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Another episode form the victorian colonisation of Mars... Royal Navy faces the German Kaiserliche Marine on the Martian orbite...Battleships strongly inspired by ships and those you can find on old photos...On the foreground one of my favourite British battleships - HMS Rodney in a steampunk version ;P, spiting his deadly shells into German "schlachtschiff" direction

Dedicated to all Royal Navy fans :D

I hope you like it ;)
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couldn't refrain from colouring it :) the pride of Austro-Hngarian Space Fleet now in's a little break from the "family portray" which already exhausted me :P but those who await it- don't worry you'll see it soon! Now you have to settle for a lonely Imperial fleet ship somewhere near Mars ;)
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hi there folks! welcome again in the Victorian Age Space Colonisation :D

this time an Austro-Hungarian space battleship "Viribus Unitis" -THe Imperial Fleet flagship (latin: With United Forces) name of the ship is also an official motto of the Habsburg monarchy... this vessel is one of the four battleships of her class (Tegetthoff-Klasse) :
SMS Prinz Eugen
SMS Szent Istvan (Hungarian:Saint Stephen)
SMS Tegetthoff
and SMS Viribus Unitis of course :P

the Austro Hungarian Imperial Fleet is the fifth Space fleet as regards the size...(after the Royal Navy, German Kaiserliche Marine, Franch Fleet and Russian Imperial Fleet) but still can't be a real threat to the other powers(their fleet makes up a 1/5 of the British Royal Navy)...

The beginning of the Austrian adventure with Space colonies was the "Phobos crisis" in 1886 (earlier the Empire had only few lunar bases which were also the navy space harbours ) ...The German II Reich announced that one of the Martian moons -Phobos is for sale since it doesn't present any value for the German economy... Two sides declared their interest: USA and the Austro-Hungary( the U.K was involved in colonising Mars and later in suppressing the Martian Revolt )...The Germans finally sold Phobos to their Austro-Hungarian allies in year later a leader of the scientific expedition on Phobos - Czech Frantisek Shveyk ( :P ) suddenly announced that he found a tremedously big layers of tungsten ore (hidden deeply under the surface) on Phobos...

the whole Earth was first the German Kaiser Wilhelm II wanted to get back that Martian moon, but fortunately Bismarck convinced him to call off his claims...but the USA weren't so 1886 a 10 cruisers of the US Navy were heading towards Phobos simply to conquer it since the Congress claimed that the USA were cheated by the Germans...

the Austro Hungarian response was quick, Kaiser Franz Joseph sent four Erzherzog Karl (archduke Charles) class space battleships to defend Phobos...a Fight between the K.u.K. Kriegsmarine and the U.S. Navy of the Austrian battleships -SMS Kaiserin Elizabeth was seriously damaged while the USA lost 2 cruisers...America soon sent their own battleships -USS Virginia, USS Arizona and USS Nevada...Now the situation was very unfavourable for the Austrians...American ships had a serious advantage over them...

Fortunately for Franz Joseph, German Emperor gave full diplomatic and military support to the Austro-Hungary ..Soon the whole German Weltraumflotte (former Hochseeflotte since it served on Earth :P ) - the strongest German navy located on Deimos moon set off to destroy the US vessels...the situation was really hot...everybody thought that soon the War will break out...Fortunately France and the British Empire (the Martian revolt was coming to the end) also set off their fleets to stop Germany and prevent the war... the USA was forced by the U.K. to relinquish their claims (in exchange the Austro-Hungarian war reparations ) ...

is there anybody out there or are you asleep lads? :D

PS_PL mam nadzieje że mnie nie zabijesz Boruciu :P jakoś tak wyszło z tym pancernikiem :(
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This is the very first type of Royal Navy space ships. The Liverpool-class ironclads fought with Prussian pre-dreadnoughts to achieve domination in the close orbit. Now, in the age of space dreadnoughts and advanced battleships, they serve as a reserve in Royal Navy defences and protect a forgotten British lunar base.


-three heavy (10-inch) twin gun turrets
-three flak (3-inch) turrets
-two early torpedo launchers


I wanted to show something pre-dreadnought. I've chosen an ironclad gunship, because it looks quite interesting. This drawing took me about one hour.

Used HB mechanical pencil.

Tom :D
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The first type of German spaceships, Ruhr-class battleship is lightly armed and slow, yet still useful in patrol and defence. It is also able to succesfully engage smaller frigates and corvettes.

Armament: four 320mm guns in turrets; four 155mm gun in side sponsons and two in the ventral front turret; six 88mm guns in side cupolas and four in turrets on the sides; two torpedo launchers; 15 flak guns.

Design deeply inspired by "Schleswig-Holstein" battleship built in 1903.

Done today on English, Biology, History and Geography lessons (I had to hide) :P

Tom :D
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After several British space successes supported by nimble fighters, the germans developed their own starfighters. They've even converted new atmoshperic planes into real starfighters. The Fokker K.3 Sternjäger is a fast, agile and lightly-armed triplane. Its standard armament consists of three MG-8 machine guns, but it is a wide practice to add 20mm cannons on the middle pair of wings. The cockpit has been drastically lowered into the hull for protection, but this became it's largest flaw as it limited the pilot's field of vision. Therefore, many planes have been equipped with periscopes, fitting perfectly in the cockpit.

This is the last of my concepts for this time, after one-two weeks I'm gonna do more. I just want to prevent myself from getting bored. :)

Done today on History and Polish classes.

Tom :D
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Designed by my brother during our Star Wars RPG.

The Results of the Y-wing Upgrade project, the H-wing heavy artillery support fighter was designed by General Salm and Colonel Blaine of Gold Squadron. After the Yuuzhan Vong War began, General Salm and Colonel Blaine stole the schematics and hid on the junk world of Fenris...

Not long after, mysterious dark hulled ships with super powerful weaponry began to destroy Yuuzhan Vong coral skipper patrols and capital ships. Fast, heavily shielded, and deadly... Shadow Squadron had appeared on the scene.

Original parts by Captain Shade! (thanks Cap!)
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Created by Grand Inquisitor Kael, the TIE Stilleto was designed to create a ship capable of matching the A-wing in speed and maneuverability. Unfortunatly, the experimental engines were too powerful for the space-frame. So after downsizing the engines, the TIE Stilleto was still a formidable interceptor. Only three dozen were produced before the Battle of Endor, and afterwards, the TIE Stilleto's were sent to the Chiss Ascendancy.
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After staring at the X-wings for a while, I decided to design a custom heavy armament design. Designed to assist the B-wings and K-wings in taking on Capital ships. Most of the power gleaned from those oversized engines are fed into shields and those heavy turbo-lasers.

Original parts by Captain Shade!
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ダグダ Dagda
Representative of the standard battleship design of the Imperial forces of the Goldenbaum dynasty cira 750 Space Calendar, specifically during the second battle of Tiamat. Dagda was a formation leader in the Imperial fleet during the battle, and was caught in a crossfire and destroyed when the Free Planets Alliance forces successfully predicted their actions.

エッセン Essen
Essen was one of the battleships in the fleet that encountered the Free Planets Alliance forces in Space Year 640. Though Essen herself was destroyed, ships of her class persisted long afterwards. Given its age, most of these ships are in private fleets.

Essen is not canonically named in the animation. The only battleship named is the Gottingen, but I can't make out the Bablefish translation Xx;

ライン Rhine
The Rhine was one of the battleships to participate at Amlitzer within the fleet under Willibald Joachim von Merkatz. She remained with the Merkatz fleet, but during the flight of the nobles under Littenheim, the crew was torn between their loyalties. A mutiny occurred a third of the way into the voyage to Geisburg fortress and she came under the command of Pro-Lohengramm forces. She surrendered herself to the Metermeyer fleet, where she was recommissioned under the Lohengramm banner.

She remained with the Metermeyer fleet up until the end of the series, suffering damage while fighting with the Reuantal forces.

Rhine is a creation of my own, not emphasized in the series.

Not entirely happy with the way it came out. I might revisit it later.
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Redux of the Rusalka-Class Assault Frigate.

Top is production version (So far). Bottom is the one-off prototype.

She was originally a frigate competitor to the Ranger, but she did not outshine the Ranger's longevity on patrol. When the Antareans attacked, the design was revisited, revised, and pressed into service as an assault frigate.

Unlike the Ranger (which was constructed between several major shipyards as a symbol of unity in the ULP), the Rusalka was made from USN R&D- the research and Development arm of the Navy. Traditionally armed, part of the appeal of the Rusalka was originally the fact that it carried a balanced, conservative armament and could be pressed into service as a radar picket (which is why she has the nose-dome similar to the Loki and Fenrir, and the under-nose radar array). Obviously the admiralty favored the casual carrier and longstanding patrol nature of the Ranger, as a ship like the Rusalka didn't seem to have a future in what seemed to be the peaceful era at the time.
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I always thought spaceships with huge rotating sections were awesome. Since they're semi-plausible also, it means ships of this kind are sorta closer to reality than most of the static starships in most science fiction.

I originally just wanted to polish up the exile Taiidan Heavy Cruiser, but then I decided to draw the Omega and the Leonov to show where the inspiration came from.

I also drew them to ward off comments of "Hey, a Taiidan-Omega Hybrid!" See for yourself, the only things they have in common are the rotating section and not much else.

