Text: IruText: Iru in Other More Like This
This tutorial will cover the verb ru-verb 'iru'. As you may recall from the previous tutorial, 'aru' is used for inanimate or nonliving things. 'Iru', on the other hand, is used for living things.
'Iru' still follows the same rules as 'aru' in regards to particle use with 'ga' and 'ni'.
Let's see some examples.
Soko ni ryuugakusei ga imasu.
There is an international student there.
Notice the difference between the above and the below:
Bobu-san wa ryuugakusei desu.
Bob is an international student.
The first points out the existence of an international student whereas the latter says Bob /is/ international student.
Koko ni kame ga imasu.
There is a turtle here.
(Kame = t
Text: Verbs: Dictionary FormText: Verbs: Dictionary Form in Other More Like This
Hopefully by now you've had time to look over all the verbs that I posted previously. If not, I highly suggest doing that first before reading on!
Please note that this is not a tutorial on how to use verbs. This is only explaining them, their base form and their dictionary form. How to use them will come at a later time!
To be blunt and honest, verbs are, in my opinion, the most difficult thing to master of the Japanese language. Don't be scared though, I'll be taking you one step at a time and (hopefully) make things easy to understand and learn. So let's get to it!
Looking at all the verbs I've posted, I'm sure some of you have noticed a trend. (If not, that's fine.) All of the verbs end in an 'u'. You might have noticed that all the 'ru' verbs end in 'ru'. Well, that's where the name came from c: The 'u' verbs are verbs that can end in things other, but not excluding, 'ru'. This could be 'ku', 'mu', 'bu', 'u' (just itself), etc. An 'u' or 'ru' is added on to the verb base ('ik' as
Text: Invitation (masenka)Text: Invitation (masenka) in Other More Like This
In this tutorial, I will be going over inviting someone to join you in something. To make an invitation, you take the present negative form of the verb and add the particle 'ka' at the end. You cannot use the affirmative form to extend an invitation. It would only make a question, not an invitation.
Let's try some:
Bangohan wo tabemasen ka.
Would you like to have dinner (with me)? (Or something to that effect.)
Sakkaa wo shimasen ka.
Would you like to play soccer (with me)?
To give a reply to an invitation, you would use replies like the ones below:
Ii desu ne.
Sounds good. / It's good. / etc.
This would obviously be used as a positive response in which the person accepts your invitation. To turn someone down, you would use a reply such as the one
Text: Using Frequency AdverbsText: Using Frequency Adverbs in Other More Like This
For this tutorial, we will be making use of the frequency adverbs that I posted earlier. If you have not looked them over, I suggest you do so now.
Frequency adverbs help you better describe how often you do something, be it every day, not at all, or somewhere in between c:
Watashi wa tokidoki worumaato ni ikimasu.
I sometimes go to Walmart.
Watashi wa yoku shukudai wo shimasu.
I often do homework.
Watashi wa mainichi pan wo tabemasu.
I eat bread every day.
You do not need a particle after a frequency adverb.
To describe how infrequent you do something, you would use 'zenzen
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Verbs 2Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Verbs 2 in Other More Like This
て form of verbs
Verbs can take on many different forms. The て form of a verb does not mean anything by itself, but it can be used for a variety of structures, such as sentence joining, so it is important to learn how to change a verb into its て form.
In Japanese, there are 3 types of verbs: いちだん (ichidan) verbs, ごだん(godan) verbs and irregular verbs.
There are only 2 irregular verbs which do not follow any rules when taking on different forms so they need to be rote learned. Generally, there are more ごだん verbs than there are いちだん verbs.
For information on how to tell verbs apart, please read the grammar guide "Distinguishing Verbs".
Formation for いちだん verbs
Take the verb stem - that is, the part of the verb that comes before ます(masu) - and add て to it. Simple!
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Adjective useMystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Adjective use in Other More Like This
Adjectives are describing words and are used to describe nouns. Something we've all learnt since we were at primary school. Where some languages, such as French, distinguish between
feminine and masculine adjectives, Japanese distinguishes between い-adjectives (i-adjectives) and な-adjectives (na-adjectives). Because I am a lazy person, for the rest of the lesson whenever the word "い-adjective" or "な-adjective" comes up, I will use the abbreviation "adj".
