model but fun to make.

Hope you enjoy! Tell me what you think.
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Another full view
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The SLI star fighter, making up the bulk of the SLI fighter class. Known as "shrieker" ships to Jedi and Republic pilots because they make a low shrieking noise when in atmosphere. Fast and agile, though no where near as fast and agile as the Jedi star fighter, it is fairly well armed though it's shielding leaves something to be desired. Though better shielded than the TIE fighters of the classic star wars universe, when compared to other fighters of it's class, it is poorly shielded, but still better than the interceptor. While it does have a hyperdrive engine, hence the need for an astromech droid, it is not a particularly heavy engine so it is only good for a few jumps.

design by me
creation by :iconkavinveldar: with the help of Wolf Shipyards and Captain Shade
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The heavy hitter of the Republic Navy. Roughly 1.28 the size of an Imperial Star Destroyer, Republic Defiant Class ships are the defenders of the republic. Sporting impressive shields, 10 medium cannons, 8 heavy cannons, 8 long range cannons and nearly 2 dozen torpedo launchers, these ships are are a match for anything the Sith Empire can come up with. In addition these ships also carry a small contingent of fighters as well as several other smaller ships. One Capital ship is always selected to receive certain upgrades to increase the ships effectiveness; this ship becomes the flag ship of the republic navy. The current flag ship of the Republic is the Capital ship Shield and Sword.

length: 1.8 km long.

This ship is (c) to me so do not use without my permission
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The MEX-321A, Specter, is the standard of recon and covert ops fighters. Equipped with with a wide array of sensor jammers and signal dampeners, the Specter is all but a ghost on sensors. It unfortunately is still visible to the naked eye and it can't fully mask its heat signature. Also, because of its stealth nature, it has no shields, but it makes up for this in speed. It also lacks some of the more sophisticated servalance equipment found in larger recon ships so it s usually used in recon ops where speed is required.

this ship is (c) to me
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Download to see details...

The TIE Droid was initially developed by General Arndall Lott, who based his idea on the slaving experiment of the Katana Fleet and the droid fighters used by the Separatists. It was then given to Sienar Fleet Systems engineers to make into a reality. Sienar based what would soon be known as the TIE Droid on their original TIE Fighter, borrowing many of the elements the TIE series was known for and incorporating it into the new fighter.

If anything, the TIE/D was the epitome of Imperial fighter design philosophy. It was cheap, expendable, had a small target profile, and could be churned out in huge numbers. Without the need to spend credits on training pilots, the TIE/D was actually cheaper in the long run than the original TIE Fighter.

Despite being cheaper, the TIE Droid is actually tougher and faster than the venerable TIE Fighter. Sienar took the standard command pod and added additional armor and made it so the rectangular wing panels had an adjustable pitch. The TIE Droid was also able to beat the fearsome TIE Interceptor in atmospheric speed. Many of these improvements were possible because Sienar didn't have to take the life of a pilot into consideration.

Sienar made a limited number of the TIE Droids to test against New Republic fighters. Piloted by the Cybot Galactica Ace-6 droid brain, the TIE Droids proved to be no match for living pilots despite their superior numbers. A lack of shields and a tendency to be outwitted by the strategies of living pilots proved to be its downfall. The project was quietly canceled as Sienar focused on the next generation of the TIE series.

It would not be until the Xen'Chi Invasion that the TIE Droid project would be resurrected, but this time by the secret organization known as Oremin. Seeking ways to bolster the Empire's dwindling forces, Reng Kasr put his scientists to work on ways to fix the flaws in the TIE/D design, which he felt still had a lot of potential.

