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FDR, arguable one of the best presidents of all time. Known for his program "The New Deal" and other such accomplishments, what is not not known is his many victories in battle against many different types of enemies. FDR possessed great power and technology as can be seen from his transforming wheel chair in which he slayed many foes.

Get a print high quality11x17 print of this here-->[link]
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Get a print high quality print of this here--> [link]

Thomas Jefferson was never much of a warrior history tells us, but yet again history is wrong. This is an image of one of the many attempts by Jefferson to battle all the manliest animals on earth while trying to teach them the ways of America.

======================

PS CS5
Gatorade
Epic Meal time.
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In 1963 after the alleged JFK assassination John F Kennedy was sent the moon to be the first man to walk on the moon. This was kept secret to us and we were made to believe he was assassinated on November 22nd 1963.

Upon arrival his mission was to clear the moon of any alien life to make future moon landings easy and safe. He lived on the moon for 26 years hunting and slaying aliens until NASA lost communication....his death has still not been confirmed however and many believe hes still murdering aliens today.

**********Get an 11x17 print here------>[link]
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CS5
Photoshop
FOOOOD
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This is an alternate version of my original Second American Civil War map: [link]

In 2011 Michigan becomes the first state in the Union to repeal collective bargaining rights for public employees. Michigan and Ohio follow shortly thereafter with more radical legislation that results in "Financial Marshal Law," across much of the states, breaking up private unions as well as public ones.

In 2012 Anti-Union legislation has passed in Florida, Virginia and Pennsylvania as well, destroying one of the last major sources of campaign donations for the Democratic Party, costing them the White House and the Senate.

In 2013 Herman Cain is sworn in as the 45th President of the United States. Having won with a strong backing from the most powerful business interests, Cain begins to lead the charge for more intense Union Busting. The same year the Republican controlled Congress, as well as a number of states, pass legislation that makes it more difficult for Unions to contribute to political campaigns, and strips federal employees of their collective bargaining rights.

2014: Democratic Senator Dick Durbin collapses on the Senate floor after three straight days of filibuster, resulting in the passage of the Snyder Act, which makes the policies of Michigan's 2011 budgetary law national, granting a half a trillion dollar tax break to businesses and the rich, while eliminating tax cuts for the middle class. The law also lets the President declare whole states to be in a state of Fiscal Emergency and grant powers to local officials or appointed directors to break up any local contracts (such as collective bargaining agreements), and even remove local elected officials from office. The act sparks a national outcry and after Fiscal Martial Law is declared in many states, Wisconsin secedes from the Union. Ohio follows days later and after a bloody coup in Michigan the rest of the Rust belt joins to form the American Workers Union.

2015: The Second War between the States rages on.
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Ten years after the Greenland Ice Sheet had fallen into the ocean and climate change was thrown into overdrive, six superpowers have come to dominate a mulitpolar world.

After the collapse of Russia and the unification of Europe under one government, the European Federal Union rules everything west of the Ural Sea.

To the East a Soviet Successor, the Siberian Socialist Republic closes its borders to all foreign interests, and a new democratic China is born after a five year revolution.

To the South, India struggles to survive as close to half its population remain displaced.

In the US, the flood of American Refugees into Mexico has solved the displacement crisis, but endless revolt in the new territories continue to strain the government.

In South America, Brazil ends its war with is rebelious northern states, and recognizes Amazonia and the Guyana Cooperative as sovereign nations.
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---United States of America---
Capitol: Alexandria, Virginia
Religion: Southern Baptism (33%) American Evangelism (55%), Atheist Kurzwellianism (12%)
Language: Virginian, Vulgar American
Population: 5.21 Million (368 LY)
Government: Autocracy
*President: Zachary Adams IX
-----------------------------------
Since the fall of the United States of America, the American Continent has splintered into dozens of new Kingdoms, Empires, Hoods, States, Deserets, Commonwealths and Sheriffdoms; however on the Eastern Seaboard, based around the Potomac, lies the last remnant of the United States of America. Since its establishment by President Theodore Bryan III after the loss of the Middle United States in the 22nd Century, the Washingtonian Empire has progressively fought an endless string of wars all in the effort to try and reassert itself as a major power in the former United States. At its greatest Extent in the 25th Century, the Washingtonians controlled most of the Territory East of the Mississippi, and even had conquered territory in Mexico and South America. However, after countless insurrections, the Empire has since shrunk to a shell of its former self, based in Alexandria and controlling barely beyond the immediate area of the Potomac, with its furthest extent lying in South Jersey.
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On June 28th, 2014, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev is assassinated by Ukranian nationalists during his visit to Donetsk. The Russian government immediately blamed Ukraine's government for conspiring with the nationalists to conduct the assassination, an allegation that would later turn out to be true, but used the assassination as an excuse to demand that Ukraine all but surrender its sovereignty to Russia. This led to a month of diplomatic crises, as alliances coalesced over fears of a third world war. The Chinese were concerned about Japan's remilitarization, while the Japanese were concerned about China's bold attempts to seize disputed ocean territory. The Russians and the Chinese moved closer together, fearing encirclement by the Western powers. 

On July 28th, the Russians declared war on Ukraine. In response, the European Union's member states declared war on Russia, but the United States remained neutral; it was the NATO member states that declared war on Russia, not the other way around. As a sign of solidarity with the Russians, the Chinese declared war on the European Union, and demanded that Japan stay neutral. The Japanese, knowing that the Chinese were more concerned about them than the European Union, began to mobilize. Chinese strategic planners knew that the Japanese could not be allowed to mobilize, as that would make their home islands nearly unassailable, and executed the "Xi-Liu-Fen" Plan: a military strike against South Korea with the aid of North Korea, thus providing a beachhead through which China could invade Japan. The invasion of South Korea prompted the United States to declare war on China, thus plunging most of the world into war. 

Fears of mutually assured destruction, the widespread presence of ABM systems and the belief that the war would be over soon kept the war conventional. Unfortunately, the war was not short. As the months dragged on, more and more countries joined the fray. Iran joined the so-called Eastern Powers in October of 2014, and India joined on the side of the Allies in 2015. Fighting spread all over the world: South Africa attacked pro-Chinese Zimbabwe on behalf of the Allies, Israel waged war against Egypt. The civil wars in Nigeria and Syria continued. The biggest front, by far, was the Asian Front. The Allies conducted several landings across the Chinese coast and Korea, but with the destruction of the most advanced weapons systems early in the war, fighting became dominated by ground forces. Neither the Allies nor the Chinese could muster the forces necessary to break through one anothers’ lines, so fighting became largely static. In Europe, the European Union was left to fend mostly for itself, and while the Russian Army was ill-equipped to fight the war, the EU was likewise. Both sides made few gains against one another. 

The tone of the war changed in 2017. European governments were overthrown by far-right nationalists that wanted peace with the Russians and the creation of a stronger, nationalist Europe. The European governments surrendered to the Eastern Powers, but this did not stop Europe from plunging into civil war between the loyalists and the so-called “White Army.” But what seemed like a final victory was snatched away from the Eastern Powers. Brazil joined the Allies after a Brazilian ship, the Portuguesa, was sunk by a Chinese submarine. Fearing Brazilian manpower, the Chinese attempted a bold offensive against the Allies, which failed. Brazilian forces started landing in China, pushing the Chinese back. Then, the population of the Eastern Powers revolted against the wartime governments. In Russia, the desperate government launched what remained of it aging nuclear arsenal at the United States. They succeeded in hitting a few military installations and Allied troop concentrations in China, but in return the Americans destroyed much of Russia’s military. The Russian state collapsed. This was slowly followed by the collapse of China. Tired of war, China’s people revolted against the military government, and soon a democratic government was put in place and negotiated a ceasefire with the Allies. On November 11, 2018, WWIII ended. 