Earth Alliance Omega Destroyer = Babylon 5
Alexei Leonov = 2010 (movie version)
Exile Taiidan Heavy Cruiser = Homeworld (alternate)
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Inspired by the Legend of Galactic Heroes anime.
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Inspired by the Legend of Galactic Heroes anime
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Paintover by :iconadamkop:

I did this series of ships, but just couldn't squeeze any good ideas for the details on them so I commissioned Adam to bring this one to life. I'll be using it as reference for applying the detailes on the 3d models.

The wips of the ships in Scraps:
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GOVERNMENT: Earth Federal Republic
TYPE: Main Space Battleship (SBB)
MODELS: Kurita class
LENGTH: 739.5 feet
WIDTH: 137.5 feet
HEIGHT: 186.14 feet
MATERIAL:Crystal Composite
POWER PLANT:3x Federal Energy FEFR-60M fusion reactor
OUTPUT: 3x 60,000 megawatts each (FEFR-60M)
ARMOR TYPE:Crystal Composite
DISPLACEMENT: 25,000 tons
CREW: 346 (25 Operators, 94 Gunners, 27 Officers, 25 Engineers, 25 Technicians, 25 Electricians, 15 Medical, 20 Space fighter Pilots, 40 Security, 40 Space marines, 10 Science.)


             PRIMARY (Main Engines):
             4x Lunar Dynamics PD-25M plasma drives
             SPEED: kiloMACH 20 each (15,200,000 mph or .0225C each, or .09C total)


             HEAVY ASSAULT
             1x Lunar Dynamics EMPAC-20M 20,000-megawatt electromagnetic particle accelerator cannon; Effective Range: 100,000 miles; Payload: unlimited with nuclear battery clutch system; ROF: fires one blast per ten seconds, however the weapon requires 50 seconds to completely cool off after each shot so as not to overheat/melt the unit. Therefore, the EMPAC weapon's effective/safe ROF is once per minute.

             PRIMARY (OFFENSIVE):
             5x Federal Armory FA-PC-4002 dual 400-megawatt PHELAC turrets; Effective Range: 3200 miles; Payload: unlimited with nuclear battery clutch system; ROF: 3 dual blasts every twenty seconds with a cyclic rate of 9 dual blasts per minute.

             12x Republic Arms RA-STL-02A1 space torpedo tubes; Missile Type: MST-1M 1000-pound Active EMS-guided space torpedo (143.4 kiloton nuclear warhead); Effective Range: 7111 miles; Payload: 20 space torpedoes each in an autoloading torpedo tube; ROF: 1 torpedo per two seconds with a cyclic rate of 30 torpedoes per minute.

             PRIMARY (DEFENSIVE):
             5x Republic Arms RFLC-502 dual 50-megawatt rapid-fire laser turrets; Effective Range: 500 miles; Payload: unlimited with 800-megawatt nuclear battery clutch system; ROF: 8 dual blasts every ten seconds with a cyclic rate of 48 dual blasts per minute.

             1x Laser Communications array with a 1000 AU range.
             1x Passive EMS sensor array with a range of 1,000,000 miles.
             1x Active EMS sensor array with a range of 100,000 miles.
             1x Gravitational Control/Antigravity unit Effect: provides artificial lift,g-force compensation and enhanced maneuverability.

             6x Warptron DF-5M 5000-megawatt LEVEL-1 Gravitonic deflector field generators; RANGE: 5000 feet; OUTPUT: 900 terajoules with a regeneration rate of 90 terajoules per ten seconds.

             1x 4000-yd3; Bay holds twenty 30-ton SBR-01R or SBR-01S space battle robots plus 1600 yd3 of ordinance for the battle robots.

This ship is from Nexus Arcana: The Stygian Conspiracy:…
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The first Space Control Ship constructed by men of Earth is the LaGrange Republics Type-56 Space Battleship.  This vessel was a 55,000 ton cylindrical monster built in 2056 to fend off the United Nations Space Corps armada that was threatening to take control of the Earth Sphere and the LaGrange-Point colony space islands during the Great War of the 2050s.  Thirty of these large combat vessels were constructed from 2056 to 2062.  The Type-56 had four 80-megawatt laser cannons (8 cannons total), twelve 105mm autocannon turrets, and eight missile batteries that each held 84, 1000 lb, space torpedoes.  All 672 torpedoes could be fired at once, giving this warship the nickname "Trebuchet" by her crews.  The Type-56 was the first ship to use an electromagnetic drive system as its primary engine.  The EMD was able to propel this ship at 76,000,000 mph (approximately .82 AU per hour).  The ship had a primitive Tesla-Shauberger ring inside it that protected the crew in the command module from the g-forces of the engine's high speeds.  Slowing the ship down required the craft to spin using its thermonuclear rockets to "pivot" to one side, or top/bottom.  The eight thermonuclear rocket engines served as the vessel's auxiliary drives for use near a planet or moon and were mounted in a unique ball-socket that could turn up to 30 degrees in any direction.  This allowed the rockets to be used to help turn the ship around to slow it down upon reaching its destination after using the EMD.  The process was complicated and dangerous given that newer craft of the 2060s could perform such an operation in a fraction of the time the Type-56 took. Eight primary Liquid Tritium fuel tanks fed the rocket engines, and eight smaller secondary tanks (at the front of the ship) could be used for extended flight and/or in an emergency.  As a battleship, the Type-56 was equipped with electrostatic armor.  This shielding gave the warship adequate protection from craft of the 2050s, but was all but useless against the Solar Empire warships of the 1st Interplanetary War era. 

The Type-56 didn't use any of the Prodono alien technology save for its Tesla-Shauberger gravitational control unit.  The LaGrange battleship was the basis for the entire fleet of Ceres Regency spacecraft that came after it in the 2070s.  It was the last Terran spacecraft to be almost completely built using Earth technology of the 21st century. 

These craft served in the LaGrange Space Navy from 2056 to 2062 and were relegated to the home guards of LaGrange after the outbreak of the 1st Interplanetary War in 2070.  These ships did see combat during the war, and twenty-six of them were damaged beyond repair, four were completely destroyed.

A variant of the the Type-56 was built in the 2060s, that ship was the Type-66 Heavy-Freighter that was used to transport supplies, personnel, and equipment from the Earth sphere to Tyche (a trip of 1.4 years one way).  It was nearly identical to the Type-56 only it had a large sensor/RADAR array, cargo modules, and no weapons.   During the 1st Interplanetary War, the Type-66 was the main cargo ship of the EFR that transported personnel, goods, supplies, and weapons to the front lines.  All of the Type-66 Heavy-Freighters were retired from service after the 1st Interplanetary War ended.

This ship was inspired by the Ultra-Probe from the 1970s TV show "Space 1999".

This craft is from the Nexus Arcana multiverse.…
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GOVERNMENT: Ceres Regency
TYPE: Interstellar Space Battlecruiser
MODELS: Scharnhorst class SBCC-70
LENGTH: 844 feet (257.25 meters)
WIDTH: 188.4 feet (57.4 meters)
HEIGHT: 159.4 feet (48.6 meters)
MATERIAL: Composite-Alloy
POWER PLANT: Ceres Energy CEFR-202K
OUTPUT: 202,000 megawatts
ARMOR TYPE: Composite-Alloy
DISPLACEMENT: 35,000 tons
CREW: 269 (66 Gunners, 35 Engineers, 35 Electricians, 35 Technicians,35 Operators, 25 Officers, 14 Medical, 24 Flight) 

             3x Pallas Research PRID-T2-800 Type-2 Mark-II intersection drives
             SPEED: .03 light years per hour each (.09 light years per hour total)

             7x Io Factory #5 EMD-15750 electromagnetic drives
             SPEED: 3,800,000 mph each (26,600,000 mph/.04C total)

             2x Hygiea #3 HYID-7000 high yield ion drives
             SPEED: 15,200 mph each (30,400 mph total)

             PRIMARY (OFFENSIVE):
             6x Lithgear LG-PC-2002 dual 200-megawatt PHELAC turrets; Effective Range: 1600 miles; Payload: unlimited with nuclear battery clutch system; ROF: 3 blasts every twenty seconds with a cyclic rate of 9 blasts per minute.

             PRIMARY (ASSAULT):
             20x Lithgear LG-PC-1002 dual 100-megawatt PHELAC turrets; Effective Range: 800 miles; Payload: unlimited with nuclear battery clutch system; ROF: 3 blasts every twenty seconds with a cyclic rate of 9 blasts per minute.

              SECONDARY (OFFENSIVE):
              6x Io Factory #1 ITL-Mark V dual-shot ion torpedo retractable cruise missile launcher; Missile Type: IDST-10K ion drive computer-guided space torpedoes armed with one 10,000-pound nuclear warhead; Effective Range: 1056 miles; Payload: 2 space torpedoes each in an autoloading torpedo tube; ROF:  1-2 torpedoes per two seconds with a cyclic rate of 60 torpedoes per minute per torpedo battery.

              TERTIARY (OFFENSIVE):
              2x Lithgear LG-EMPAC-2000 2000-megawatt electromagnetic particle accelerator cannon; Effective Range: 10,000 miles; Payload: unlimited with nuclear battery clutch system; ROF: 1 blast every ten seconds or six blasts per minute each cannon.