The TIE Droids were soon equipped with shields, much as the Empire had done to the TIE Interceptor. To improve the droid's A.I., Oremin copied memory engrams of their top pilots into a new droid brain of their own creation, giving the ships a form of semi-sentience and vastly improving their tactical abilities
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One of the most fastest and deadliest fighters in the Imperial Navy, the TIE Raptor was a custom built TIE Interceptor by Grand Moff Jerenn. He wanted power, speed and defense. He improvised the fighter's firepower and speed. He had the wings implanted with Solar generators for powering the fighter and it's shields.
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A heavily modeified TIE interecptor, it has advenced shielding, increased firepower, and a large payload of Proton torpedoes. its just as fast as its regular varriants, it is issued to the 381st TIE Demon squadron of the Imperial navy, highly feared by the Rebel alliance.
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Name/Model: TIE Vindicator
Designer/Manufacturer: Osahn Spaceworks (Based on designs from Sienar Fleet Systems and Ancient Sith Designs)
Combat Designation: Space Superiority Fighter/Interceptor
Scale: Starfighter
Length: 6.5 meters
Acceleration: 120 MGLT
Crew: 1 Pilot
Passengers: None
Hyperdrive: SFS ND9 Hyperdrive Activator Unit
Nav Computer: SFS N-s6 Navcom Computer System
Weapons: Two laser canons; Two heavy laser canons
Shields: Forward and Rear Projecting Shields

The TIE Vindicator was to be an elite model of starfighter, being built by the Osahn Confederacy, a small group of planets in the Osa Sector led by Moff Darden and a dark-sider named Lord Ravage. It has been revealed to them the hypocrisy of the Emperor from Ravage's former working with the Prophets of the Dark Side, deep within the Imperial Hierarchy. The planet Osahn, a crystaline world rich with an ore needed in the production of starship hulls, was attacked and devastated by the Confederacy during the Clone Wars. When Ravage, working for the Empire under his birth name of Karada Barkura, and Darden discover the game Sidious had played during the Clone Wars, scarring their world and their own lives in the process, they decided somehow, someway, this corrupt figurehead must be toppled.

Before Barkura's 'demise' at the hands of Darth Vader for failing an important mission, he learned of an ancient Sith Alchemist and Warlord named Seto Kalrawsh who had built what was dubbed as 'the ultimate weapon' in his hopes to seek revenge upon the Sith, his people. With what information they could find without having their plans revealed, they set out to find Kalrawsh's
weapon. In the process, they discoveedr many ruined bases and laboratories hidden across the galaxy that had once been part of the warlord's doma, amongst them a marvelous database of ancient technology and some sort of replication technology built by a people known as the Rakata. Apparently Kalrawsh had used this technology to augment his own fleet, so the Moff and Lord Ravage decided that they would put it to use likewise

Scouring both through that information database and using starfighter schematics from the more recent era, the workmen of Osahn Spaceworks designed their state's new signature starfighter, keeping some designs from the various models of the TIE series as a sign of their birth from the corrupt Empire, some features from ancient Sith Fighters, signifying their goal to overthrow and seek revenge upon their enemies, and their own personal touches. Thus, in honor of their noble goal, their design was dubbed by Moff Darden as the TIE Vindicator.

Two squardons were effectively built and put into service, making them an elite fighter group to bolster the base compliment of standards TIE Fighter and patrol the planets of the Osahn Confederacy.




Art by Siths_Herald
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Shortly after the reemergence of the Nabataean Sith, and amidst the chaos following the Vong War, Maarek Stele set out to design a fighter that would embody his personal philosophy of a space superiority fighter. After extensive research into fighter engagements during the Galactic Civil War, he began designing a fighter that would eliminate the numerous weaknesses he found in the Imperial fighter family. Working with his former flight officer Liydan Dae, he formed the 104th Tactical Training Squadron, as part of the 3rd Tactical Fighter Group. Officially listed as a Training and Demonstration squadron, it became a key think tank for fighter research. Taking a pilot's approach to to design, it soon yielded several prototypes ranging from the M-34 Gunboat to the Sihn Assault Interceptor. Based on long experience in the imperial navy, he created his design upon the principles of Maneuverability, Adaptability, and Survivability. The Tie Highly Maneuverable Technology (HiMaT) demonstrator was the result of his labors.

The TIE HiMAT is a space superiority fighter incorporating a 4 variable wings that rotate around a central axis. The design incorporates a radical new thrust vector system that allows thrust from the main engine to be redistributed as needed between the 4 control vanes on the wings, in addition to the standard Ion thrust system in the rear. The wings, payload and cockpit assembly are modular, allowing for a wide variety of designs and configurations, most notably the A, B, and E variants. As with all modern starfighters, the HiMaT is equipped with both shields and a hyperdrive. Depicted here is the the baseline HiMaT Prime, with the blue streak around the central axis marking it as belonging to the 104th.
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Shortly after the reemergence of the Nabataean Sith, and amidst the chaos following the Vong War, Maarek Stele set out to design a fighter that would embody his personal philosophy of a space superiority fighter.