It is now the year 2037. The world has just suffered from another great financial collapse, one that has led to suffering worldwide and the rise of radical politics. The United States remains the premier power in the world, leader of the Global Alliance (its replacement for NATO) and the other Allied powers. The Americans, along with the Japanese, maintain the order established at the end of WWIII. This is a difficult task, as the UN mandates remain undeveloped and violent, and new challengers to the current world order arise. South Africa has been taken over by its hypernationalist military, and is waging a war of expansion against Central Africa, despite the condemnation it has received from the UN. India, displeased with its share of the spoils after WWIII, has elected an ultranationalist government that seeks to recreate the Indian empires of old, at the expense of its neighbors. The totalitarian European Front remains an international pariah, its white supremacist and reactionary Christian ideology inspiring other far-right groups around the world to fight against the current order. And last, but certainly not least, the rise of the Dragon Party in China could easily lead to another world war. Led by a former Chinese colonel who was inspired by the teachings of Falun Gong, the Dragon Party believes that the Han Chinese are the destined masters of the world. Already, the Chinese are conducting mass persecutions of Muslims and Tibetans within their country, and there are clear signs that the Chinese are rebuilding their military in violation of post-WWIII treaties. They called World War III the war to end all wars, but now it seems that a fourth world war is brewing.
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This is the last map I had prepared for posting over the summer. A bit convoluted, but given the subject matter it's necessary. Enjoy. :)

---

A war between the Western and Eastern Allies is, to many, inevitable. While the two were united against the forces of the Third Reich, it was a situation of the two sharing an enemy. To the Western Allies, the Soviet Union was another totalitarian dictatorship that would happily take all of Europe had it had the chance, and it did invade Poland along with Hitler. To the Soviets, the Western Allies were distrustful and happily let the Third Reich rampage through the East. Furthermore, the disastrous Trinity test, which killed everyone at the test site, convinced American military planners that nuclear weapons were too unstable to be used. Instead, the Allies planned on launching a conventional invasion of the Japanese Home Islands. 


Things escalated quickly after Operation Downfall. Stalin reneged on declaring war against Japan, opting instead to keep troops in Europe in case of a major war. This was seen by some Allied planners, including Winston Churchill, as a nefarious plot to take control of Europe while they were tied up with Japanese resistance. Thus, the Allied troops in Europe were ordered to stay in high alert, in case of a surprise Soviet offensive. The Soviets responded in kind. This kept tensions high, when the powder keg was lit during the Berlin. 

In November of 1945, as Allied troops were still hunting down Japanese fanatics in the mountains, the Soviets had refused to allow the Allies into Berlin. The Allies attempted to supply them via air, to which the Soviets responded with warning shots. It's not entirely clear whether or not the Soviets intentionally shot down an Allied transport craft or not, but this was responded to with fire by the transport's escorts. Soon, all of Berlin was engulfed in a firefight between Soviet and Allied troops. With both sides on high alert, fighting spread before a political arrangement could be reached. Churchill, Truman and Stalin had all believed that this day was inevitable, and thus ordered their countries to go to war.

The initial stages of the war heavily favored the Soviets. Allied troops were pushed back to the Pyrenees, upon which the Allies made a quick agreement with the Franco dictatorship to preserve his regime if he joined the war effort and opened his country up to Allied troops. Fearing Soviet invasion, Franco agreed. Meanwhile, Great Britain once again became a great staging ground for another amphibious invasion of the European continent, planned for Calais. The European continent itself was riven with partisan conflict and civil war, some conflicts involving up to five different sides fighting for pro-Allied and pro-Soviet causes, with some independent and even pro-Axis movements thrown into the mix. In the East, the Soviets launched an offensive into Manchuria and Korea, bringing the shaky Republic of China into the war. At the homefront on both sides, war weariness gave way to outrage at the "betrayal" their ally against the Axis committed, and both Allied and Soviet leaders had no trouble in calling for the imposition of a new world order to prevent another conflict from happening again. 

By 1947, the bombing runs were taking their toll, as the Allies enjoyed total air superiority over their Soviet foes. The landing at Calais was a success, although not as successful as the Normandy invasion. Furthermore, the Soviets experienced difficulty in subduing southern Europe, where the Soviets learned about the danger of partisans as their German predecessors had, and they also blundered in Finland. But the true turning point was the discovery of various Trinity documents that revealed something drastic: the scientists had made a miscalculation in the bomb's construction. The Little Boy and Fat Man bombs, which had already been produced, should work without destroying the bombing craft. And at any rate, averting a Soviet-dominated Eurasia was worth a single bomber crew. At the news, atomic bomb production was put into overdrive. 

The Little Boy was dropped on the city of Hamburg, which was serving as a major staging ground for the Red Army. Nearly eighty thousand Soviet soldiers perished during the bombing, along with about a hundred thousand civilians. Stalin was horrified at such a weapon, but the Allies demanded unconditional surrender. He would fight on. The decision proved to be disastrous: the Allies began to strike the Soviet Union proper. Sevastopol was hit with a nuclear bomb, and in February of 1948, Vladivostok was destroyed. In March of 1948, Minsk was hit, which broke the back of the Soviet forces attempting to defend their country against the Allied invasion. Stalin himself began to lose the confidence of his inner circle, who believed that if they did not surrender, they would meet the same fate as Hitler. Stalin would have none of it, and threatened his inner circle with another purge. This was the final straw, and a group of conspirators successfully killed Stalin in May of 1948. However, the conspirators were caught after the act, and a small civil war was sparked within the Soviet Union itself. This was ultimately stopped by Zhukov, who ordered the Red Army into Moscow to take control and, most importantly, surrender to the Allies. 

The Allies agreed that a new, united, democratic world order was necessary to save the world from the dual threats of totalitarianism and world war. It was under these principles that the United Nations was founded, and after the Soviet Union's "betrayal," it was proved to be more necessary than ever. The UN today isn't the global superstate envisioned by its more idealistic founders, but it is a powerful global force, with a sizable detachment of Peacekeepers that have the authority to depose governments that are deemed to be threats to world peace. The UN even has zones which it administers directly, mostly carved out from the defeated Axis and Soviet powers. The European Community and the Pacific Community are two international organizations that share currencies, have free travel between members and share some regulations, in an attempt to keep these regions from going to war by banding them together. 

The UN is technically led by the Big Four of the US, UK, France and China, but everybody knows that the US is the first among them. The United States sees itself as a global policeman, and thus has troops and bases all over the world. Internally, the United States is the most conservative of the Big Four, save China, with society being one of silent consensus much as it was during the post-war era. 

The United States' European allies are just as committed to the cause of peace. Although much poorer due to having borne the brunt of World War II, the European Allies are no slouches in the military intervention department. Britain and France are democracies that a bit more left-wing than the United States, but are ultimately "radical" in their moderation: both overly right-wing and overly left-wing politics are seen as too close to Nazism and communism, respectively. Just ignore the fact that ex-fascists tended to run the show in Italy and the German remnants in the post-war era. The Intermarum, on the other hand, is very conservative and Catholic, seeing itself as a liberated nation continuing the legacy of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Intermarum is very committed to keeping the Germans and the Russians down, although they hate the Russians far more for historical reasons. 

The Russian Republic is a corrupt democracy forged from the post-war Allied occupation of the Soviet Union. The Allies attempted to purge all elements of Soviet rule from the new Republic, and thus staffed the Republic's government with political prisoners. What the Allies did not understand is that many of these political criminals were also criminals in a very conventional sense, which quickly corrupted the Republic. However, Russia knows that it cannot challenge the UN, and so it keeps its military to within the levels permitted to it by the UN and abides by all of the UN's directives. After all, the politicians cannot loot a dead nation. 

But the American-led UN consensus is not strictly obeyed. In the East, China has broken off and taken its own path. Although still a member of the UN, China merely uses it as a forum for keeping the UN out of its affairs. China remains a dictatorship under the KMT, but its vibrant economy and major trade with the West overshadows any possible internal dissent. Because of the world's aversion to war, the UN is content to let the Chinese be, and the Chinese are disinterested in hitting the American hornet's nest. China does have an international network of "independent" states, chief among which is the Union of Arab Republics. Founded on the principles of Arab nationalism, the UAR sees the UN as a Western imperialist plot, but the strongmen that have led the UAR have always seen the value in oil revenue. Thus, they work to keep the Middle East stable. 

