Text: Particle No: BasicsText: Particle No: Basics in Other More Like This
'No' is a particle, just as 'ka' is. However it serves a different purpose. 'No' is the particle that connects two nouns. You can think of it as the 'possessive' particle or as the apostrophe 's'. (It has other meanings as well, but that will come at a later time.)
Let's see some examples.
Takeshi san no denwa bangou
Takeshi's phone number
Daigaku no gakusei
A college student (literally: the college's student)
The first noun is always the noun that owns the second. Takeshi owns the phone number, the college owns the student. Let's try with some complete sentences now.
Watashi no senmon wa eigo desu.
My major is English.
Notice the change in the subject. 'Watashi' is no longer the
Text: Kono, Sono, Ano, DonoText: Kono, Sono, Ano, Dono in Other More Like This
この, その, あの, どの + noun
Kono, sono, ano, dono + noun
Try not to get these confused with 'kore, sore, are, dore' as they are similar (so I refer you back to the previous tutorial: http://learningjapanese.deviantart.com/art/Text-Kore-Sore-Are-Dore-266472391) but their uses are different. These can make a sentence slightly more specific and must always be followed by a noun (whereas 'kore, sore, are, dore' must always be alone).
Kore wa ikura desu ka?
How much is this?
Replace 'kore wa' with 'kono+noun':
Kono kaban wa ikura desu ka?
How much is this bag?
Notice that the subject marker moved. It's not after 'kono' as the 'no' series has to have a noun after it; rather it is after the noun as the noun is now the subject of the sentence.
Text: Telling Time Part 2Text: Telling Time Part 2 in Other More Like This
Please be sure to have read/understood/learned my previous part or already have the knowledge of the basics in telling time.
Previous part: http://learningjapanese.deviantart.com/art/Text-Telling-Time-Part-1-258668747 (link also in description)
We've already learned how to say the hours and minutes as well as state that "now" is the time. This part will explain AM/PM and half past.
Let's start with the easiest, AM/PM.
There are two different ways in expressing AM/PM, both in English and many other languages and one is stating that it is AM/PM and the other is counting in, what is commonly referred to as, military time. (Which is the full 24 hours and not two sets of 12.)
An example in English (for those who don't know how it works):
Instead of saying it is 3 o'clock PM, you could say it is 15 o'clock.
It works the same way in Japanese, though it isn't as common (as is in English) to use this method.
In Japanese, the above example would be:
Text: Suffixes for NamesText: Suffixes for Names in Other More Like This
In Japan, people very often call someone by their family name and then an added on suffix depending on their relationship. Japanese people are extremely formal and rarely call someone by their first name unless they are close friends, family, etc.
The most commonly used suffix is -さん (-san). It is basically the same thing as adding Mr., Mrs., or Ms. to English names. たかなさん (Tanakasan) is "Mr. Tanaka" for example. It is a regular occurrence to add -san to the end of names and it is NEVER used to refer to oneself. No suffix is EVER added on to ones own name when referring to yourself.
For example, I would never say this:
Watashi wa Samu-san desu.
I am Ms. Sam.
I would instead, say this:
Watashi wa Samu desu.
I am Sam.
To add a suffix to your name makes you look extremely arrogant
Text: Verbs: -Masu FormText: Verbs: -Masu Form in Other More Like This
The next verb form I'm going to teach you is the "masu" form. This will take some getting used to, but I'm sure you'll get it soon enough c:
The "masu" form is the present affirmative tense of verbs. It is also the future tense as the language has no separate way to say it. I'll go more over the meaning of the verbs at a later time. For now, let's just learn how to conjugate.
Let's start with 'ru-verbs'. To make a 'ru-verb' into 'masu' form, you take it's stem. The verb stems for 'ru-verbs' are very easy to figure out as they are the same their respective verb base. You add 'masu' to the verb stem and that's it for 'ru-verbs' Pretty simple, huh?
おきる (okiru) = dictionary form
おき (oki) = verb stem
Add "masu" and you get:
おきます (okimasu) = masu form
And that's it!
Go ahead and try it with the other verbs before going on.
たべる (taberu) = たべます (tabemasu)
ねる (neru) =
Text:General Katakana TutorialText:General Katakana Tutorial in Other More Like This
Katakana is the second alphabet and isn't used too too often. It's only used for words that come from outside of Japan, basically foreign to Japan. Those words can come from any country and are not just limited to English. Therefore, you may see words written in katakana but do not mean what you think. (Aka, those words could've come from Germany, Spain, etc. I'll show you examples later.)
You do have to be careful though! Most words in katakana already have a particular spelling. You can easily make any word into Japanese by using katakana, but since so many are already transcribed, you could unintentionally spell a word wrong. (Examples later.)
This isn't just limited to words, this can also include foreign names. Any name not native to Japan is written in katakana. Another instance of katakana can be seen in Japanese comic books (manga) in which onomatopoeia is typed/written in katakana.
Vocab Three: Food and DrinkVocab Three: Food and Drink in Other More Like This
Vocab: Location WordsVocab: Location Words in Other More Like This
みぎ (migi) = right
ひだり (hidari) = left
まえ (mae) = front (in this case for "location" but it can also mean "before")
うしろ (ushiro) = back/behind
なか (naka) = inside
うえ (ue) = on/above
した (shita) = below/under/beneath
そば (soba) = near
ちかく (chikaku) = near (more commonly used)
となり (tonari) = next to (items must be in the same category; IE two writing utensils, two foods, two buildings, etc.)
よこ (yoko) = next to (regardless of item category)
あいだ (aida) = between