One of the key features of the TIE HIMAT was its unique variable wing system, which allowed unprecedented changes to the configuration of the fighter mid flight. The ability of the fighter to radically shift its profile and appearance in mid flight had a significant impact beyond the immediate advantages it provided in maneuverability. The constantly shifting nature of the fighter proved to have a significant psychological effect on opposing pilots.

Depicted here are 3 commonly used wing configurations.

Config A, at top left, was primarily used for Atmospheric combat and was designed to increase the aerodynamic properties of the fighter.

Config B, at top right, was generally used to reduce target profile and as a segue into other configurations.

Config C, at bottom, was used primarily for boosting speed at the expense of maneuverability, using the maneuvering thrusters to contribute to the overall speed. This setting was also the primary storage configuration of the fighter.
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A trio of F86 Sabers in flight at dusk. My first attempt at modeling an aircraft in a very looooong time. Made in Cinema 4d, textures hand painted in photoshop. Overall I am very pleased with how it turned out. The sky was a combination of a photo and skydome, with a separate HDRI for limited global illumination, while the city was built as an alpha mapped floor.
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TIE fighters are fictional starfighters in the Star Wars universe. Propelled by Twin Ion Engines (hence the TIE acronym), TIE fighters are depicted as fast, fragile starfighters produced by Sienar Fleet Systems for the Galactic Empire. TIE fighters and other TIE craft appear in the original Star Wars trilogy — Episode IV: A New Hope (1977), Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980), and Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (1983) — and throughout the Star Wars Expanded Universe.

Numerous TIE fighter variants exist in the Star Wars universe, such as the TIE bomber, TIE interceptor, and Darth Vader's personal TIE advanced prototype. Several TIE fighter replicas and toys, as well as a TIE flight simulator, have been released by merchandise companies.

Origin and design

Industrial Light & Magic's (ILM) Colin Cantwell created the concept model that established the TIE fighter's ball-cockpit and hexagonal wing design for A New Hope. Initially given a blue color scheme, the TIE fighter models for the first Star Wars movie were grey to better film against a bluescreen; TIE fighters in the next two movies shifted back to being a muted blue. Sound designer Ben Burtt created the distinctive TIE fighter sound effect by combining an elephant call with a car driving on wet pavement.[1][2]

Combat scenes between TIE fighters and the Millennium Falcon and Rebel X-wings in A New Hope were meant to be reminiscent of World War II dogfight footage; editors used World War II air combat clips as placeholders while ILM completed the movie's special effects.[3] The Jedi starfighter, created for Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, was designed to bridge the appearance of the Jedi starfighter in Episode II: Attack of the Clones and the TIE fighter design from the original trilogy.[4] Dark Horse Comics' Sean Cooke designed the TIE predator in Star Wars: Legacy, set 130 years after the events of A New Hope, to appear both reminiscent of and more advanced than the original TIE fighter.[5]

[edit] Depiction

Star Wars literature states that Sienar Fleet Systems manufactures TIE fighters and most TIE variants. TIE fighters' solar panels power a twin ion engine (TIE) system that accelerates gases at a high speed along almost any vector, affording the ships tremendous speed and maneuverability.[6][7] Described as lacking a hyperdrive, life support, or shield generators, the fragile TIE fighters are deployed in large numbers from bases or larger ships; a Star Destroyer carries a wing of 72 various TIE craft.[6][7] Although Expanded Universe material often describes the TIE fighter as lacking an ejection seat, the player can eject from TIE craft in LucasArts' TIE Fighter flight simulator.[1] Expanded Universe material holds that TIE fighter pilots, who undergo intense physical and psychological testing, are trained to be intensely loyal to Emperor Palpatine and the Empire, willing to sacrifice themselves and their wingmates to accomplish their mission.[8]

