Text: Particles De and EText: Particles De and E in Other More Like This
For this tutorial, I will be covering the /basics/ of two particles: de and e.
Let's get started with the 'de' particle. The 'de' particle marks the noun in which the verb/action takes place. A somewhat literal translation would be the equivalent of 'in' or 'at'.
Watashi wa uchi de nihongo wo benkyoushimasu.
At home I study Japanese. OR I study Japanese at home.
(Keep in mind, this could also be understood as, "I will study Japanese at home." depending on the context/intended meaning.)
'Uchi' or 'home' is where the studying takes place, thus marked with 'de'.
Watashi wa tomodachi no ie de terebi wo mimashita.
I watched TV
Text: Using Frequency AdverbsText: Using Frequency Adverbs in Other More Like This
For this tutorial, we will be making use of the frequency adverbs that I posted earlier. If you have not looked them over, I suggest you do so now.
Frequency adverbs help you better describe how often you do something, be it every day, not at all, or somewhere in between c:
Watashi wa tokidoki worumaato ni ikimasu.
I sometimes go to Walmart.
Watashi wa yoku shukudai wo shimasu.
I often do homework.
Watashi wa mainichi pan wo tabemasu.
I eat bread every day.
You do not need a particle after a frequency adverb.
To describe how infrequent you do something, you would use 'zenzen
Text: Negative Desu FormText: Negative Desu Form in Other More Like This
Now you should by now know how to say that something /is/ something (x wa y desu). But how about something is /not/ something?
To negate an affirmative "desu" statement, you change "desu" to "ja arimasen". Let's see it in action:
Watashi wa daigakusei desu.
I am a college student.
Now change "desu" to "ja arimasen".
Watashi wa daigakusei ja arimasen.
I am not a college student.
Aside from "desu" changing, everything else remains the same and stays in the same place.
Another way to negate "desu" sentences is using the noncontracted form (and also the more formal form) of 'ja' which is 'dewa'.
Kore wa enpitsu dewa arimasen.
Text: IruText: Iru in Other More Like This
This tutorial will cover the verb ru-verb 'iru'. As you may recall from the previous tutorial, 'aru' is used for inanimate or nonliving things. 'Iru', on the other hand, is used for living things.
'Iru' still follows the same rules as 'aru' in regards to particle use with 'ga' and 'ni'.
Let's see some examples.
Soko ni ryuugakusei ga imasu.
There is an international student there.
Notice the difference between the above and the below:
Bobu-san wa ryuugakusei desu.
Bob is an international student.
The first points out the existence of an international student whereas the latter says Bob /is/ international student.
Koko ni kame ga imasu.
There is a turtle here.
(Kame = t
Vocab: Frequency AdverbsVocab: Frequency Adverbs in Other More Like This
あまり + negative
Amari + negative
ぜんぜん + negative
Zenzen + negative
not at all
Text: Telling Time Part 1Text: Telling Time Part 1 in Other More Like This
I highly suggest you visit these two pages before continuing on:
(Teaches you how to count)
(Good visual reference)
Telling time in Japanese is not too difficult, actually. It just takes practice to get used to it.
Learning how to say the hours is the easiest and first step:
いちじ (ichiji)= one o'clock
にじ (niji) = two o'clock
さんじ (sanji) = three o'clock
よじ (yoji) = four o'clock
ごじ (goji) = five o'clock
ろくじ (rokuji) = six o'clock
しちじ (shichiji) = seven o'clock
はちじ (hachiji) = eight o'clock
くじ (kuji) = nine o'clock
じゅうじ (juuji) = ten o'clock
じゅういちじ (juuichiji) = eleven o'clock
Text: Koko, Soko, Asoko, DokoText: Koko, Soko, Asoko, Doko in Other More Like This
ここ、 そこ、 あそこ、 どこ
koko, soko, asoko, doko
Try not to confuse this group with the other two 'ko, so, a, do' groups. These words are used for places. They do, however, follow the same pattern as the other two as seen below:
ここ (koko) means 'here' and is used for places near the speaker.
Gakkou wa koko desu.
The school is here.
そこ (soko) means 'there' and is used for places near the recipient.
Ginkou wa soko desu.
The bank is there.
あそこ (asoko) means 'over there' and is used for places far from both the speaker and the recipient.
Otera wa asoko desu.
The temple is over there.
どこ (doko) means 'where' and has
Vocab Seven: TimeVocab Seven: Time in Other More Like This
Text: Past Negative Desu FormText: Past Negative Desu Form in Other More Like This
To make past negative sentences, we combine both 'ja arimasen' and 'deshita' into one.
Sore ha watashi no inu ja arimasen deshita.
That was not my dog.
'Ja arimasen' makes the sentences negative and adding 'deshita' puts it in the past tense. 'Deshita' will always go after the negation and both will take the place of 'desu'.
To make a more formalized sentence, just replace 'ja arimasen' with 'dewa arimasen' as you saw previously.
Kore wa enpitsu dewa arimasen deshita.
This was not a pencil.
It may seem like a long thing to say/write/read to make something as short as "was not", but don't fret! There are much shorter versions that I'll cover later on. These versions will be informal tho