The world is a peaceful place, but not a pacifist one. There are still many armed conflicts around the world, but until they reach a level where the UN feels compelled to intervene, they are allowed to continue on. There are those that wish to overthrow the current world order, but they rarely have followings larger than a few thousand people. Nobody is fearful of nuclear war, as both the UN powers and China realize that it would be a disaster, noting the minor climate change that occurred at the end of the Second World War. This leaves some people wondering what a third world war would look like, but apart from novel writers and online posters, nobody really cares.
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A non-dystopian (indeed, noblebright) Central Powers victory scenario, set in the same universe as this: rvbomally.deviantart.com/art/C…

---

The Great War was not as epic a conflict as the Napoleonic Wars that occurred a century before. While the great powers of Europe had entered the conflict, the German triumph at the Marne quickly put the war in the West to an end. With Paris surrounded by German troops, as it had been in 1871, the French surrendered. Britain, its expeditionary force nearly annihilated, withdrew soon afterward. Now, the Russians were alone in facing the war machine of the Central Powers. Tsarist troops surrendered and deserted in droves, but Nicholas II stubbornly demanded the war go on. Another defeat would ruin his reputation forever. Instead, as anti-war sentiment built up after more defeats against the Germans, Nicholas II was deposed by a popular revolution. The new government, the Russian Republic, quickly sued for peace. By 1916, Germany stood triumphant over the European continent. 

The years after the war were marked by Germany's ascension to first among equals at the table of the great powers. True, its economy was still eclipsed by that of the United States, and its navy still small compared to the Royal Navy, but it was the master of Europe. The French and Russian republics were unstable, wracked with social discontent. Britain retreated from European affairs, focusing instead on its global empire. Austria-Hungary, already playing second fiddle to Germany in 1914, fell further within the German orbit as ethnic tensions forced it to reform with the aid of German bayonets. Germany worked on creating a greater European community with itself as a center. This Central European Community, later expanding into the European Community and then the European Union, had three purposes: (1) to increase economic activity between European states, (2) to prevent European wars and, most importantly, (3) to ensure that German dominance of the continent is secured. 

By 2014, the European Union is a major economic bloc, and indeed the largest economy in the world. It is still dominated by the German Empire, which has relegated the Kaiser to a more ceremonial position after democratic reforms throughout the 20th century. Even its old rivals, France and Britain, are part of the EU and contribute to its economic well-being. The join EU mission to Mars back in 2013 has further increased a feeling of European integration, and the possibility of a truly federal Europe is widely discussed. 

Challenging Germany in a friendly rivalry is the United States and its League of Nations. The growth of German and Japanese power in the 20th century helped wake the sleeping giant from its sphere of influence in the Western Hemisphere, and now it leads a bloc of democratic countries. Still, Americans are uninterested in foreign wars, and the League of Nations is a primarily humanitarian and economic organization that helps its weakest and poorest members. The Russian Republic had shaky beginnings, but after the establishment of stable democracy and aid from the United States, Russia gradually industrialized and now provides the world, but particularly the US and its League allies, with the petroleum products it needs. 

China had a rough 20th century, but it stabilized by the 1930s and became a democratic republic closely aligned with the US and Britain. Seeking to emulate the Japanese, the Chinese Republic opened up to the West and Japan, and foreign investment has helped China ascend. By the 1980s, China's economy grew enough that the tail began to wag the dog, and by the 21st century, China is a true contender for superpower status, along with the Germans and Americans. The Chinese middle class is growing, and it is believed that China may eclipse Germany (but not the EU) sometime in the next few decades. China's main ally, the Ottoman Empire, is a prosperous parliamentary democracy, its economy bolstered by oil revenue and tourism in the Holy Land. 

The Japanese remain a force to be reckoned with, even if they have had a recent slump. With its democratic tendencies from the Taisho era continuing well into the 20th century. Instead of seeking dominance through military means, the Japanese turned to economic dominance, a strategy that has worked well for them. They still remain the go-to country for quality electronics. India, too, has ascended. After independence in the 1950s, prompted by a growing hostility against colonialism, India has become a shining example of functioning democracy in the former European colonies. It still has its problems with economic inequality, but as its infrastructure improves, so are the lives of all Indians. 

The world has its problems, of course. Africa is still wracked with ethnic warfare, underhandedly fueled by the great powers in their attempts to gain dominance. Petty dictatorships exist around the world, although they are generally shunned. Famines still happen, despite the international community's best efforts, and many scientists warn about the dangers of global warming resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. The scientific community is trying to find ways around this energy issue, and the bright minds of the European Science Institute are ready to publish a report about the possibility of tapping energy from "anomalous dimensions." Whether or not this "vacuity energy" is a dead end or the key to sustainable energy won't be known until the first experiments are conducted. People are hoping for the best. 



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"The Second Lunch"

"Ciro" - Scipionyx samniticus eating its second prey,
a Derasmosaurus.

acrylics by brush and airbrush on cardboard

8,4 x 11,88 inches / 21 x 29,7 cm


Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Superorder: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
(unranked): Coelurosauria
Genus: Scipionyx
dal Sasso & Signore, 1998
Species
S. samniticus dal Sasso & Signore, 1998

Scipionyx is a very small genus of theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Italy, around 113 million years ago. There has been only one skeleton discovered, which is notable for the preservation of soft tissue and internal organs. It is the fossil of a juvenile only a few inches long. Adult size is estimated to be 2 metres (approx. 6 feet). The name Scipionyx comes from the Latin word Scipio and the Greek onyx, meaning "Scipio's claw", and for Scipione Breislak, the geologist who wrote the first description of the formation in which the fossil was found. The specific name samniticus means "From the Samnium", the Latin name of the region around Pietraroja. The specimen is also popularly nicknamed "Skippy, or "Doggy"
Scipionyx was discovered in the spring of 1981 by Giovanni Todesco, an amateur paleontologist, near Pietraroja, approximately 50 kilometers from Naples. The fossils were preserved in the Pietraroia limestone formation, well known for unusually well-preserved fossils. Todesco thought the remains belonged to that of a fossil bird. Unaware of the importance of his findings, he kept the strange fossil in the basement of his house until 1992 when he met two paleontologists, Cristiano dal Sasso of the Natural History Museum of Milan and Marco Signore of the University of Naples Federico II, who identified it as the first Italian dinosaur. The magazine Oggi gave the tiny dinosaur the nickname Ciro, a typical Neapolitan name. In 1998, Scipionyx made the front cover of Nature.

Scipionyx is classified as a coelurosaurian theropod. Because the only remains recovered belong to that of a juvenile, it has not been possible to assign this dinosaur to a more specific group. Coelurosaur characteristics included a sacrum (a series of vertebrae that attach to the hips) longer than in other dinosaurs, a tail stiffened towards the tip, and a bowed ulna (lower arm bone). The tibia (lower leg bone) is also characteristically longer than the femur (upper leg bone) in coelurosaurs. Fossil evidence indicates that most coelurosaurs were probably feathered.
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King of the Sky
ecoline with martin-brushes and airbrush on cardboard

Pterosauria - Pterodactyloidea - Scalmognatha - Pteranodontidae
Flying Reptiles
Pteranodontidae

The genus Pteranodon consists out of several large pterosaurs of the Cretaceous of North America. Pteranodon had a crested skull and a spanwide of 7,5 meter with a relatively small body. The hindlegs were small and weak. The bones hollow and only 1 mm thick creating a reducing of the total weight.

Family: Pteranodontidae Marsh, 1876 = Ornithostomatidae Williston, 1893 = Ornithostomatinae Williston, 1897 = Pteranodontes Gadow, 1901 = Pteranodontinae Williston, 1892 = Pternanodontinae Kuhn, 1967
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really old piece of Fabio pastori paleoart
ecoline with airbrush on card board

Marine Reptiles
Rulers of the acient seas

During the Mesozoicperiod when dinosaurs ruled life on land, sea reptiles were the absolute rulers of the seas and oceans. Some of these animals were 14 meters in length Plesiosaurs appeared during the Triassic, later they split up into two superfamilies, the Plesiosauroidae that looked liked dolfines with lang necks en snakelike heads, and the Pliosauroidae with there stubby body's, short necks en crocodile-like heads.