[edit] Other TIE craft
Darth Vader's TIE advanced x1

In addition to the TIE fighter, a variety of other TIE craft appear throughout the films. Darth Vader (David Prowse) flies a TIE advanced x1 in A New Hope. ILM gave it a design different from the other TIE fighters to make it instantly recognizable.[9] The next movie, The Empire Strikes Back, introduces a TIE shuttle and TIE bombers, which ferry Captain Needa (Michael Culver) to Darth Vader's Super Star Destroyer and bomb asteroids in the hunt for the Millennium Falcon, respectively. Both TIE craft have a design that stems from an unused "TIE boarding craft" concept developed for A New Hope.[10][11] The TIE bomber's double-hull design led ILM's modelmakers to dub the ship a "double chili dog" fighter.[11] TIE interceptors — faster TIE fighters with dagger-shaped wings and four laser cannons — appear at various points in Return of the Jedi.[12] Two scales of TIE interceptor models were used during filming.[13]
A TIE bomber

Additionally, LucasArts Star Wars video games introduce several TIE variants, such as the TIE hunter starfighter in Rogue Squadron III and the TIE mauler surface vehicle in Empire at War.[14] The TIE avenger and TIE defender — heavily upgraded derivatives of previous craft seen in the Star Wars universe — first appear in TIE Fighter as player-pilotable craft.[15] The plot of Rebel Assault II revolves around destroying the Empire's ability to manufacture the cloaking TIE phantom starfighter, and a campaign in X-Wing Alliance centers on destroying experimental remote-control TIE fighters.
A TIE interceptor

Star Wars literature also introduces TIE varieties. Corran Horn flies a TIE clutch in I, Jedi and TIE raptors attack Rogue Squadron in Solo Command.[16][17] TYE wings — TIE fighter and Y-wing hybrids — appear both in I, Jedi and Rogue Squadron: Masquerade.[16] Dark Horse's Dark Empire introduces both the droid-piloted TIE/D and the TIE crawler "century tank".[18] West End Games' roleplaying sourcebooks introduce varieties that include the TIE/fc fire-control support ship, the TIE/gt ground-attack fighter, the TIE/rc reconnaissance vessel, and the TIE scout.[19][20]

[edit] Cultural impact

A TIE fighter model used in filming the climax of A New Hope sold at auction for $350,000.[21] Fans built a 16-foot-by-20-foot, 1,000-pound TIE fighter float to commemorate Star Wars' thirtieth anniversary as part of the 2007 Crystal Lake Gala Parade.[22] A Wired editor's creation of a TIE fighter model out of Starbucks cups and stirrers prompted the magazine to create a contest for its readers to submit their own art out of similar Starbucks material.[23]

Kenner released TIE fighter and TIE interceptor toys during the original Star Wars trilogy's theatrical release, and Kenner's die-cast TIE bomber is a rare collector's item.[11][24][25] Hasbro also released TIE fighter, TIE bomber, and TIE interceptor toys.[26][27][28] Both Kenner and Hasbro also manufactured TIE fighter pilot action figures.[26][29] Lego manufactured TIE fighter, TIE bomber, TIE interceptor and TIE advanced models.[30][31][32][33] One of eight Lego mini-kit vehicles released in 2002 is a TIE advanced, and the pieces to all eight can be combined to create a TIE bomber.[34] Lucasfilm members had access to a limited-edition mini-kit TIE fighter.[34] Decipher and Wizards of the Coast published various TIE starfighter and TIE-related cards for the Star Wars Customizable Card Game and Star Wars Trading Card Game, respectively.[35][36]

In 1994, LucasArts released the TIE Fighter flight simulator, which casts the player as an Imperial pilot flying a variety of TIE starfighters. TIE starfighter variants are also playable in Star Wars: Battlefront II and appear in other LucasArts Star Wars titles.
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Arado E 555-1

Arado Ar. E. 555/1 Overview

The Ar.E.555/1 long range bomber concept was part of a design study conducted by Dr. Ing. W. Laute and an Arado design group at the Arado Werks at Landeshut/Schesien. The E.555 study was looking at the advantages of a jet powered planar flying wing. It would combine the wing and body of the airframe together with laminar flow characteristics to provide high cruise speed and long range. As many as 10 (some sources say 11) different variations were studied. These were limited to study only. The RLM decreed on December 28, 1944, all heavy bomber activities be ended. The strain on the aircraft industry to supply enough defensive fighters to stop the around-the-clock bombing of German war assets was given the highest priority. Thus the E.555 series of designs remained as studies only.
Arado Ar. E. 555/1 Historical Details