             1x Microwave Radio Communications array with a range of 1000 AU.
             1x Super Luminal Velocity communications array with a range of 10 light years.
             1x LADAR array with a range of 220,000 miles.
             1x Passive EMS sensor array with a range of 1,000,000 miles.
             1x Active EMS sensor array with a range of 100,000 miles.
             1x Super Luminal Velocity sensor array with a range of 10 parsecs (32.6 light years).
             3x Gravitational Control/Antigravity unit. Effect: Provides artificial lift, g-force compensation, and enhanced maneuverability, and warp bubble generation for the triple intersection drives.

             6x Europa Research ER-DF-2000 2000-megawatt LEVEL-1 Gravitonic deflector field generators; Effect: has an output of 180 terajoules and a regeneration rate of 18 terajoules per 10 seconds.

             1x 4800-yd3; Bay holds 24 JdWM-02 JägerWeirMechs (25 tons each)

             48x Ganymede Industrial  GI-EP-01 emergency escape pods; DETAILS: Escape pods have 24-hour life-support, a speed of Mach 1 (760 mph), 3 weeks of food for six people, full reentry capability, parachutes for free fall, life raft for six people (water landing), and 24 hours of fuel for rocket engines.

         Development for a new battleship design to replace the Admiral Graf Spee class began in 2069 and was completed in mid-2070 at the Pallas R&D top secret laboratories that were under the direct control of UNSC rebels. These Regency conspirators wanted this new warship to act as the flagship of their revolutionary space navy. However, even the large (for its day) 35,000-ton design was not big enough for what the revolutionaries wanted—a ship that could compete with the Prodono cruisers found at Alpha Centauri.  The conspirators had to be careful not to alert the R&D teams to this even though most of them were very loyal to the cause of the rebellion against the Solar Empire.  The existence of the alien fleet was kept secret from all but a select few.  To placate the growing frustration of their design teams with their demands, the Regency conspiracy leadership approved the Scharnhorst design.
         Originally intended as a space control ship for the secret revolutionary space fleet, the Scharnhorst class was the second battleship-scale design downgraded by the leaders of the Regency conspirators to a cruiser level.  The commanders of the revolutionary forces were concerned that the armor and deflector field defense systems of the Scharnhorst were not powerful enough to warrant a battleship designation.  Therefore, this class of warship was reclassified as a space battlecruiser type.
         The Scharnhorst was the first spacecraft to mount a triple Type-2 intersection drive array using the “Dr. Wilhelmshaven” advanced graviton warp bubble configuration, which used all three of the craft’s antigravity systems to encircle the ship evenly making for a very stable warp bubble that allowed the craft to travel at three times the speed of a single intersection engine.  Three Pallas Research PRID-T2-3500 800-megawatt Type-2 Mark-II intersection drives were used for Scharnhorst.  Each engine was able to propel the vessel at .03 light years per hour for a total of .09 light years per hour (788.4C). 
         The sublight engines of the Scharnhorst were seven Io Factory #5 EMD-15750 15,750-megawatt electromagnetic drives capable of propelling the vessel at speeds of 3,800,000 mph each, or 26,600,000 mph (.04C).  This group of sublight drives gave the Scharnhorst considerable speed for a ship of its size and unlimited range within the entire sphere of the Sol System (a one-way flight to Pluto from Earth being an average of only 133.4 hours, or 5.6 days one way).
         The emergency or “normal” speed engines of the ship were a pair of Hygiea #3 HYID-7000 7000-megawatt high yield ion engines.  These engines had a speed of 15,200 mph each, or 30,400 mph total.  This speed was adequate for combat and maneuvering near space stations, planets, moons, and planetoids.
         The Scharnhorst, like ocean battlecruisers before it, had the armaments of a battleship.  Its main armament consisted of six Lithgear LG-PC-2002 dual 200-megawatt PHELAC turrets.  These turrets were the standard weapons that captains of Scharnhorst class battleships used as converging-beam weapons (CBWs) against enemy capital ships, or individually against enemy escorts and pickets.
         The broadside batteries of the Scharnhorst consisted of twenty Lithgear LG-PC-1002 dual 100-megawatt PHELAC turrets mounted in four batteries of five each.  Two batteries were mounted port and two starboard giving the ship considerable broadside firepower from either side of the vessel.  These weapons were used almost exclusively against enemy capital warships, as most Scharnhorst class captains would not waste a salvo on smaller vessels unless he or she had to.
         A pair of Lithgear LG-EMPAC-2000 2000-megawatt electromagnetic particle accelerator cannons was mounted at the bow of the ship to provide heavy bombardment capability for the vessel.  These cannons were often used in tandem against enemy cruisers, carriers, and battleships to knock out deflectors or melt through armor plating prior to a volley from the ship’s PHELAC turrets.
         The Scharnhorst was also fitted with ballistic weaponry for planetary bombardment. Six Io Factory #1 ITL-Mark V ion drive cruise missile launchers were mounted on the dorsal hull of the ship flanking either side of the main hangar of the ship.  These launchers carried a pair of IDST-10K ion drive computer-guided space torpedoes armed with one 10,000-pound nuclear warhead.  These devastating weapons had an area of effect of 7.6 miles, which allowed them to effectively englobe an entire battlegroup of warships or squadron of mecha within its destructive sphere, and even level the core of a metropolitan city or military complex.  Only two of these ion cruise missiles were carried in each of the six launchers giving the ship a total of twelve of these ballistic weapons.
         The Scharnhorst had considerable armor-plating protection for a battlecruiser and would have been considered a pocket battleship by many other space-borne powers.  However, the conspiracy leaders felt that the armor was not enough, and thus pressed his design team to add six Europa Research ER-DF-2000 2000-megawatt deflector field generators, which were the most powerful energy shields available to the designers at that time, and what would become the standard within the Ceres spacenavy.
         A rather interesting feature of the Scharnhorst was its 48 Ganymede Industrial GI-EP-01 type-one escape pods.  These emergency units were added at the request of the USSN members of the conspiracy due to the limited number of personnel that the conspirators had at their disposal at the time of the creation of the Scharnhorst class.  The addition of this emergency escape system made the Scharnhorst the first vessel from the Sol System to incorporate escape pods for the entire crew.  This feature became standard on many new designs of the post-1st Interplanetary War years.
         The overall design of the Scharnhorst led to a whole new family of warships built by the Ceres Regency starting with the Bismarck class of space battleship in 2072 and other craft of the late 21st and early 22nd centuries.

This ship is from Nexus Arcana: The Stygian Conspiracy:…
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All the pieces together. I may add a ship at some point. It turned out okay as an experiment and illustrates the fortress layout well enough ,but I could probably have created a more dynamic composition using conventional methods and with much less effort.
Some of the pieces don't quite work and I probably should have made more turrets ( showing different scale and gun rotation).
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A super-heavy tank . It has thick armour to the front and sides . The large number of heavy turrets protect it from arial attack. The tank is fully amphibious with a float attached to the exhaust, allowing it to float above the water during river crossings. This was a vital feature as few bridges can support a 1000 ton tank.
The vehicle can also take refuge below water , relying on air tanks or drawing oxygen through the emergency tubing housed along the floated exhaust (which is dissengaged during such an opperation).
Multiple weapons include dozens of machine guns and numerouse multi purpose cannons able to fire AP or high explosive rounds.
A light tank and crewman have been included for scale.
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A system of trenches near a mighty fortress.
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All evil empires need ridiculously impractical technology to be the centerpiece of their forces. It's not just a good idea, it's the law.
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While utilizing a very similar configuration to the Daedalus class of the Royal Navy, the French Pluton class was a smaller and much more experimental design. They took advantage of the location of the main battery atop the gravity generator to better bring to bear developments in incendiary weapons along Martian lines. While never wholly successful, the terror they created made them legendary.

Here we see an early example, possibly the Eurale. She is fitted with the unusual 'lazy susan' style turret which allowed the upper works and main battery to be separately rotated. These were quickly superseded as overly complicated and not a good fit for more conventional weapon systems when incendiaries fell out of fashion.

This is another illustration for 'Spacecraft of the First World War.'
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Another plate for Spacecraft of the First World War. This is a fighter and attack design from late in the conflict, featuring all metal construction and a miniaturized gravity drive. Here we see it being used in a trans-atmospheric role on Mars, a role for which it was ill suited, owing to an atmosphere thin enough to be an impedance, but too thin to offer much lift. The drive impeller is distinctive to late war French design, having blades much like a conventional propeller, while retracting automatically when aerodynamic drag becomes too great.
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The Northrop YB-49 was a prototype jet-powered Flying Wing heavy bomber aircraft developed by Northrop for the United States Air Force shortly after World War II. It was the jet development of the piston-engined Northrop XB-35 and YB-35 Flying Wing, and the two YB-49s actually built were both converted YB-35 test aircraft. The jet-powered Flying Wing never entered production, however, being passed over in favor of the more conventional but obsolete Convair B-36 Peacemaker propeller-driven design.