Both superfamilies lived troughout the Mesozoic period. Plesiosaurs are from origin landanimals, which adapted to live in the sea, there legs changhed in to swimmingpeddals and instead of five they developed ten finger- and toobones. They moved trough the water by flapping there peddals up and down, so it looked as if they flew trough the water as birds .

The pelvis and shoulderbones were deformed to massive boneplates, a unique characteristic for plesiosaurs. Ichtyosaurs were the highest specialised marine reptiles of there time, they were verry similar to modern dolphins. Thanks to their build they could swim with a speed of 40 km/h. Ichtyosaurs used tunlike the plesiosaurs their tail fin for movement.

They were so adapted to water that they couldn't go on shore anymore. Ichthyosaurs were viviparous animals and they lived for more then 100 milion years on earth. The earliest fossil records of ichthyosaurs are dated from the Early Triassic and the latest from the Middle Cretaceous, the greatest diversity among these animals appeared during the Jurassic.

Mosasaurs were flesh eating land animals that returned to sea to take over the gape that the ichthyosaurs left after they disappeared. They quickly spread and evolved into twenty different families with more than seventy genera.

There lifespan was a relatively short one, twenty-five million years after their entrance and even before the end of the Cretaceous they were already disappeared from the Earth leaving their place to marine mammals.
[link]
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Well, on the 4th of July this year I submitted a Christmas themed wallpaper... so now, two days after Christmas, I am submitting an Independence Day wallpaper, yes I know I am all backwards!

Anyway... this wallpaper is of Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence.

Declaration of Independence from: :iconslevin28:

Thomas Jefferson portrait and signature searched online.

Made in Photoshop CS3.
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James Madison ~ March 16 1751 - June 28 1836


This is a wallpaper I made of James Madison, the 4th President of the United States of America and author of the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights.

Portrait of James Madison by John Vanderlyn can be viewed here: [link]

U.S. Constitution and signature searched online.

Made in Photoshop 7.
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Can now be purchased as a mousepad! Buy one here: [link]


My salute to the American Revolutionary War, even though the 4th is like more than 3 months away, lol.

When I saw :iconlockstock:'s Yankee Doodle Dandy stock ([link]) I was inspired to make this.

The Revolutionary War was my favorite part of American history class... and I kinda snuck the French flag in there as well, seeing since they had a pretty big part in us winning the war after all, lol.

Stock photos of the Liberty Bell, American flag, Declaration of Independence and Independence Hall from here: [link]

Made in Photoshop 7.


Similar by me:

1 7 7 6 : [link]
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Cryptid 024, The Wendego

A.K.A. Witigo, Witiko and Wee-Tee-Go

Location: Northern United States and Canada

Type: Hairy Humanoid

Evidence: Scattered Sightings, some dating back hundreds of years

Possible Population size: Indistinguisable.

My thoughts and theories:
Considered by many modern paranormal researchers to be an alternate (or regional) name for the more traditional hairy-hominid known as Sasquatch, the Wendigo is considered by most Native American tribes (particularly the Inuits) to be another - and infinitely more dangerous - breed of beast altogether.
Known to different North American tribal groups by the names Witigo, Witiko and Wee-Tee-Go, this animal is almost universally described as being a lanky, 15-foot tall, beast-like phantasm, with glowing eyes, long, yellowed canine teeth, and a hyper-extended tongue. This quasi-animal is almost always depicted with a coat of matted fur, but there are some eyewitness accounts which insist that the creature is hairless and covered with a sallow, jaundiced skin. Based upon these descriptions it is not surprising that this being has inspired terror in all who have encountered it.
Achieving international acclaim in Algernon Blackwood's 1907 short story called "The Wendigo", legends of this animal date back for centuries, and have almost always been associated with the act of cannibalism. In fact, one persistent tale details the Wendingo's origin as being that of a human who was forced to resort to consuming his peers (no doubt in an unfortunate Donner Party-esque situation) in order to survive a particularly brutal Canadian winter.
The sole survivor of this ordeal was corrupted by his actions and possessed by evil spirits who transformed him into this hideous monstrosity. The legend insists that all those who have participated in the act of cannibalism (even in order to survive) risk the chance that they themselves may be transformed into a member of this bloodthirsty, half-corporeal, species.
Legends such as these have persisted (especially in northern Ontario) even into the 20th century, assuming almost the same position that Werewolves once dominated in Europe throughout the middle ages. There is even one intriguing case which hails from October of 1907 (a popular year for the Wendingo), which involved a Cree man named Jack Fiddler, who had claimed to have killed 14 of these monsters during his lifetime.
The story garnered international attention when the then 87 year-old men was sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of a Cree woman, whom he claimed was on the verge of transforming completely into a ravenous member of the Wendingo clan. Neither Fiddler, nor his son Joseph, hesitated in pleading guilty to the crime, but both insisted that their decisive action averted what could have quickly become a profound tragedy for the other members of their tribe. Until the end of his days this Native American "Van Helsing" held true to his conviction that the sacrifice he and his son had made was indeed a noble one.
Closing statement: Although the creature seems to mostly exist in legend with little to no proof of it's existance, I've always been told that there is a little truth to every tall tale. This one in particular may be easily be denounced as someone retelling his whitness to the ghoulish sight one might find when stumbling across an individual enguageing in the act of cannibalism. Possibly, a lone man with weeks of hair growth, driven insane by his deeds, perched over the remains of peers and growling like an animal might very much so look more monster than human to us. On the other hand, with so much of the Canadian fronteer unexplored, it is also possible that a horrific creature like the Wendego may exist. Even our own bodies could hide ressive geans that, when triggered could revert us back to a more primal state.
After all, every culture around the world has at least one legend revolving around humans acheving in-human transformation.
File End.
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Cryptid 009 Lizard Men

Location: World Wide

Type: Humanoid Hybrid

Evidence: Beyond eyewitness sightings, there remains little to no physical evidence of the creature’s existence.

Possible Population size: Unknown

The Term Lizard Men is not specific to one specific cryptid; instead it is used to describe a broad spectrum of bipedal hominid like lizard men, sometimes referred to as Homo-subterreptus. Sightings of Lizard Men are reported all over the globe, including the Intulo of South Africa, the South Carolina Lizard Man, the New Jersey Gator Man and the Loveland Frogmen of Ohio.
Out of all of the many lizard men stories, one of the most well known is the story of the South Carolina lizard man. Native Americans that called the Carolinas home used to talk about a race or lizard or fish men who lived in the area they called the Inzignanin. Reports by modern man of the South Carolina Lizard Man started around 1972, however the first official documented sighting on the creature occurred on June 29th 1988. The encounter took place on a back woods road near Scape Ore Swamp, outside of Bishopville, South Carolina at around 2 a.m. 17 year old Christopher Davis had just finished changing his flat tire, while putting the jack into the trunk of his car Davis reported the following encounter:
“I looked back and saw something running across the field towards me. It was about 25 yards away and I saw red eyes glowing. I ran into the car and as I locked it, the thing grabbed the door handle. I could see him from the neck down; it had three big fingers, long black nails and green rough skin. It was strong and angry. I looked in my mirror and saw a blur of green running. I could see his toes and then he jumped on the roof of my car. I thought I heard a grunt and then I could see his fingers through the front windshield, where they curled around on the roof. I sped up and swerved to shake the creature off.”
The creature eventually lost its grip and was flung off the rooftop and onto the side of the road. Understandable Davis did not turn back to assess the well being of the beast but upon making it home he noticed that his side view mirror and roof top suffered considerable damage. Throughout what remained of that year, numerous witnesses came forth with their own frightening tales of the aggressive creature and several strange 3 toe foot prints where cast in the area. The latest encounter with the South Carolina Lizard Man occurred in 2004 when it reportedly tried to pull a young girl into the river she was walking by.