Distinguishing between the two types
There is no clear cut way of telling whether an adjective is an い-adj or な-adj. The only way of knowing is to rote learn them!
However, I know a couple of things which should help:
If the final character is い, it is most likely to be an い-adj. It is not definite, but it's likely.
e.g. うれしい (ureshii) for "happy" and おいしい (oish
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Ability to doMystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Ability to do in Other More Like This
Ability - I can...
There are two ways to say "Able to do something" in Japanese. One is using -られる (-rareru) which is the potential form of a verb. The method I'm going to explain will be できる (dekiru) which is easier to use but lengthier.
Aは verb (plain present)ことが できます。
A-wa verb (plain present) koto ga dekimasu.
A can do verb
Note that the particle that comes after the verb is が。
The plain present form of the verb is also known as the dictionary form. This is the form in which the verb is found in a dictionary. It is NOT the verb stem (the verb stem is the part of the verb that comes before ます [masu] when the verb is in the polite form).
Usually, when the verb is する (suru) meaning "to do", the する is left out. This is usually
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Random PhrasesMystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Random Phrases in Other More Like This
I have compiled a list of random phrases you will probably never use. I'm pretty certain they are grammatically correct, but sometimes, jokes don't work in another language...
Have fun with these. Even though I have no idea of the circumstances in which you will use these...
If you are interested in learning a particular structure I have use, feel free to ask, and I will make a lesson for it.
わたしは ドイツごを はなせません。
Watashi-wa Doitsu-go o hanasemasen.
I can't speak German.
Amerika jin desu ka?
Are you American?
I will kill you!
Jigoku ni ik
mystichuntress's Japanese grammar - comparisonsmystichuntress's Japanese grammar - comparisons in Other More Like This
There are several ways to make comparisons in Japanese. Here is the simplest way: to use より (yori)
Where I have underlined words, you replace them with your own. Each sentence is repeated 3 times: once in Japanese, second in romaji, third in English.
より can be used to make comparisons between two nouns. It roughly translates to "more than" or "-er than" in English.
A は B より adjective です。
A wa B yori adjective desu.
A is adjective-er than B.
バスは タクシーより やすい です。
basu-wa takushii yori yasui desu.
The bus is cheaper than the taxi.
ねこは いぬより しずか です。
neko-wa inu yori shizuka
mystichuntress's Japanese grammar - comparisons 2mystichuntress's Japanese grammar - comparisons 2 in Other More Like This
Comparisons 2: ～の ほうが
Also used to make comparisons, in my opinion, ～の ほうが has more uses than より.
It can be used to say "which is more____, A or B?" "B is more ____ than A" etc.
Words that are underlined you replace with your own. There are 3 parts to each of the sentences: First in Japanese, second in romaji, third in English. Each structure is followed by an example.
Aと Bと (では) どちら (の ほう)が adjectiveですか。
A-to B-to (de wa) dochira (no hou) ga adjective desu-ka?
Out of A and B, which is more adjective?
いえと くるまと （では） どちらの ほうが ちいさい &
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: VerbsMystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Verbs in Other More Like This
This lesson will teach you how to convert between the different forms of verbs in Japanese and how to tell them apart.
There are 3 distinct groups of verbs in Japanese: the いちだん (ichidan) verbs, ごだん (godan) verbs and irregular verbs. The いちだん verbs are also known as "iru/eru" verbs because when they are in their plain forms, they end with an "iru/eru" sound. HOWEVER this does not mean that all verbs that end in "iru/eru" are いちだん verbs. The ごだん verbs are also known as "u" verbs because they change into the polite form by dropping the "u" and adding "imasu". Because I am lazy, for the rest of the lesson, I shall refer to いちだん vebs as "iru/eru" verbs and ごだん verbs as "u" verbs.
Iru/eru-verbs are so called いちだん ve