Design and development

With the XB-35 Flying Wing program seriously behind schedule by 1944, and the end of piston-engined combat aircraft in sight, the production contract for this propeller driven type was cancelled in May of that year. Nevertheless, the Flying Wing design was still sufficiently interesting to the Air Force that work was continued on testing a single YB-35A production aircraft. Among the aircraft later completed were two airframes that the Air Force ordered be fitted with jet propulsion and designated as YB-49s.

The first of these new YB-49 jet-powered aircraft flew on 21 October 1947 and immediately proved more promising than its piston-engined counterpart. The YB-49 set both an unofficial endurance record of staying continually above 40,000 ft (12,200 m) for six hours, and a trans-continental speed record, flying from Muroc Air Force Base in California to Andrews Air Force Base near Washington, D.C. in 4 hours 20 minutes. The return flight from Andrews was marred by a multiple failure in six of the eight engines. Inspection after a successful emergency landing revealed no oil had been replaced in these engines after the Muroc-to-Andrews leg, raising a suspicion of industrial sabotage. The Air Force engineer in charge of this detail became ill shortly before the scheduled departure and did not accompany the YB-49 back to Muroc. He later died in a motorcycle accident under mysterious circumstances. The Northrop Corporation was always a technological trailblazer. But the independent nature of Jack Northrop often collided with the behind-the-scenes political wheeling-and-dealing in Washington, that tended to run huge military allocations with millions of dollars at stake for government contractors.

The second YB-49 was lost on 5 June 1948, killing its pilot, Major Daniel Forbes for whom Forbes Air Force Base was named, Captain Glen Edwards, copilot (after whom Edwards Air Force Base is named), and three other crew members, one of whom, Lt. Edward Lee Swindell was a crewmember on the Boeing B-29 that assisted Chuck Yeager in breaking the sound barrier in the Bell X-1 aircraft. Their aircraft suffered structural failure, with both outer wing sections becoming detached from the center section. Speculation at the time was that the YB-49 was lost due to excessive pullout loads imposed on the airframe when a planned stall recovery resulted in a high speed, nose-over dive. The post-stall high speed dive resulted from the Flying Wing's clean, low-drag design, which gave it a rapid speed increase in any type of dive.

The last operational YB-49 prototype was destroyed during high-speed taxi trials at Muroc Field. The nosewheel began to encounter severe vibration problems and finally collapsed. The aircraft was completely destroyed in the ensuing fire. The taxi trials took place with the YB-49's fuel tanks full, an unusual testing procedure, fanning futher speculation of industrial sabotage of the aircraft.

The Air Force ordered the remaining uncompleted YB-35 piston-engined airframes be completed as production B-35B aircraft.

Bombing target tests showed a tendency of Flying Wings to "hunt" in yaw after turns and when flying in "disturbed" air, degraded bombing accuracy. It was thought that one of the new Honeywell autopilots, with yaw damping, would correct this flaw.
[edit] Operational history

One YRB-49A had been completed, when in September 1948, the Air Force ordered the type into full production as the RB-49A reconnaissance aircraft. It was powered by six jet engines, two of them externally mounted in under wing pods, ruining the Flying Wing's sleak, aerodynamic lines, but extending its recon range with the additonal gasoline carried.

During early 1950, the remaining YB-35Bs airframes being converted to YRB-49As were scrapped. Flight testing of the sole remaining YB-49 prototype ended 14 March 1950. On 15 March 1950, that program was cancelled, and coincidentally, that last YB-49 prototype suffered a high-speed taxiing accident and, as peviously noted, was totally destroyed in the ensuing fire.

But only two months later, all Flying Wing contracts were cancelled abruptly without explanation by order of Stuart Symington, Secretary of the Air Force. Shortly thereafter, Symington also turned down a request from the Smithsonian for the Air Force to donate one of these big wings to its collection of pioneering Northrop aircraft designs.

Northrop's entire Flying Wing program may have been terminated due to its technical difficulties and the program being behind schedule and over budget. Another possible contributing factor to the program's cancellation may have been the tendency of Northrop to become engaged in many experimental programs, which spread its small engineering staff far too wide. While the competing propeller-driven Convair B-36 "Peacemaker" was an obsolete WWII design by this time, and had been having just as many or even more development problems, the Air Force seemed to have greater confidence that its more conventional design and "teething" problems could be overcome, when compared to those of the radical Flying Wing. This conclusion effectively doomed the jet powered Flying Wing program.[citation needed]

But in a 1979 videotaped news interview, Jack Northrop broke his long silence and said publicly that all Flying Wing contracts had been cancelled because Northrop Aircraft Corporation had refused to merge with competitor Convair at Stuart Symington's strong suggestion, because according to Jack Northrop, Convair's merger demands were "grossly unfair to Northrop." A short while later, Symington became president of Convair upon leaving his post as Secretary of the Air Force.

All remaining Flying Wing bomber airframes, except for the sole YRB-49A reconnaissance version, were then ordered by the Air Force to chopped up and the materials smelted down with portable smelters brought to Northrop's facility. Jack Northrop and his employees could only stand by and watch. Northrop retired from both the company he founded and aviation shortly after he saw his dream of a pure, all-wing aircraft destroyed.
Northrop YRB-49A with six engines, two of which are mounted externally.

The prototype reconnaissance platform, the YRB-49A, first flew on 4 May 1950. After only 13 flights, testing ended on 26 April 1951. It was then flown back to Northrop's headquarters from Edward's Air Force Base (formally Muroc) on what would be its last flight. There, the sole remaining Flying Wing sat at edge of Northrop's Ontario airport for more than two years, abandoned. It was finally ordered scrapped on 1 December 1953.[1]

The YB-49 and its modern counterpart, the B-2, both built by Northrop, have the same wingspan: 172.0 ft (52.4 m). All Flying Wing test flight data collected, including, at the time, the aircraft's undervalued invisibility to early radar, was used in the development of the advanced B-2.

Thirty years later, in April 1980, Jack Northrop, now quite elderly and wheel chair bound, was taken back to the company he founded. There, he was ushered into a classified area and shown a scale model of the Air Force's forthcoming but still classified Advanced Technology Bomber, to be known as the B-2A. It was a sleek Flying Wing. Looking over its stealthy, all-wing design, Northrop finally said: "I know why God has kept me alive for the past 25 years."[citation needed] A short while later, Jack Northrop was dead after a long life as one of America's visionary aviation pioneers.
[edit] Popular culture

Stock Northrop footage of the futuristic-looking YB-49 in flight appeared in George Pal's classic The War of the Worlds (1953). In the movie, the Flying Wing was tasked with dropping an atomic bomb on the invading Martians.
[edit] Specifications (YB-49)
YB-49 takes to the air for the first time.
Partially completed YB-35B airframes lined up for completion or conversion to YRB-49As.

Data from Air Force Fact Sheet

General characteristics

* Crew: 7
* Length: 53 ft 1 in (16.0 m)
* Wingspan: 172 ft 0 in (52.4 m)
* Height: 20 ft 3 in (6.2 m)
* Wing area: 4,000 ft² (371.6 m²;)
* Airfoil: NACA 65-019 root, NACA 65-018 tip
* Empty weight: 88,442 lb (40,116 kg)
* Loaded weight: 133,559 lb (60,581 kg)
* Max takeoff weight: 193,938 lb (87,969 kg)
* Powerplant: 8 (6 J35-A-19 on the YRB-49A)× Allison/General Electric J35-A-5 turbojets, 4,000 (5,000 for J35-A-19) lbf (17 kN) each


* Maximum speed: 495 mph (793 km/h)
* Range: 9,978 mi (16,057 km) Maximum[2]
* Combat radius: 1,615 mi (2,599 km)
* Service ceiling: 45,700 ft (13,900 m)
* Rate of climb: 3,758 ft/min (19.1 m/s)
* Wing loading: 33 lb/ft² (163 kg/m²;)
* Thrust/weight: 0.23


* Guns: 4 × .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns
* Bombs: 32,000 lb (14,500 kg)
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North American Rockwell OV-10a Bronco

The North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco is a turboprop-driven light attack and observation aircraft. It was developed in the 1960s as a special aircraft for Counter insurgency (COIN) combat, and one of its primary missions was as a forward air control (FAC) aircraft. It can carry up to three tons of external munitions, and easily loiter for three or more hours.


The original vision was developed by an informal collaboration of W.H. Beckett and Colonel K.P. Rice, USMC, who met at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, California in the 1960s. The concept was one of a rugged, simple, close air support aircraft integrated with forward ground operations. At the time, the U.S. Army was still experimenting with armed helicopters, and the U.S. Air Force was uninterested in close air support.

The concept aircraft was to operate from expedient forward air bases using roads as runways. Speed was to range from very slow, to medium subsonic, with much longer loiter times than a pure jet. Efficient turboprop engines would give better performance than piston aircraft. Weapons were to be mounted on the centerline to get efficient unranged aiming like the P-38 Lightning and F-86 Sabre aircraft. The inventors' favored strafing weapons were self-loading recoilless rifles, which could deliver aimed explosive shells with less recoil than cannons, and a lower per-round weight than rockets. The airframe would thereby avoid the backblast.

They developed a basic platform meeting the requirements, then attempted to build a fiberglass prototype in a garage. The effort produced enthusiastic supporters and an informal pamphlet describing the concept. W.H. Beckett, who had retired from the Marine Corps, went to work at North American to sell the aircraft.