Not much is known about the Intulo of South Africa, thought to dwell in the province of KwaZulu Natal this so called “lizard man” is described as mostly reptilian with human characteristics. This description of the Intulo is similar to other so called “New World Lizard Men” like the Gator Man of the American South East, the New Jersey Gator Man and the Lizard Man of South Carolina. There are some researchers who believe that the Intulo is a form of primate with reptilian like features, a description which matches some accounts of the Honey Island Swamp Monster. The Intulo is also a “Lizard Man” like creature in both Xosa and Zulu Mythology.
Sightings of the Intulo have only taken place in the KwaZulu Natal region of South Africa; at least the ones that have been brought forward. Most translations state that the sightings are referred to in past tense meaning that modern day stories may be describing older tales but other argue this is not true. Very little is known about these creatures and few modern day sightings on the Intulo exist.

Closing Statement:
Many theories have been presented in relation to the identity of the Lizard men, theories such as Aliens, Living Dinosaurs, and even off shoots of evolution in which the reptilian hierarchy continued to evolve along the same path as early primates. At one point in time reptiles ruled the earth, it is not out of the realm of possibility that the most dominate species on the planet could continue to evolve in small numbers unseen by mankind. Although no reptilian species known to man have shown signs of such advanced evolution, the reptile is the oldest and most successful species on the plant and could hold secrets that have yet come to light.
Another theory in regards to lizard men is that they may be reptilian aliens. Many UFO and alien abduction cases have made note of aliens being reptile like and since have been declared "reptilians". Many cryptozoology related reptilian sightings may have a tie to the possible alien race. Although this theory tends to loose credibility when various conspiricy theories are shoehorned into the mix.

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Cryptid 035 Kongamato

Location: Jiundu Country, Central Africa

Type: Living Fossil

Evidence: Sightings by credable sorces and tribesmen alike.

Possible Population size: Unknown

Some 65 million years ago, starting in the Jurassic and lasting into the Cretaceous, there existed a powerful flying reptile known as the Pterosaurs. The majority of fossils found have been in marine deposits, which means they probably were fish eaters and spent most of their time over coastal waters. These Pterosaurs apparently managed to fly with no feathers, their main aerodynamic feature where wings of membrane supported by an enormously elongated fourth finger. They had hollow limb bones and a large keeled breastbone attached to strong wing muscles which where needed for true flight, not just gliding.
The large expenditure of energy required to remain in flight for long periods of time, and the resulting loss of heat caused by the surface of their wings exposed to moving air, means that they must have had some method of regulating body heat, although it is doubtful they were truly warm blooded as mammals are. The majority of the Pterosaurs species where anywhere from the size of a sparrow to the size of an eagle, however some larger species have been discovered. The Pteranodon with a wingspan of 27 ft. and the colossal Quetzalcoatlus, with a wingspan of 50 ft, possibly 60 ft. are two examples of these larger species. Some pterosaurs even had fur, although they are in now way related to mammals. It would seem impossible that these creatures could have survived to the present day. After all, if they existed surely people would see them flying about as they hunted for food. How could a flying population of reptiles remain hidden? There are reports that people have been seeing flying creatures that match the description of pterosaurs for a hundreds of years. People have even been reportedly killed by these ancient flying creatures.
In 1923 a traveler by the name of Frank H. Melland worked for a time in Zambia. He gathered native reports of ferocious flying reptiles. The natives called this creature Kongamato which translated into “overwhelmer of boats". The Kongamato was said to have lived in the Jiundu swamps in the Mwinilunga District of western Zambia, near the border of Congo and Angola. It was described as having no feathers, smooth black or red skin, a wingspan between 4 ft. and 7 ft., and possessing a beak full of teeth.
It had a reputation for capsizing canoes and causing death to anyone who merely looked at it. When showed drawings of pterosaurs the native people present immediately and unhesitatingly picked it out and identified it as a Kongamato. Among the natives who did so was a rather wild and quite unsophisticated headman from the Jiundu country, where the Kongamato is supposed to be most active.
In 1925, a distinguished English newspaper correspondent, G. Ward Price, was with the future Duke of Windsor on an official visit to Rhodesia. He reported a story that a civil servant told them of the wounding of a man who entered a feared swamp in Rhodesia known to be the home of demons. The brave native entered the swamp, determined to explore it in spite of the dangers. When he returned he was on the verge of death from a great wound in his chest. He recounted how a strange huge bird with a long beak attacked him. When the civil servant showed the man a picture of a pterosaur, from a book of prehistoric animals, the man screamed in terror and fled from the servant's home
In 1942 Colonel C. R. S. Pitman reported stories the natives told him of a large bat - bird like creature that lived the dense swampy regions of Northern Rhodesia, now Zambia. Tracks of the creatures were seen, with evidence of a large tail dragging the ground. These reports were not limited to Zambia, but also came from other locations in Africa such as Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya. Skeptics suggest that these fantastic sounding tales derived from the fanciful imaginations of natives who were hired to work on archeological digs where fossilized pterosaurs were uncovered in Tendagaru, Tanzania, in the years prior to World War I. These digs, however, took place over 900 miles from Zambia. Why did no reports of living pterosaurs come from Tanzania, where these imaginative natives lived?
Perhaps the most striking report of living pterosaurs comes not from natives, but from white explorers in the employment of the British Museum. In 1932 through 1933 the Percy Sladen Expedition ventured deep into West Africa. In charge of the team was Ivan T. Sanderson, a well-known zoologist and writer. While in the Assumbo Mountains in the Cameroons, they made camp in a wooded valley near a steep banked river. They were out hunting near the river when Sanderson shot a large fruit-eating bat. Upon being shot the creature fell into the swift moving river below, as Sanderson was carefully making his way in the fast moving current, he lost his balance and fell in. He had just regained his balance when his companion suddenly shouted "Look out!"
"And I looked. Then I let out a shout also and instantly bobbed down under the water, because, coming straight at me only a few feet above the water was a black thing the size of an eagle. I had only a glimpse of its face, yet that was quite sufficient, for its lower jaw hung open and bore a semicircle of pointed white teeth set about their own width apart from each other. When I emerged, it was gone. George was facing the other way blazing off his second barrel.
I arrived dripping on my rock and we looked at each other. "Will it come back?" we chorused. And just before it became too dark to see, it came again, hurtling back down the river, its teeth chattering, the air "shss-shssing" as it was cleft by the great, black, dracula-like wings. We were both off-guard, my gun was unloaded, and the brute made straight for George. He ducked. The animal soared over him and was at once swallowed up in the night."
When Sanderson and George returned to camp they asked the natives about the creature. Sanderson asked them, spreading his arms, what kind of bat is this large and is all black? "Olitiau!" was the response. The natives asked Sanderson where they had seen this creature, to which Sanderson pointed back at the river. The natives fled in terror in the opposite direction, taking only their guns and leaving their valuables behind.
In 1956 in Zambia along the Luapula River, engineer J.P.F. Brown was driving back to Salisbury from a visit to Kasenga in Zaire. He stopped at a location called Fort Rosebery, just to the west of Lake Bangweulu, for a break. It was about 6:00 p.m. when he saw two creatures flying slowly and silently directly overhead. Bewildered he observed that these creatures looked prehistoric. He estimated a wingspan of about 3-3 1/2 feet, a long thin tail, and a narrow head, which he likened to an elongated snout of a dog. One of them opened its mouth in which he saw a large number of pointed teeth. He gave the beak to tail length at about 4 1/2 feet.
In 1957, at a hospital at Fort Rosebery, the same location J. P. F. Brown had reported seeing strange flying creatures the year before, a patient came in with a severe wound in his chest. The doctor asked him what had happened and the native claimed that a great bird had attacked him in the Bangweulu Swamps. When asked to sketch the bird, the native drew a picture of a creature that resembled a pterosaur.
The most recent sighting was in 1988. Professor Roy Mackal led an expedition to Namibia where reports of a creature with a wingspan of up to 30 ft were collected. The avian cryptid usually glided through the air, but also was capable of true flight. It was usually seen at dusk, gliding between crevices between two hills about a mile apart. Although the expedition was not successful in getting solid evidence, one team member, James Kosi, reportedly saw the creature from about 1000 ft. away. He described it as a giant glider shape, black with white markings.
But could ancient prehistoric flying reptiles thought to have died out 65 million years ago still be roaming the dense swampy areas and hot desert mountain regions of Africa, or could there be a simpler explanation for these sightings. There are two species of birds that live in the swampy areas of Zambia that could possibly be mistaken for some kind of prehistoric apparition, especially under low light conditions or at nighttime. The shoebill stork is a dark colored bird with an 8 ft. wingspan and a decidedly prehistoric appearance. They have become rare, and can only be found in the deep recesses of swamps in Zambia and neighboring countries. However, there is no evidence of the shoebill behaving aggressively towards humans, and in fact they try to avoid humans as much as possible.
They have large bills, but they are not pointed, and they do not have teeth, in fact no known bird living today has real teeth. Another odd-looking bird that lives in the area is the saddle billed stork. These rather beautiful birds have a wingspan of up to 8½ feet, a long bright red bill with a horizontal black stripe ¾ up from the tip and with a yellow blaze from the eyes down and into the stripe, with additional orange stripes on the sides of the head. Their overall coloration is black and white with a black head, featherless red feet, and a beak that is long and pointed. Although it would be difficult to confuse this bird with a featherless, monotone colored pterosaur, its beak is similar.
It also is not beyond the realm of possibility that perhaps a deranged, sick, threatened, or confused saddle-billed stork could attack a human and plunge its beak into a man's chest. Both of these candidates are rather poor substitutes for pterosaurs, although they probably do account for some of the reports. Many of the natives are very superstitious, and fervently believe in the stories of monsters in the swamps waiting to attack intruders. It is not difficult to imagine that a quick flyby of one of these large birds in the dark could send one running back to camp with a story of a near miss by a flying demon.
Whether the reports are of actual sightings of pterosaur related creatures, or if it they represent some unknown huge sort of bat or bird, perhaps time will tell. Of all the remote, inaccessible locations in the world where unknown creatures could still exist, probably the best candidates would have to be the deep enormous swamps in Africa. These swamps are so overgrown with vines and undergrowth that human travel is next to impossible. In addition, the ground is often so soft that humans could not even stand without sinking, and the many rivers and waterlogged areas block many avenues of penetration. Vicious insects and other critters that can cause sickness from disease or death from venom accompany the hostile terrain.
The area is racked with political instability, patrolled by guerillas and armed bandits with little respect for non-native intruders, which provides a powerful disincentive to would-be explorers. Over flights by aircraft are ineffective since the treetops are so thick in the deep swamps that little or nothing can been seen underneath. Africa is hiding its secrets well. If there are living dinosaurs alive today, these dense over grown swampy areas of Africa are a prime candidate for harboring them.