As early as 1897, German military thinkers were looking at the United States as a possible adversary. Naval Lt. Eberhard von Mantry looked into the possibilities of a seaborne invasion of New York. In 1903 a study was conducted by the Kreigsmarine’s Chief of Staff to capture the Panama Canal and disrupt US Navy activities. By 1904 the US Navy was beginning a build-up to counter problems arising in Central and South America. This put an end to the Kreigsmarine’s plans. Again in 1917, as US forces became involved in the fight in France, German High Command began to look into aerial attacks on the US using airships and long range aircraft. Airships of the day could fly the required distances, but the weather conditions that would be encountered would have made the missions very dangerous. There were no bomber aircraft capable of the range required.

When the First World War ended, German military aviation was outlawed. Almost immediately, however, plans were put into place to keep military aviation activities continuing out of general view. The 1920’s saw German aviation restricted to some small civil airlines and sport glider activities.

The 1930’s saw the rise of the Nazi party and a complete change of national attitude and the planning of rearming the German military.

The newly reconstituted Luftwaffe began building new aircraft of all types. The leaders of this new air force, for the most part veterans of World War I, saw the Luftwaffe as the air artillery to help the Wehrmacht to apply it’s newly developed ‘Blitzkrieg” tactics. Tactical attack aircraft did not require long range and large bomb load capabilities.

However, there were some in this new organization who saw the coming need for a strategic capability. This new Luftwaffe’s Chief of Staff, Generalleutnant Walter Weaver was one who saw the importance of a strategic capability of the Luftwaffe. The “Ural Bomber” program was developing when GenLt. Weaver was killed in a crash in 1936.

His successor, GenLt. Albert Kesselring believed that the primary need of the Luftwaffe was dive bombers and medium twin-engine tactical bombers. The feeling amongst the German military was that the coming war would be a series of short intense engagements and it would not last very long. Germany’s enemies would be defeated before a need to carry the battle long distances would be necessary.

Nevertheless, a Bomber "A" program was instituted, which resulted in the development of the Me 264, He 177 and the Ta 400 long range bomber studies. The Me 264 “Amerika Bomber” and the He 177 Grief were both constructed. The Ta 400 remained a design study. These aircraft suffered from engine and system problems and were never effective bombers.

The German aircraft industry was not capable of building many highly sophisticated bomber aircraft requiring advanced assembly techniques. Demands for primarily single seat day fighters dominated the production capacities of the aircraft industry. Pressurized crew cabins, engines with turbo and super charging, reliable jet engines, remote optical and radar controlled defensive gun positions were some of the challenges facing them. The capacity to build these complex aircraft quickly to meet the changing war situation did not exist.

The Bomber “B” program was instituted to develop successors to the Ju88, Do17/215, and the He111. Many design studies were submitted. The most promising were the Do317, an improved Do217, the Ar.E.340, the Fw191 and the Ju288. The Ar.E.340 remained a design study because of its unusual twin boom layout. The Do317 did not offer enough improvement over the Do217 to merit production. Both the Fw191 and the Ju288 were not able to reach their full potential because of the failure and cancellation of the Jumo222 engine program. Failure of the German conventional and jet engine industries to deliver the next generation of engines to “B” bomber airframes meant they were doomed to failure.

For example, the Ju288 flew with BMW801G, C, TJ and the Jumo222A/B and the DB606A/B and also the DB610 A/B. Much time and materials were spent mating the different engine configurations to the airframe. The engines themselves suffered production problems and most never produced the power they were designed to.

Starting in 1942, the Luftwaffe, the RLM and even Goring and Hitler seemed to vacillate between the need to develop strategic “Wonder” weapons and the need to produce vast amounts of defensive conventional weaponry. In a Sept.17th meeting with Goring, a plan which became known as “3 x 1000 “was put forth. It called for a design capable of carrying 1000kg of bombs at 1000km/h with a useful range of 1000 km. In the end, the pressure brought to bear on all aspects of the German armament industries by Allied strategic forces prevented most of the “Wonder” designs from becoming reality.