Rice states: "The military definition of STOL (500 ft to a 50 ft obstacle) allows takeoff and landing in most of the areas in which limited war might be fought. In addition, the airplane was designed to use roads so that operation would even be possible in jungle areas where clearings are few and far between. As a result the wingspan was to be limited to twenty feet and a heavy trailing arm type landing gear with a tread of 6.5 ft was provided for operation from roads. Float operation was to be feasible... "[1]

" is quite feasible to design the various components so that it can be disassembled easily and stored in a box that would fit in a 6x6 truck bed together with the equipment needed for re-assembly in the field. It could thus be transported by amphibious shipping and either heli-lifted or driven ashore by a 6x6 truck."[2]

The Bronco began with a specification approved by the U.S. Navy, Air Force and Army, a "tri-service" specification called the Light Armed Reconnaissance Aircraft (LARA), issued at the end of 1963. Retired Marine Corps aviators K.P. Rice and William H. Beckett originated the LARA concept as an aircraft with very small wingspans of around 20 feet that could land in nearly any small clearing and use the same ammunition and fuel as ground troops used. Rice's and Beckett's "L2 VMA" concept also would have the aircraft ground-mobile so it could be co-located with ground units and not require hard-surface runways and air bases.

LARA was based on a perceived need for a new type of "jungle fighting" versatile light attack and observation aircraft. Existing military aircraft in the observation role, such as the O-1 Bird Dog and O-2 Skymaster, were perceived as obsolescent, with too slow a speed and too small a load capacity for this flexible role.

The specification called for a twin-engined, two-man aircraft that could carry at least 2,400 lb (1,100 kg) of cargo, six paratroops or stretchers, and be stressed for +8 and -3 gs (basic aerobatic ability). It also had to be launchable from an aircraft carrier, fly at least 350 mph (560 km/h), take off in 800 ft (240 m) and convert to an amphibian.

Various armament had to be carried, including four 7.62 mm machine guns with 2,000 rounds, and external weapons including a 20 mm gun pod and Sidewinder missiles.

Eleven proposals were submitted, nine of them were: the Grumman Model 134R tandem-seat version of the already fielded U.S. Army OV-1 Mohawk observation/attack aircraft (the U.S. Marine Corps dropped out of the Mohawk program in 1958), Goodyear GA 39, the Beech PD-183, Douglas D-855, General Dynamics/Convair Model 48 Charger, the Helio 1320, the Lockheed CL-760, a Martin design and the North American/Rockwell NA-300.

In August 1964, the NA-300 was selected. A contract for seven prototype aircraft was issued in October 1964.

General Dynamics/Convair protested the decision and built a small-wing prototype of the Model 48 Charger anyway, which first flew on 29 November 1964. This was also a twin-boom aircraft that had a broadly similar layout to the Bronco. The Charger, while capable of outperforming the OV-10 in some respects, crashed on 19 October 1965 after 196 test flights. Convair subsequently dropped out of contention.

The Bronco started flying midway through the Charger's test program on 16 July 1965, and became one of the premiere COIN (COunter Insurgency) aircraft of the next 30 years. It failed to live up to Rice's L2 VMA concept because DoD insisted on 40 ft long wings which made it depend on airbases. Rice concludes:

"The original concept of a small, simple aircraft that could operate close to the supported troops had been almost completely eviscerated by the 'system.' The ability to operate from roads (20 ft span and 6.5 tread) had been ignored, and performance compromised by the short 30 ft span, the extra 1000 lb for the rough field landing gear and another 1000 lb of electronics. The "light, simple" airplane also had a full complement of instruments, ejection seats and seven external store stations. The concept of using ground ordnance and a bomb bay had been ignored, although it did have provisions for four M60 [medium] machine guns. In spite of this growth (almost double the size and weight of our home built), the YOV-10 still had great potential. It would not achieve the advantages of integration with the ground scheme of maneuver, but it did have capabilities at the low end of the performance envelope that were still valuable and unique."[3]

The Bronco performed observation, forward air control, helicopter escort, armed reconnaissance, gunfire spotting, utility light air transport and limited ground attack. The Bronco has also performed aerial radiological reconnaissance, tactical air observation, artillery and naval gunfire spotting and airborne control of tactical air support operations, and front line, low-level aerial photography. A prototype in Vietnam designed to lay smoke was extremely successful, kept in service by evaluators for several months, and only reluctantly released, was not purchased due to a perceived lack of mission.

[edit] Design

Visually, the OV-10 has a central nacelle containing pilots and cargo, and twin booms containing twin turboprop engines. The visually-distinctive item of the aircraft is the combination of the twin booms, with the horizontal stabilizer that connects them. The North Vietnamese nickname for an OV-10 was chuong lon ("pigpen"), perhaps because its tail empennage resembled a traditional Vietnamese pig enclosure.[citation needed]

The OV-10 can perform short takeoffs and landings on aircraft carriers and large deck amphibious assault ships[4] without using catapults or arresting wires, although for safety and clearance reasons the latter is most often not permitted. The cockpit has extremely good visibility for a tandem pilot and co-pilot provided by a wrap-around "greenhouse". With the second seat removed, it can carry 3,200 lb (1,452 kg) of cargo, five paratroopers or two litter patients and an attendant. Empty weight was 3,161 kg (6,969 lb). Normal operating fueled weight, with two crew was 4,494 kg (9,908 lb). Maximum takeoff weight was 14,446 lb (6,563 kg).

The bottom of the fuselage contains sponsons or "stub wings" that improves flight performance by decreasing aerodynamic drag underneath the fuselage. The sponsons were mounted horizontally on the prototype. Testing caused them to be redesigned for production aircraft. The downward angle assured that stores carried on the sponsons jettisoned cleanly. Normally four .30 in (7.62 mm) M60C machine guns were carried on the sponsons with the M60Cs accessed through a large forward-opening hatch on the top of each sponson. The sponsons also had four racks to carry bombs, pods or fuel. The wings outboard of the engines contain two additional racks, one per side. The sponsons are easy to remove, and most unarmed Broncos have now had their sponsons removed.[citation needed]

Racked armament in the Vietnam War was usually seven-shot 2.75 in (70 mm) rocket pods with marker or high-explosive rockets, or 5 in (127 mm) four-shot Zuni rocket pods. Bombs, ADSIDS air-delivered seismic sensors, Mk-6 battlefield illumination flares, and other stores were carried as well.[citation needed]

[edit] Operational history

The OV-10 served in the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy, as well as in the service of a number of other countries. A total of 81 0V-10 Broncos were ultimately lost during the course of the Vietnam War, to all causes: USAF - 64, USN - 7, and the USMC - 10.[5]

[edit] USMC
An OV-10A of VMO-1 operating from USS Nassau in 1983.

The OV-10 was first acquired by the U.S. Marine Corps. Each of the Marine Corps' two observation squadrons (designated VMO) had 18 aircraft, nine OV-10As and nine OV-10Ds night observation aircraft. A Marine Air Reserve observation squadron was also established. The OV-10 was finally phased out of the Marine Corps in 1995 following its employment during Operation Desert Storm, which also saw the final combat losses of OV-10s by U.S. forces.

The U.S. Marine Corps OV-10 Night Observation Gunship (NOGS) program modified four OV-10As to include a turreted forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor and turreted 20 mm (.79 in) M197 gun slaved to the FLIR aimpoint. NOGS succeeded in Vietnam, but funds to convert more aircraft were not approved. NOGS evolved into the NOS OV-10D, which included a laser designator, but no gun. The U.S. Marine Corps lost 10 OV-10s during the Vietnam War to all causes.[5]

Operation as forward air controllers in the U.S. Marines continued in both Active and Marine Air Reserve VMO squadrons through July 1994 and the Broncos were finally decommissioned in 1995. The decision to decommission the aircraft was in large part due to two USMC Broncos being shot down during Operation Desert Storm due to a lack of effective infrared countermeasures equipment. Forward air control passed mostly to ground units with laser designators and digital radios (GFACs) and the twin-seat F/A-18D Hornet (FAC(A)s). Most operational U.S. Broncos were reassigned to civil government agencies in the U.S., while some were sold to other countries.

[edit] US Air Force

The USAF acquired the Bronco primarily as a FAC aircraft. The first USAF OV-10As for combat arrived in Vietnam on 31 July 1968 as part of Operation Combat Bronco, an operation test and evaluation of the aircraft. These test aircraft were attached to the 19th Tactical Air Support Squadron, 504th Tactical Air Support Group at Bien Hoa Air Base in South Vietnam. The test roles included the full range of missions then assigned to FAC aircraft, including day and night strike direction, gunship direction, bomb damage assessment, visual reconnaissance, aerial artillery direction, and as escorts for aircraft engaged in Operation Ranch Hand.[6] The aircraft's ability to generate smoke internally was utilized for strike direction and "in four specific instances under conditions of reduced visibility, the smoke was seen by strike aircrews before the [OV-10A] [was] detected."[7] Combat Bronco ended on 30 October 1968.

After the end of Combat Bronco, the USAF began to deploy larger numbers to the 19th TASS (Bien Hoa), 20th TASS (Da Nang), and for out-of-country missions to the 23d TASS (Nakhom Phanom in Thailand). The 23d TASS conducted missions in support of Operation Igloo White, Operation Prairie Fire/Daniel Boone, and other special operations.[8]
An OV-10A at Patrick AFB, FL in 1980.