Closing statement:
Despite many sightings by credible eye-witnesses the Kongamato has left behind no physical evidence to prove that it actually exists. Natives, close to death after a run in with the creature, do not prove anything other than an attack of some kind did happen. As with the majority of crypid it will take a body, alive or dead, to prove to the world that the Kongamato exists in reality not in just myth and legend.

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Political satire mocking the left with propaganda poster parody.
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Political Satire.
UPDATE: From here on out, anyone who thinks this poster is racist and leaves a comment saying as much, must do one thing to prevent me from removing your comment.

Explain in your own words what message the poster is trying to convey. Non serious replies will be removed.

I suspect if you think this image is racist you don't understand it, and I have no patience for the uninformed, the ill-informed, or the ignorant.
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Political Protest Poster
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Camarillasaurus is a new ceratosaurian from spain. Not much is known about him, fossil matrila is few. The animal was small and a quite primitive member of the ceratosaurian family, although it lived later like its famous cousin ceratosaurus. Still the animal was more derived than the plant eating limusaurus
This is the first pic ever of camarillasaurus and also the first on DA
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Carnotaurus is a big ableisaurid and also the best knwon. Even its skin is knwon.
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This is the reason why I didnt upload that much pictures the last week. I searched very long and did some research of how to draw a dilophosaurus so I can make an infographic out of it. It turned out quite god, although the legs are a bit too short. This is because the paper I used was too small. I already taped together 2 a4 pieces of papers and dint want to put 2 more on it! Dilophosaurus is a famous lower jurassic theropod and represents one of the first big theropods. He was 6 metres long and had huge teeth which were ideal for cutting through meat.
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JURASSIC PARK Los Archivos Perdidos
Ceratodraco
Epoca: Cretaceo tardio, hace 65 millones de años
Distribucion: Norteamerica
Longitud: 3.5 metros
Peso: Hasta 100 kilos
Dieta: Herbivoro
Ceratodraco es un dinosaurio poco conocido que, cuando fue clonado por primera vez, fue llamado "Pachycephalosaurus cataphractus". No obstante, pronto se decidió que eran un genero aparte y se les rebautizó Ceratodraco cataphractus, por sus distintivos cuernos y la forma de su cabeza.
Es un herbivoro que vive en grupos pequeños conformados por un macho adulto y varias hembras. Los machos son mas grandes y tienen cuernos mas desarrollados.
Las hembras ponen sus huevos en un nido comunal y todas ayudan a criar a los pequeños. Tambien los machos participan en la crianza, aunque su tarea es principalmente la de proteger el territorio. Son animales mas bien agresivos y suelen atacar entre todos a los intrusos.
A pesar de su aspecto amenazante, no obstante, son menos propensos a embestir que los Pachycephalosaurus y en sus luchas intraespecificas, es mas importante la intimidacion que causar heridas reales al contrincante.
El llamado de este dinosaurio es un chillido largo como de pajaro, y en el caso de los machos, un rugido largo que usan mas que nada para alejar a los intrusos y para atraer a sus parejas potenciales.
TRIVIA: Segun los cuidadores de Jurassic Park, "los Ceratodracos definitivamente no son tan peligrosos como los Pachys, pero al parecer, el ver a un humano en el suelo o corriendo parece despertar su instinto de atacarlo en masa, como si fueran cuervos. Su mordedura es dolorosa, pero hasta la fecha, nadie ha sido herido de gravedad por estos animales".
Al parecer, los cuidadores encontraban mas desagradable la costumbre de las crias de escupir una mezcla de alimento semidigerido y jugos gastricos (descritos como "inusualmente acidos", cuando estaban de mal humor.
POTENCIALMENTE PELIGROSO


JURASSIC PARK The Lost Files
Ceratodraco
Age: Late Cretaceous, 65 mya
Range: North America
Length: 3.5 meters
Weight: Up to 100 kgs
Diet: Herbivore
Ceratodraco is a little known dinosaur that, when first cloned, was named "Pachycephalosaurus cataphractus". However, soon it was decided that it was a different genus and was renamed Ceratodraco cataphractus because of its distinctive horns and head shape.
It is a plant eater and lives in small groups of one male and several females. Males are larger and have more developed horns than females.
Females lay their eggs in one single nest and they all help raise the young. The male also helps, although mainly by protecting the territory. They are rather aggressive and usually attack the intruders in groups.
Despite their menacing looks, however, they are less prone to charge than Pachycephalosaurus, and during their intraspecific fights, intimidation seems to be more important than causing real injury.
This dinosaur's call is a long bird like scream, and males produce a long roar to keep other males away from their harems, and to attract potential mates.
TRIVIA: According to Jurassic Park keepers, "Ceratodracos are definitely not as dangerous as Pachycephalosaurus, but seeing a human laying in the ground or running seems to trigger a mobbing instinct like that of crows. Their bite is painful, but to date, no one has been seriously injured by these animals".
It seems that the keepers found more annoying their habit (in the young) of vomiting semi-digested matter and gastric juices (described as "unusually acid") when they were in a bad mood.
POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS

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JURASSIC PARK Los Archivos Perdidos
Piscatosaurus
Epoca: Cretaceo tardio, hace 70 millones de años
Distribucion: Madagascar
Longitud: 2 metros
Peso: Hasta 40 kilos
Dieta: Piscivoro
Piscatosaurus es uno de los dinosaurios mas extraños de Jurassic Park; fue uno de los ultimos dinosaurios clonados por InGen, y por su rareza fue elegido como una de las atracciones de la gira principal, aunque por ser una especie completamente nueva para la ciencia, su existencia se mantendría en secreto hasta el dia de la inauguracion del parque.
Este animal es bastante raro y esquivo; vive cerca de arroyos y estanques (su recinto en Jurassic Park ra basicamente una isla en medio de un pequeño lago artificial) y generalmente sale a pescar durante la noche y al atardecer. Muy raras veces se le ha visto de dia.
El macho es algo mas grande y robusto que la hembra. El Piscatosaurus suele vadear en aguas poco profundas, pero tambien puede nadar e incluso bucear; puede permanecer bajo el agua alrededor de cinco minutos, aunque generalmente sus inmersiones son mas breves. Sus ojos de color café estan bien protegidos por una membrana translucida. Se cree que este dinosaurio tiene una vision nocturna al menos ocho veces mas desarrollada que los humanos.
Se desconoce todo sobre sus habitos de apareamiento y crianza. Es mucho mas facil escuchar a un Piscatosaurus que verlo; su llamado, increiblemente extraño, puede ser escuchado durante las primeras horas de oscuridad, cuando el animal se dispone a iniciar su caceria.
TRIVIA: Por sus monstruosos dientes, se consideró para este dinosaurio el nombre de Teratophoneus atrox (asesino monstruoso y atroz). No obstante, este nombre fue rapidamente desechado cuando los cuidadores comprobaron que solo aceptaba pescado como alimento, y que era bastante inofensivo para los seres humanos. Por ello se le cambio el nombe a Piscatosaurus drakei. Segun uno de sus cuidadores, "El Piscatosaurus es de caracter tranquilo, pero nosotros preferimos no hacerlo enojar; a ninguno de nosotros le gustaria ser mordido por este animal".
INOFENSIVO SI NO SE LE PROVOCA

JURASSIC PARK The Lost Files
Piscatosaurus
Age: Late Cretaceous, 70 mya
Range: Madagascar
Length: 2 meters
Weight: Up to 40 kgs
Diet: Piscivore
Piscatosaurus is one of the strangest dinosaurs in Jurassic Park; it was one of the last dinos to be cloned by InGen and due to its weirdness, was chosen to be one of the main tour's attractions, although, since it was a completely new species for science, its existence was to be kept as a secret until the Park's opening day.
This is a very rare and elusive animal; it roams around creeks and ponds (its enclosure in Jurassic Park was basically an island in the middle of a small artificial lake), and it is usually active during night and dusk. It is very rare to see it during daylight.
The male is larger and more robust than the female. Piscatosaurus usually wades in shallow water, but can also swim and even dive. It can stay underwater around five minutes, although usually its dives are not that long. Its brown eyes are well protected by a translucid membrane when underwater. This dinosaur is thought to have a nocturnal vision over eight times better than ours.
Everything about its mating and breeding habits is unknown. It is much easier to hear a Piscatosaurus than to see it. Its call, incredibly strange by the way, can be heard during the first hours of darkness, when the animal starts its hunt.
TRIVIA: Because of its monstrous teeth, the name Teratophoneus atrox (Monstrous and atrocious killer) was considered for this dinosaur. However, it was dropped when the keepers confirmed that it would only take fish as food, and that it was quite harmless to humans, so the name was changed to Piscatosaurus drakei. According to a keeper's notes "Piscatosaurus is easy going, but we try not to make it angry; none of us would like to receive a bite from this animal".
HARMLESS IF UNPROVOKED

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JURASSIC PARK Los Archivos Perdidos
Carnotaurus
Epoca: Cretaceo tardio, hace 70 millones de años
Distribucion: Sudamérica
Longitud: 9 metros
Peso: 1.5 toneladas
Dieta: Carnivoro
Carnotaurus fue la causa de mucha discusión entre los guardabosques de Jurassic Park y los directivos del Parque; estos creian que el Carnotaurus era muy interesante y distintivo y que debia estar incluido en el tour del Parque, mientras que los guardabosques insistian en que seria imposible controlar a semejantes animales. Eventualmente, tres Carnotaurus fueron llevados a Nublar, pero regresados al poco tiempo a Sorna cuando los tres escaparon e hirieron seriamente a dos obreros.
Carnotaurus se distingue principalmente por los cuernos que tiene sobre los ojos, y que son mas grandes en los machos (las hembras son ademas mas pequeñas, aunque mas rapidas). Este dinosaurio tiene la capacidad de cambiar de color de forma asombrosa y con enorme rapidez. Gracias a esto puede camuflarse a la perfeccion con su medio ambiente para acechar a sus presas.
Parece ser que este metodo de caza apareció por primera vez en el ambiente selvatico de Jurassic Park, pues el habitat prehistorico del Carnotaurus no tenia vegetación tan densa y este dinosaurio era mas un corredor que un cazador de emboscada. Los cientificos de Jurassic Park creeian que el Carnotaurus prehistorico usaba su habilidad de cambiar de color en rituales de cortejo o para expresar su estado de animo.
El Carnotaurus es uno de los dinosaurios menos estudiados de Jurassic Park, y hasta la fecha se desconoce gran parte de su comportamiento, asi como el numero exacto de ejemplares que viven en el sitio B.
TRIVIA: Según algunos testigos, los Carnotaurus hembra son los que mas cazan; a menudo son las hembras las que derriban a la presa, y el macho aparece al final para asegurarse la mejor parte del cadaver.
EXTREMADAMENTE PELIGROSO


JURASSIC PARK The Lost Files
Carnotaurus
Age: Late Cretaceous, about 70 mya
Range: South America
Length: 9 meters
Weight: 1.5 tons
Diet: Carnivore
Carnotaurus was the cause of much debate between the Jurassic Park rangers and the Park's management; the latter thought that Carnotaurus was interesting and distinctive, and that it should be included in the Park tour, while the rangers argued that they wouldn´t be able to control such animals. Eventually, three Carnotaurus were taken to Nublar, but soon returned to Sorna after the three of them escaped and mauled two workers.
Carnotaurus is easily recignized because of the horns over its eyes, which are larger in males than in females (females are also smaller, although faster). This dinosaur has the ability to change its skin color in an incredible way and with amazing speed. This helps it blend with its environment perfectly to stalk unsuspecting prey.
It seems that this hunting method appeared for the first time in the jungle-like environment of Jurassic Park, for the prehistoric habitat of Carnotaurus was not as densely forested and the animal was more of a chaser than an ambush predator. The Jurassic Park scientists thought that the prehistoric Carnotaurus used its color changing ability in mating rituals or to express its mood.
Carnotaurus is one of the less studied Jurassic Park dinosaurs, and to date, much of its behavior is unknown, as is the exact number of individuals living in site B.
TRIVIA: According to some witnesses, female Carnotaurus are the ones that hunt more often; females bring down prey, and the male appears at the end to make sure he get's the best part of the carcass.
EXTREMELY DANGEROUS!

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AIRWOLF US Coast Guard

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and one of seven uniformed services. In addition to being a military branch at all times, it is unique among the armed forces in that it is also a maritime law enforcement agency (with jurisdiction both domestically and in international waters) and a federal regulatory agency. It is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security during peacetime and of the Department of the Navy at wartime[2].

As one of the five armed forces and the smallest armed service of the United States, its stated mission is to protect the public, the environment, and the United States economic and security interests in any maritime region in which those interests may be at risk, including international waters and America's coasts, ports, and inland waterways.

The Coast Guard has many statutory missions, which are listed below in this article.

Overview

[edit] Description

The Coast Guard, in its literature, describes itself as "a military, maritime, multi-mission service within the Department of Homeland Security dedicated to protecting the safety and security of America."