Late in 1943, the development think tank of Arado’s Landeshut/Silesia works under the leadership of Dr. Ing. W. Laute began to study the feasibility of a flying wing bomber. Using a laminar flow planar wing shape and jet engine power, they hoped to develop a bomber design capable of high altitude, high speed and long range. They studied 10 (some sources say 11, 14 or15.) variations of the basic design. In mid 1944 the RLM issued a specification to Arado to develop one of those design studies into a bomber capable of crossing the ocean. They picked the E.555/1 to develop. The E.555/1 explored the concept of a planar wing planform with the fuselage blending into the wing to increase its efficiency. The goal of the study was to design a bomber for transatlantic operations. Due to problems with all the various first generation jet and turbojet engines with reliability and production quality, the engines were mounted on a plinth between the twin tails and at the trailing edge of the fuselage. This configuration eliminated intake and exhaust ducting problems. The exhaust was also clear of the airframe structure. If engine changes or the configurations of engines changed, there is no need to modify the airframe itself.

The crew for this version consisted of a pilot and bombardier/navigator in a pressurized glass cockpit with an engineer/gunner position in the fuselage proper. The gunner had control of both the forward and tail remotely controlled gun turrets His position was to be equipped with both radar and optical controls. He would also monitor and adjust critical aircraft systems and help the pilot maintain optimum balance for changing conditions during very long, high altitude missions to be flown in the very cold stratosphere. The pilot has control of two fuselage mounted forward firing cannons and the bombardier/navigator could also control the forward turret to defend against frontal attack. The design called for the bomb load to be carried completely internally. The range penalty of external bomb and fuel tank racks excluded their use. Because the engines were totally external to the airframe, the E.555 could have a substantial bomb bay. It could be more flexible with bomb loads and the possibilities of extra fuel tanks for super long-range missions. The possibilities of mounting cameras for photo/recon missions would also be considerable. It would have also been capable of carrying an atomic weapon, had one been available.

On December 28, 1944, the RLM bowed to the pressure on the aircraft industries for delivering defensive fighters and announced that all bomber and reconnaissance aircraft production cease to concentrate on fighter aircraft. The Ar.E.555 design studies remained studies and the war ended. The Luftwaffe failed to see the importance of strategic air power and was defeated in part by the Allied use of it. The quality of replacement pilots suffered in part by lack of fuel for training sorties. End of war inspections of factories revealed concealed parks filled with new aircraft with empty fuel tanks. The ability of the Allied forces to use the entire United Kingdom as a gigantic aircraft carrier and put pressure on German industrial infrastructure both night and day helped to shorten the war in Europe.
Luft/Maybe

Picture this in your mind for a moment: If the war had gone a different way, you might have seen E.555s going in one direction and B-36s in the other, over the Atlantic. The B-36 was the ultimate model of the propeller-driven intercontinental strategic bomber. The USAAC leaders saw the importance of strategic airpower and began investing early in the 1930’s. With the XB-15 and XB-19 they studied the harsh realities of the problems involved. The B-17 and B-24 programs were in place as the war began. The B-29 and B-32 programs were moving into position later in the war. The B-35 and the B-36 were to be the next and last prop programs. They would have been truly intercontinental bombers.

By Bruce Van Auken

Type: Long-range bomber Arado acre E.555-1
Drive: 6 jet engines BMW 003
Wingspan: 21.2 m
Length: 18.4 m
Height: 6.4 m
Wing area: 125 m ²
Maximum speed: 915 km/h
Maximum air route: 4,800 km
Takeoff weight: 24,000 kilograms
Bomb load: 4000 kilograms
Crew 3: Pilot, radar observer and navigator on catapult seats in a pressurized cabin.
Armament: two cannons M 103 - 30mm in the wing roots
two machine guns magnesium 151 - 20mm behind the cockpit
two machine guns magnesium 151 20mm in the tail dome
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DASA TDEFS Knight Wraith

Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm Lampyridae

In 1987, a year before the Reagan administration revealed the existence of the F-117A, a fact-finding group of US Air Force officers was taken to a closed-off section of Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm's (MBB's) plant at Ottobrunn in Bavaria and shown a three-quarter-scale wind-tunnel model of an aircraft that MBB had been developing under the tightest secrecy since 1981.

