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In the 1580s, the Spanish traders were troubled to some extent by Japanese pirates, but peaceful trading relations were established between the Philippines and Japan by 1590. Japan's kampaku (regent), Toyotomi Hideyoshi, demanded unsuccessfully on several occasions that the Philippines submit to Japan's suzerainty. Source :[link]
Wokou (Chinese character: 倭寇; Chinese pronunciation: wōkòu; Japanese pronunciation: わこう wakō; Korean pronunciation: 왜구 waegu), which literally translates as "Japanese pirates" in English, were pirates of varying origins who raided the coastlines of China and Korea from the 13th century onwards. Originally, the Wokou were mainly soldiers, ronin, merchants and smugglers from Japan; however in later centuries most of the pirates actually originated in China. Source :[link]
=>Piracy in the Strait of Malacca
Historically, piracy in the Strait of Malacca was not only a lucrative way of life, but also an important political tool. Rulers relied on the region's pirates to maintain control. One example was the 14th-century rule of the Palembang prince, Parameswara. It was through the loyalty of pirate crews made of the Orang Laut people that Parameswara survived expansion attempts of neighbouring rulers and eventually went on to found the Sultanate of Malacca. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, Malaysian waters played a key role in political power struggles throughout Southeast Asia. Aside from the local powers, antagonists also included colonial powers such as the Portuguese, Dutch and the British. A record of foreign presence, particularly in the South China Sea and the Strait of Malacca, is found today in watery graves for sailing vessels lost to storms, piracy, battles, and poor ship handling.
The 18th and 19th century saw an increase of piracy in the strait as European colonisers arrived in the region. In part the arrival of European newcomers was spurred by the economic imperative to control the lucrative spice trade. According to Charles Corn, author of The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade:
“ Spices drove the world economies in those days the way oil does today. ”
Increased commercial traffic through the strait and the poor economic conditions of the local populations drove many people to piracy. Piracy was also sometimes used as a form of political resistance to colonialism. Pirate crews often came from the Lanun people, a people native to the coastal villages in the region. Chinese pirates, outcasts of Qing dynasty China, could also be found to prey on unsuspecting trading ships. Source :[link]
=>European accounts of Japan
"A Spanish royal decree of 1609 specifically directed Spanish commanders in the Pacific ‘not to risk the reputation of our arms and state against Japanese soldier’" ("Giving up the gun", Noel Perrin). Source :[link]
Hetalia, England aph, Spain aph, Egypt aph, Italy aph, Macau aph & Netherlands aph belonged to Himaruya H.
Spice Islands is Maluku Islands in Indonesia.
Indonesia aph, Malaysia aph & Portugal aph based on Himaruya's sketch. ([link]
India OC & Mughal OC design by dinosaurusgede
Philippines OC design by
Brunei Darussalam OC design by