In April 1969 the USAF conducted an operational exercise, called Misty Bronco, to evaluate the OV-10A's performance as a light strike aircraft. The results were positive and as of October 1969 all USAF OV-10As were to be armed with their internal .30 in (7.62 mm) M60C machine guns, which had generally been left out during the Combat Bronco evaluations and subsequent deployment. High explosive 2.75 in (70 mm) rockets were also authorized for use against ground targets.[9]

In 1971, the 23d TASS's OV-10A Broncos at received modifications under project Pave Nail. Carried out by LTV Electrosystems during 1970, these modifications primarily included the addition of the Pave Spot target laser designator pod, as well as a specialized night periscope (replacing the initial starlight scopes that had been used for night time operations) and LORAN equipment. The callsign Nail was the radio handle of this squadron. After 1974, these aircraft were converted back to an unmodified OV-10A standard.[10]

At least 157 OV-10As were delivered to the USAF before production ended in April 1969. The USAF lost 64 OV-10 Broncos during the war, to all causes.[5] At the beginning of the 1990s the USAF had replaced their OV-10A fleet with OA-37B and OA-10A aircraft.
An OV-10A of VAL-4 attacking a target in Vietnam

[edit] US Navy

The U.S. Navy formed Light Attack Squadron FOUR (VAL-4), the Black Ponies on 3 January 1969, and operated in Vietnam from April 1969 through April 1972. The Navy used the Bronco OV-10A as a light ground attack aircraft, for interdiction of enemy logistics, and fire-support of Marines, SEALs and river boats.[11] It succeeded in this role, although the US Navy did lose seven OV-10s during the Vietnam War to various causes. [5] Other than OV-10 Fleet replacement training done in cooperation with Air Antisubmarine Squadon FOUR ONE (VS-41) at NAS North Island, California, VAL-4 was the only squadron in the U.S. Navy to ever employ the OV-10 and it was decommissioned shortly following the end of the Vietnam War. VAL-4's OV-10s were subsequently transferred to the Marine Corps.[citation needed]

[edit] International use

[edit] Colombia

In 1991, the USAF provided the Colombian Air Force with 12 OV-10A aircraft. Later, three ex-USMC A-models were also acquired to provide parts support. Colombia operates the aircraft in a COIN role against an active insurgency. At least one aircraft has been lost in combat.[12] The remaining OV-10As were upgraded to OV-10D standard.

[edit] Indonesia

Indonesia purchased 12 OV-10F aircraft and operates them in COIN operations similar to the US Navy's Vietnam missions with their Broncos, but have retrofitted .50 in (12.7 mm) Browning heavy machine guns in place of the light .30 in (7.62 mm) machine guns.[13] These aircraft were vital in the invasion of East Timor and ensuing COIN operations.

[edit] Philippines

The Philippine Air Force (PAF) received a total of 24 OV-10A from US stocks in the early 1990s, and 4 ex-Thai Air Force OV-10C models in 2004,[14] and are operated by the 16th Attack Squadron and 25th Composite Attack Squadron of the 15th Strike Wing, based in Sangley Point, Cavite.[15] The PAF flies Broncos on search-and-rescue and COIN operations in various parts of the Philippines. The first two women combat pilots in the PAF flew OV-10s with the 16th. This squadron flew anti-terrorist operations in the Jolo Islands.[16]
A crashed Philippine OV-10A at Clark Air Base in 2006.

Recent modifications by the PAF included upgrades in the engine and propeller (now sporting a four-bladed propeller), and flight controls and sensors.[citation needed] A Service Life Extension Program has been started with all remaining serviceable OV-10s slated to go through the program. With the assistance of Marsh Aviation the PAF is currently overhauling and modernizing the airframe and its systems as well as replacing the increasingly difficult to maintain and service three bladed propeller with brand new units from Marsh Aviation and Hartzell. The program includes the replacement of the difficult to maintain three-bladed propeller, fitting of new gearboxes to improve maintainability, zero timing the airframes and overhauling of the aircraft's subsystems to extend the service life of the airframe, improve serviceability and make the fleet easier to maintain. In place of the old three bladed propeller, a new 100 in (254 cm) diameter propeller designed and manufactured by Hartzell has been fitted. In addition, the fleet is due to receive enough locally-built 20 mm (.79 in) gun pods to equip all aircraft

[edit] Thailand
A RTAF OV-10C at Korat in 1987.

The Royal Thai Air Force purchased 32 new OV-10C aircraft in the early 1970s for COIN usage.[14] Reportedly Broncos won most Thai bombing competitions until F-5Es became operational. At one time Thailand even flew OV-10s as air-defense aircraft.[14] In 2004, RTAF donated most of the OV-10s to the Philippines.[14] Two OV-10 survivors are displayed in the Tango Squadron Wing 41 Museum in Chiang Mai and the RTAF Museum in Bangkok.

[edit] Venezuela

The Venezuelan Air Force has operated a number of OV-10Es over the years. On 27 November 1992, the aircraft were widely used by mutinied officers who staged a coup d'état against former President Carlos Andrés Pérez. The rebels dropped bombs and launched rockets against Police and government buildings in Caracas. Several aircraft were shot down during the uprising.

[edit] Civilian use

[edit] US Department of State Air Wing

The Department of State (DoS) aircraft are former USAF OV-10A and USMC OV-10D aircraft operated under contract by DynCorp International in support of U.S. drug interdiction and eradication efforts in South America. The aircraft carry civilian U.S. aircraft registration numbers and, when not forward deployed, are home based at a DoS/DynCorp facility at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida.[17].

[edit] BLM

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) acquired seven OV-10As for use as air attack aircraft, including the YOV-10A prototype. In this role, they would lead firefighting air tankers through their intended flight path over their target area. The aircraft were operated in their basic military configurations, but with their ejection seats disabled. The aircraft's existing smoke system was used to mark the path for the following air tankers. With the age of the aircraft, spare parts were difficult to obtain, and the BLM retired their fleet in 1999.[18]

[edit] CALFIRE
Air Attack 460 at Fox Field during the October 2007 California wildfires

The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF or CALFIRE) has acquired a number of OV-10As, including the six surviving aircraft from the BLM[18] and 13 former U.S. Marine Corps aircraft in 1993 to replace their existing Cessna O-2 Skymasters as air attack aircraft.[19] The CAL FIRE Broncos fly with a crew of two, a pilot and the Air Attack Officer, whose job it is to coordinate all aerial assets on a fire with the Incident Commander on the ground. Thus, besides serving as a tanker lead-in aircraft, the OV-10A is also the aerial platform from which the entire air operation is coordinated.[20]

[edit] Variants

* YOV-10A - The original prototype.
* OV-10A - Original production version.
* OV-10B - Produced for Germany to use as target tugs, with a target towing pod was mounted underneath the fuselage. A clear dome replaced the rear cargo door. The rear seat was moved to the cargo bay to look backwards out the dome.
o OV-10B(Z) - A variation of the German target tug, with one J85-GE-4 turbojet mounted in a nacelle above the fuselage. A total of 18 aircraft were supplied to the Germans.[21]
* OV-10C- Export version for Thailand; based on the OV-10A.
* OV-10E - Export version for Venezuela; based on the OV-10A.
* OV-10F - Export version for Indonesia; based on the OV-10A.
* YOV-10D - The prototype used to developed OV-10D Bronco.

An OV-10D during trials aboard USS Saratoga in 1985.

* OV-10D - The second generation Bronco developed by the U.S. Marine Corps. It was an extensively modified A-model airframe. The D-model added a powerful Forward-Looking Infrared night-vision system with a camera mounted in a turret under an extended nose. It is easy to differentiate a D-model from an A. The D has a long nose with a ball turret underneath, while the A has a short rounded nose. The D also has bigger engines, so it has larger fiberglass props that can be distinguished by their rounded tips. The A has squared-off aluminum props. Other noticeable external differences are the square chaff dispensers midway down the booms on the D-model (often covered with a plate when not in use) and infrared-suppressive exhaust stacks (they take air in the front and mix it with the exhaust before it exits, to reduce the heat given off and thus the ability of a heat-seeking missile to track the aircraft). The D-model began life as the NOGS program.
o OV-10D+ - The next USMC upgrade, consisting of A and D aircraft being extensively reworked at MCAS Cherry Point Naval Air Rework Facility with new wiring and strengthened wings. Engine instrumentation was changed from round dials to tape readouts.
* OV-10M (modified) - A modified, four-bladed version of OV-10A by Marsh Aviation for the Philippine Air Force.[22]

[edit] Possible modernized variant

Boeing has recently put together plans internally to build a modernized, improved version of the OV-10 Bronco to satisfy a possible Air Force requirement for a light attack plane.[23] According to Pentagon and industry officials, while the plane would maintain much of its 1960s-vintage rugged external design, the 21st century modernizations would include a computerized glass cockpit, intelligence sensors and smart-bomb-dropping capabilities. Boeing indicates that international interest in restarting production is growing, to compete with other light attack aircraft such as the T-6B Texan II, AT-67 Dragon and EMB-314 Super Tucano.