According to high-level Luftwaffe sources, the Americans were startled by what they saw: a stealth aircraft, dubbed the Medium Range Missile Fighter or Lampyridae (Firefly), whose core design principle - deriving an efficient aerodynamic shape out of an arrangement of radar-deflecting flat panels or 'facets' - mirrored the technique employed on the then top secret F-117A. The demonstrator was subsequently tested in a series of tethered flights in a wind-tunnel complex owned jointly by the German and Netherlands governments.

Shortly after the visit of the USAF delegation to Ottobrunn, under a directive that has never been adequately explained, the German government cancelled Lampyridae, even though all tests on the wind-tunnel model, which was big enough to accommodate a pilot, showed that the design was highly effective. So effective, in fact, that MBB was convinced that it was poised to receive an order from Bonn to develop the Lampyridae into the world's first air-to-air stealth interceptor. When the Lampyridae's existence was finally acknowledged in 1995, a number of German engineers who had worked on the programme began making the allegation that the cancellation order had been issued as a direct result of US pressure on the German government to drop the programme. The implication being that the USA was determined to keep the breakthrough science of stealth in US hands.

Senior engineers at the Military Aircraft division of the EADS company at Ottobrunn - the successor organisation to the fighter design side of MBB - are able to be more philosophical than their forebears about the Lampyridae saga. "Everyone makes a secret of it, but Maxwell's equations have been around for more than a hundred years," says Dr Peter Brecher, vice president for technology management at EADS Military Aircraft.

Operational research in the mid-to-late 1970s showed that the Warsaw Pact's air defences were so dense along Germany's borders that the Luftwaffe would suffer unacceptably heavy attrition losses should NATO have to fight a high-intensity war. To alleviate these attrition rates, German technicians were forced to address the issue of detection ranges by Soviet air defence radars and interceptors. That, in turn, led them to look again at the equations of the 19th century physicist James Clerk Maxwell, whose computations on the transmission, absorption and reflection properties of electromagnetic waves are the underpinnings of radar development - and of stealth.

It was this same analytical process that led to the development of the F-117A in the USA, demonstrating that the parallel appearance of Lampyridae in Germany was not as coincidental - or as sinister - as the US fact-finding mission supposed. "The principles are well known through Maxwell, it's the fine-tuning of those principles that is sensitive," says Dr Brecher. "What makes me confident is that in Germany we have had a quarter century of permanent research into stealth." The point is, stealth outside the USA is a reality - and has been for at least 25 years.

In Germany, stealth activity continued after the cancellation of the Lampyridae. In the mid-1990s, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace (DASA), MBB's successor company, commenced work on a new stealth programme called the Technology Demonstrator for Enhancement and Future Systems (TDEFS).

The TDEFS was proposed as a European stealth technology demonstrator with both manned and unmanned variants. Like Lampyridae, TDEFS was ready for development, but the program collapsed due to a lack of money and interest from Europe's other main combat aircraft companies, which were engaged in their own stealth activities.

With major LO development facilities at Manching in Bavaria and Bremen, DASA continued its development of stealth shaping techniques and radar absorbent material (RAM). Today, the Signature Technology Department in Bremen is charged with the development of stealth technologies for the whole of EADS' Military Aircraft. The unit is responsible for stealth concepts, for the camouflaging of components and objects, for signature measurement, calculation and verification, and the development of RAM. There are two indoor RCS measuring facilities at Bremen, used for analysing objects up to 5m in size and one tonne in weight. A third facility is operated jointly with STN Atlas Elektronik. In addition, a new outdoor RCS range has recently opened at Manching where the radar returns of full-size aircraft up to 45 tonnes can be measured.

The information above was originally from: Nick Cook& Bill Sweetman, "Hidden Agenda." Jane's Defence Weekly. 15 June 2001.

It has been published on the internet at:
[link]
I have republished it here because the invisible-defenders.org domain doesn't seem to exist anymore (as of 1 dec 2004).
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