[edit] Operators

7 in active service[24]
all retired in 1990
all grounded and to be replaced soon[25]
10 to be delivered. [26]
all retired
14 in active service[27]
all retired in 2003
United States

* US Air Force
* US Marine Corps
* US Navy

7 in active service. All to be replaced by Mil Mi-28 attack helicopters.[28]

[edit] Civil Operators

* Department of State (Operated by DynCorp), primarily in Colombia
* California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection.

[edit] Survivors
An OV-10 on static display at Hurlburt Field Air Park.

* The original prototype YOV-10A was on display at the Yankee Air Museum at Willow Run Airport near Ypsilanti, Michigan. It had been fully restored by a former OV-10 crew chief. Sadly, this aircraft was totally destroyed in the fire that burned the museum to the ground in October 2004.
* Another YOV-10A was one of the aircraft transferred to the BLM and subsequently to CAL FIRE, where it serves as a parts source.[18]
* There is currently an OV-10 at the Imperial War Museum Duxford in England, while not on obvious display, is clearly visible passing along the M11.
* Many OV-10s are currently on static display throughout the United States. The National Museum of the United States Air Force near Dayton, Ohio has had one on display in Air Force markings for many years and has loaned two additional aircraft for display at the Hurlburt Field Air Park at Hurlburt Field, Florida. and the Museum of Aviation at Robins AFB, Georgia. Another aircraft in Marine Corps markings, on loan from the National Museum of Naval Aviation, is on display at the Flying Leathernecks Museum at MCAS Miramar, California.
* The European Museum of Fighter Aircraft in Montelimar, France, has two Luftwaffe OV-10B, one on static display and another one still flying. This last one may be seen during air shows (registration F-AZKM). First can be used to provide parts to the second one.

[edit] Specifications

[edit] OV-10A

Data from Mesko[29]

General characteristics

* Crew: 2
* Length: 41 ft 7 in (12.67 m)
* Wingspan: 40 ft 0 in (12.19 m)
* Height: 15 ft 2 in (4.62 m)
* Wing area: 290.95 ft² (27.03 m²;)
* Empty weight: 6,893 lb (3,127 kg)
* Max takeoff weight: 14,444 lb (6,552 kg)
* Powerplant: 2× Garrett T76-G-410/412 turboprop, 715 hp (533 kW) each


* Maximum speed: 281 mph (452 km/h)
* Range: 576 mi (927 km)
* Service ceiling: 24,000 ft (7,315 m)


* Guns: 4 × 7.62x51mm M60C machine guns
* Total stores stations: 5 fuselage and 2 underwing
* Bombs: Bombs up to 500 lb
* Rockets: 7- or 19-tube launchers for 2.75" FFARs or 2- or 4-tube launchers for 5" FFARs
* Missiles: AIM-9 Sidewinder (Wing pylons only)
* Other: SUU-11/A or Mk 4 Mod 0 gun pods

[edit] OV-10D

Data from Mesko[30]

General characteristics

* Crew: 2
* Length: 44 ft 0 in (13.41 m)
* Wingspan: 40 ft 0 in (12.19 m)
* Height: 15 ft 2 in (4.62 m)
* Wing area: 290.95 ft² (27.03 m²;)
* Empty weight: 6,893 lb (3,127 kg)
* Loaded weight: 9,908 lb (4,494 kg)
* Max takeoff weight: 14,444 lb (6,552 kg)
* Powerplant: 2× Garrett T76-G-420/421 turboprop, 1,040 hp (775.5 kW) each
* *Tailplane Span 14 ft, 7 in (4.45 m)


* Maximum speed: 288 mph (463 km/h)
* Range: 1,382 mi (2,224 km)
* Service ceiling: 30,000 ft (9,159 m)


* Guns: 1x 20 mm (.79 in) M197 cannon (YOV-10D) or 4x 7.62x51mm M60C machine guns (OV-10D/D+)
* Total stores stations: 5 fuselage (OV-10D/D+ only) and 2 underwing
* Bombs: Bombs up to 500 lb (227 kg)
* Rockets: 7- or 19-tube launchers for 2.75" FFARs/2.75" WAFARs or 2- or 4-tube launchers for 5" FFARs or WAFARs
* Missiles: AIM-9 Sidewinder (Wing pylons only)
* Other:
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Advanced-Attack / Advanced/Fighter-Attack (A-X / A/F-X) 1992-1993

In January 1991, with the cancellation of the ATA and the NATF, the Secretary of the Navy directed that planning commence for a new A-6 replacement program. This new program became the known as the A-X, an advanced, “high-end,” carrier-based multi-mission aircraft with day/night/all-weather capability, low observables, long range, two engines, two-crew, and advanced, integrated avionics and countermeasures. The Air Force participated in this new program from its initiation, still seeking a replacement for the F-111 and, in the longer term, the F-15E and F-117A.

The A-X was a joint program with participation by the Navy and the Air Force to replace current strike aircraft that are completing their service lives. The A-X would replace the Navy A-6 and the Air Force F-111, F-15E, and F-117. The A-X would offer major advantages over both the F-111 and A-6, some of which will be as much as 42 years old by the time the first A-X squardron was to become active with the Navy or the Air Force. The multi-mission capability of the A-X would provide the tools necessary to execute successfully any mission assigned. Its technology would be state-of-the-art, designed to neutralize future threats and to provide superb weapons delivery capability. The A-X was intended to be fast, highly maneuverable, and able to conduct a wide variety of autonomous missions. It was to be able to employ air-to-air missiles, antiradiation missiles, precision guided munitions, and unguided or dumb bombs. It was to have the latest survivability upgrades.

The A/F-X was designed as a multi-role attack/fighter aircraft for the Navy and a deep interdiction aircraft for the Air Force in response to a joint operational requirements document. The A/F-X is expected to have a new airframe configuration that incorporates advanced low-observable and associated materials technologies. The engine was to be from a new generation of engines exemplified by significant improvements in thrust-to-weight ratio and operation at high levels of turbine inlet temperature. The aircraft's avionics suite is expected to draw heavily on the integrated avionics from the F-22 program.

The Navy launched the AX program -- successor to the A-12 which was terminated for default by Secretary of Defense Cheney -- with a design competition planned for the concept exploration and definition phase. According to the Secretary of Defense, the AX was expected to possess a significant air-to-air and air-to-ground capability for both offensive and defensive purposes.

Contracts of $20M each were awarded to five contractor teams on 30 December 1991 (prime contractor listed first):

* Grumman/Lockheed/Boeing
* Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics
* McDonnell Douglas/Vought
* Rockwell/Lockheed
* General Dynamics/McDonnell Douglas/Northrop

The original A-X / A/F-X CE/D work was due to be completed in September 1992. A solicitation for Demonstration/Validation (Dem/Val) proposals was expected in late 1992, leading to a Dem/Val start in 1994 and EMD in 1996. Under the Navy’s original plan, the short Dem/Val phase would consist of design refinements and other risk reduction activities, but would not include flying prototypes. However, in late 1992 Congress directed that the A-X Dem/Val phase also include competitive prototyping. This increased the projected duration of the Dem/Val phase from two to five years. Concurrently, as a result of the termination of the NATF in 1991, increased air-to-air requirements were added to the A-X, prompting a change in the name of the Program from Advanced Attack (A-X) to Advanced Attack/Fighter (A/F-X).

This competition would have seen two teams selected to build prototype aircraft. That phase was to be followed by the selection of one contractor for the crucial demonstration and validation [DemVal] phase. The existing A-X CE/D contracts were extended to reflect a revised Dem/Val strategy to accommodate flying prototypes. The expected IOC date of the A/F-X slipped from 2006 to 2008. A Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) Milestone I Review of the A/F-X Program was expected in Spring 1993; however, the BUR placed the A/F-X program on hold pending the outcome of the report. An Milestone I DAB for the A/F-X never took place. The Navy later rejected the idea of competitive prototypes for the AX as too expensive. The AX program, while intended to develop a less costly successor to the A-12, was nevertheless expected to cost at least $14,000,000,000.

The degree to which the AX could perform both air-to-air, as well as air-to-ground, missions, was an important consideration being defined during 1992. The specific mix of combat capabilities and airframe performance parameters was defined in the concept exploration phase of the AX program in 1992, as competing industry design teams formulated their specific proposals to meet the Navy's broad set of tentative operational requirements.

The Defense Science Board Task Force on Aircraft Assessment was convened to respond to direction received from Congress in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993, (Public Law 102-484). The Task Force first met on 21 January 1993; OSD requested the report be provided on 25 February 1993. During this time the Task Force met seven times.

Because the A/F-X program was still undergoing a design competition before Dem/Val, it was simply too early for the Task Force to make a technical risk assessment of the A/F-X aircraft. The A/F-X mission requirements for both the Navy and Air Force appear to be achievable, and the Navy is managing the program at this time to ensure adequate performance margins, including carrier suitability. Tradeoffs of cost, performance, and other requirements have been important elements of the current phase of the program Once prototype designs are submitted, a meaningful assessment of the A/F-X aircraft’s technical risk can be made. The planned Dem/Val program appeared to be structured to accommodate a substantial risk reduction effort.

A/F-X requirements called for a level of &sign innovation that justified a flying prototype before the start of E&MD. The A/F-X program was planned to follow an acquisition strategy for competitive prototyping of the aircraft during Dem/Val. If the design competition leading to Dem/Val provides a clear winner, then a single design could be prototyped. Because the A/F-X is likely to employ avionics concepts and common equipment from the F-22 program, avionics prototype testing in a flying testbed may be required only for selected components, systems integration and software.

Although the A/F-X was still in an early stage of development, the Navy and Air Force succeeded in arriving at a high degree of compatibility in the aircraft characteristics to meet their respective mission requirements. It was also planned that this aircraft will incorporate avionics having a substantial degree of commonality with the F-22.

The 1993 budget request contained $165.6 million to continue concept development of the AX medium attack aircraft for the Navy and the Air Force. During action in 1992 on this request, the House authorized $760.6 million for development of the AX, and required a competitive prototype strategy for the AX aircraft emphasizing current generation stealth technology and existing engines, radars, and avionics, with the competitive prototype phase be completed by no later than 1996. The Senate authorized a total of $50.0 million for AX development, and also endorsed a competitive prototype acquisition strategy. The Congress approved the $165.6 million as requested, and directed that that the Department of Defense should utilize current generation stealth technology and, to the maximum feasible extent, engines, radars, and avionics systems that exist or are in development.

The 14 July 1993 Defense Science Board Task Force on Tactical Aircraft Bottom Up Review found that the analytical foundation established by the BUR team provided valuable insights. The results demonstrated the value of survivability (driven principally by low observables), and swing capability (both air-to-air and air-to-ground capability), especially in combination. The results, therefore, reinforced the capabilities associated with the "F-22+" and the A/F-X. These capabilities supported the objective of maintaining overwhelming air superiority and the ability to strike the full range of targets with minimum attrition from day one.

The analytical results did not significantly discriminate between the F-18E/F and F-18C/D in a force which includes the F-22 and the A/F-X. However, during the expected ten year gap between the F-18E/F and A/F-X operational capability, the F-18E/F provided a significant enhancement. In addition to the roughly 30% improvement assessed in the performance model, the F-18E/F provided added flexibility in carrier operations, and includes provisions for growth which are limited by the current "F-18C/D airframe.

While the Defense Science Board Task Force strongly supported the need for the A/F-X, it was concerned about the program structure. The current program required $20 billion of research and development expenditures with significant operational capability not achieved for 20 years. Amortization of R&D is likely to approach $100 million per aircraft for the first production block by extrapolating current trends and consider only Navy use. The DSB suggested that a better approach to obtaining high end capability in limited numbers may be the dual airframe, common components approach which was recommended for JAF. The F-18E/F provided significant enhancement relative to the F-18C/D until the A/F-X enters the inventory in significant numbers (2010).

The Task Force observed that the tactical air community was not sufficiently well informed about US bomber capability and vice versa. The mutual understanding needs to be improved, so that the US can better exploit the synergy of long range bomber and tactical air employed jointly. It also called for a better understanding of the alternatives available to obtain deep strike. Besides longer range for tactical aircraft, the Task Force suggested considering bombers, shorter range f tactical aircraft with buddy refueling (to include refueling over enemy territory), standoff weapons, and TLAM launched from vertical tubes on ships. There was no new start program for the Navy operating alone that won't leave a significant time gap for deep strike. Perhaps the most critical issue was to better understand the number and nature of deep strike targets.

Accounting for future airframes (e.g. A/F-X) and upgrades, it seemed appropriate to keep separate track of recapitalization for engines, avionics, weapons, racks, launchers, low observable treatment of external stores, etc. In a future enironment with dramatically reduced production rates and much smaller production blocks, we will need to rationalize the ' critical. supporting subsystems to best support development and upgrade of multiple airframes.

On 1 September 1993, the release of the BUR announced the cancellation of the A/F-X as well as the MRF. As a result of the BUR, A/F-X efforts during the latter half of 1993 were directed toward closing out the program and transitioning applicable experience and results to the upcoming JAST program. In early 1993 the Congressional Budget Office had estimated that canceling the Navy's AX tactical aircraft program would save $3.6 billion over 5 years, under the theory that the FA-18E/F was adequate for another decade.

A core of A/F-X personnel performed a large portion of the working-level planning and definition of the emerging JAST Program. The A/F-X CE/D contracts were extended a second time, through 17 December 1993, to allow the contractors sufficient time to bring their activities to a logical conclusion. Each of the four teams received $3.3 M contracts to close out their efforts because the airplane was deemed unaffordable. At one time Vought had over 150 people working on the project full and part time, including a contingent of McDonnell Douglas people. All A/F-X program operations ended on 31 December 1993.

General characteristics

* Crew: 2 (Pilot and Radar Intercept Officer)
* Length: 18.80 m (61 ft 8 in)
* Wingspan: Wingspan, fully forward: 20.62 m (67 ft 8 in)
* Height: ll: 4.52 m (14 ft 10 in)
* Wing area: 1000 ft²
* Empty weight: 30,000 lb
* Loaded weight: 60,600 lb
* Max takeoff weight: 65,000 lb
* Powerplant: 2× G Pratt & Whitney YF220 , 65,000 lbf


* Maximum speed: Mach 2.34 (1,544 mph, 2,485 km/h) at high altitude
* Combat radius: 500 nmi (575 mi, 926 km)
* Ferry range: 1,600 nmi (1,840 mi, 2,960 km)
* Service ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,200 m)
* Rate of climb: >45,000 ft/min (229 m/s)
* Wing loading: 113.4 lb/ft² (553.9 kg/m²)
* Thrust/weight: 0.91


* Guns: 1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan 6-barreled gatling cannon, with 675 rounds
* Hardpoints: 10 total: 6× under-fuselage, 2× under nacelles and 2× on wing gloves[87][N 2] with a capacity of 14,500 lb (6,600 kg) of ordnance and fuel tanks[36]
* Missiles:
o Air-to-air missiles: AIM-54 Phoenix, AIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-9 Sidewinder

o Air-to-air missiles:
+ AIM-9X Sidewinder
o Air-to-ground weapons:
4× AGM-88 HARM
+ AGM-154 JSOW

Art Trade Kryptid [link]
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The first of her line of Battleship, The H.M.S Iron Duke, is famous for the assasination of the last Emperor of Cerulean Empire during her launch ceremonary.

The Iron Duke was the fastest and best armored ship in the Cerulean skyfleet. Her twelve 16'in guns together with her state of the art fire control and rader systems, make her the deadliest ship in the Cerulean Empire.

As the most modern and best equiped ship of her day, she was penciled in as the new flagship for the Empire skyfleet even before her launch, following the tradion of the Cerulean Empire, the ship and her captain along with all her commissioned officers were made knights of the Empire by the emperor during her launch ceremonary.

Thats was when the emperor was shot by a suspected pirate sniper who managed to got away. The death of the Emperor made her the last knight, as the empire collapsed before a new emperor took the throne

She was put under command of Admiral Albert Graf von Spee in the hunt for the sky pirates, the Sky Raiders, the suspects of the crime.

8 months after her launch, she engaged the Sky Raiders' ship, Raider in a duel in which she was destroyed with the Raider.
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For the last 5 decades, the Northern Alliance had been struggling to keep up in terms of both techological advances and productions with their southern rival the League of the Blue Emblem. But what it lack in military units, they made it up with their countless bases all over the world, all well hidden and well stock with supplies.

As the relationship between the two major powers continue to deteriorate, the Northern Alliance begin to deploy it's ships to the bases in preparation of waging economic warfare.

But most of the Alliance ships were unsuitable for long range deployment, due to their older designs, many will be limited to regions in range of the bases thus limiting their effectiveness in a economic warfare.

Here a Derfflinger-class battle-cruiser of the Northern Alliance arrived at it's new home for the upcoming war, although it will have a hard time trying to maneuver within the base itself.

~Artist Notes~
Been a while since I did a skyship, did this as a practice during my free time
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4hrs spd painting + 1 hr of tweaking (anyone still interested in the orginal work? I will post it in the scrap section if anyone is interested)

Trying to see how I can paint within 4hrs

This is a design meant to be a homework for school (Althought I am not required to paint it ... just design it)

We were supposed to look at uniforms worn by world war II soldiers and try to adapt the uniform features into something futuristic.

But I decided to bring it further by trying to adapt a few other features from world war II into it, most notably the armor skirt from upgrade StuG assualt guns (Well I just love how those armor skirt look in Company of Heroes)

Some background concept....

Tanks had become obsolete with the introduction of Armored Infantry on the shell shaped cities of Germany, supported by armored cars and motorised infantry units, resulting in a new form of blitzkrieg techniques.

Heavily armed with enlarge version of the standard infantry weapons like the Mg34, and heavily armored, even the famed allied airforce could do nothing against them not considering that they themselve are facing next generation jet fighters.

While it replaced the tanks, it still shared similar weakness to them as infantry units can easily sneak up and plant a crippling strike at the joints of the Mech, to protect the mech from such attacks, additional armored skirts was install at vital areas.

The mech had a inner crew of 3, the commander, the driver and the gunner. It was always closely followed by an armored car which house the 2 support crews which will help armed the weapons from the outside and provide more sight and cover against infantry

*Edited after another hour of editing and tweaking
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