In addition, the Coast Guard has separate legal authority than the other four armed services. The Coast Guard operates under Title 10 of the United States Code and its other organic authorities, e.g., Titles 6, 14, 19, 33, 46, etc., simultaneously. Because of its legal authority, the Coast Guard can conduct military operations under the Department of Defense or directly for the President in accordance with 14 USC 1-3.

[edit] Role

The United States Coast Guard has a broad and important role in maritime homeland security, maritime law enforcement (MLE), search and rescue (SAR), marine environmental protection (MEP), and the maintenance of river, intracoastal and offshore aids to navigation (ATON). Founded by Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Cutter Service on August 4, 1790, it lays claim to being the United States' oldest continuous seagoing service. As of October 2006, the Coast Guard had approximately 42,000 men and women on active duty, 8,100 reservists, 7,000 full time civilian employees and 30,000 Auxiliarists.[3]

While most military services are either at war or training for war, the Coast Guard is deployed every day. With a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on even the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is frequently lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in TIME Magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to [a military effort when catastrophe hits] may be as a model of flexibility, and most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself."[4]

The Coast Guard's motto is Semper Paratus, meaning "Always Ready". The service has participated in every U.S. conflict from 1790 through to today, including landing US troops on D-Day and on the Pacific Islands in World War II, in extensive patrols and shore bombardment during the Vietnam War, and multiple roles in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Maritime interception operations, coastal security, transportation security, and law enforcement detachments are its major roles in Iraq.

The formal name for a member of the Coast Guard is "Coast Guardsman", irrespective of gender. An informal name is "Coastie." "Team Coast Guard" refers to the three branches of the Coast Guard as a whole: Active Duty, Reservists, Civilians and the Auxiliary.

[edit] Search and Rescue

See National Search and Rescue Committee

Search and Rescue (SAR) is one of the Coast Guard's oldest missions. The National Search and Rescue Plan[5] designates the United States Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, and the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain Rescue Coordination Centers to coordinate this effort, and have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue.

* USCG Rescue Coordination Centers

[edit] National Response Center

Operated by the U.S. Coast Guard, the National Response Center (NRC) is the sole U.S. Government point of contact for reporting environmental spills, contamination, and pollution

The primary function of the National Response Center (NRC) is to serve as the sole national point of contact for reporting all oil, chemical, radiological, biological, and etiological discharges into the environment anywhere in the United States and its territories. In addition to gathering and distributing spill data for Federal On-Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC also takes Terrorist/Suspicious Activity Reports and Maritime Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan.[6]

* U.S. National Response Team

[edit] Authority as an armed service

The five uniformed services that make up the Armed Forces are defined in 10 U.S.C. § 101(a)(4):
“ The term "armed forces" means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. ”

The Coast Guard is further defined by 14 U.S.C. § 1:
“ The Coast Guard as established January 28, 1915, shall be a military service and a branch of the armed forces of the United States at all times. The Coast Guard shall be a service in the Department of Homeland Security, except when operating as a service in the Navy. ”

Coast Guard organization and operation is as set forth in Title 33 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

On February 25, 2003, the Coast Guard was placed under the Department of Homeland Security. The Coast Guard reports directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security. However, under 14 U.S.C. § 3 as amended by section 211 of the Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2006, upon the declaration of war and when Congress so directs in the declaration, or when the President directs, the Coast Guard operates under the Department of Defense as a service in the Department of the Navy. 14 U.S.C. § 2 authorizes the Coast Guard to enforce federal law. Further, the Coast Guard is exempt from and not subject to the restrictions of the Posse Comitatus Act which restrict the law enforcement activities of the other four military services within United States territory.

On October 17, 2007, the Coast Guard joined with the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raised the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war.[7] This new strategy charted a course for the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent regional crises, manmade or natural, from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to avoid negative impacts to the United States. During the launch of the new U.S. maritime strategy at the International Seapower Symposium at the U.S. Naval War College, 2007, Coast Guard Commandant Admiral Thad Allen said the new maritime strategy reinforced the time-honored missions the service carried out in this U.S. since 1790. "It reinforces the Coast Guard maritime strategy of safety, security and stewardship, and it reflects not only the global reach of our maritime services but the need to integrate and synchronize and act with our coalition and international partners to not only win wars ... but to prevent wars," Allen said.[8]

[edit] Authority as a law enforcement agency

14 U.S.C. § 89 is the principal source of Coast Guard enforcement authority.

14 U.S.C. § 143 and 19 U.S.C. § 1401 empower US Coast Guard Active and Reserves members as customs officers. This places them under 19 U.S.C. § 1589a, which grants customs officers general law enforcement authority, including the authority to:

(1) carry a firearm;
(2) execute and serve any order, warrant, subpoena, summons, or other process issued under the authority of the United States;
(3) make an arrest without a warrant for any offense against the United States committed in the officer's presence or for a felony, cognizable under the laws of the United States committed outside the officer's presence if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony; and
(4) perform any other law enforcement duty that the Secretary of Homeland Security may designate.

The U.S. Government Accountability Office Report to the House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary on its 2006 Survey of Federal Civilian Law Enforcement Functions and Authorities identified the U.S. Coast Guard as one of 104 federal components employed which employed law enforcement officers.[9] The Report also included a summary table of the authorities of the U.S. Coast Guard's 192 special agents and 3,780 maritime law enforcement boarding officers.[10]

Coast Guardsmen have the legal authority to carry their service-issued firearms on and off base, thus giving them greater flexibility when being called to service. This is not always done, however, in practice; at many Coast Guard stations, commanders prefer to have all service-issued weapons in armories. Still, one court has held that Coast Guard boarding officers are qualified law enforcement officers authorized to carry personal firearms off-duty for self-defense.[11]

As members of a military service, Coast Guardsmen on active and reserve service are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice and receive the same pay and allowances as members of the same pay grades in the other uniformed services.

[edit] History

Main article: History of the United States Coast Guard

Marines holding a sign thanking the US Coast Guard after the battle of Guam.
Marines holding a sign thanking the US Coast Guard after the battle of Guam.

The roots of the Coast Guard lie in the United States Revenue Cutter Service established by Alexander Hamilton under the Department of the Treasury on August 4, 1790. The first USCG station was in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Until the re-establishment of the United States Navy in 1798, the Revenue Cutter Service was the only naval force of the early U.S. It was established to collect taxes from a brand new nation of patriot smugglers. When the officers were out at sea, they were told to crack down on piracy; while they were at it, they might as well rescue anyone in distress.[12]

"First Fleet" is a term occasionally used as an informal reference to the US Coast Guard, although as far as one can detect the United States has never in fact officially used this designation with reference either to the Coast Guard or any element of the US Navy. The informal appellation honors the fact that between 1790 and 1798, there was no United States Navy and the cutters which were the predecessor of the US Coast Guard were the only warships protecting the coast, trade, and maritime interests of the new republic.[13]

The modern Coast Guard can be said to date to 1915, when the Revenue Cutter Service merged with the United States Life-Saving Service and Congress formalized the existence of the new organization. In 1939, the U.S. Lighthouse Service was brought under its purview. In 1942, the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation was transferred to the Coast Guard. In 1967, the Coast Guard moved from the Department of the Treasury to the newly formed Department of Transportation, an arrangement that lasted until it was placed under the Department of Homeland Security in 2002 as part of legislation designed to more efficiently protect American interests following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

In times of war, the Coast Guard or individual components of it can operate as a service of the Department of the Navy. This arrangement has a broad historical basis, as the Guard has been involved in wars as diverse as the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, and the American Civil War, in which the cutter Harriet Lane fired the first naval shots attempting to relieve besieged Fort Sumter. The last time the Coast Guard operated as a whole under the Navy was in World War II. More often, military and combat units within the Coast Guard will operate under Navy operational control while other Coast Guard units will remain under the Department of Homeland Security.

[edit] Organization

Main article: Organization of the United States Coast Guard

The headquarters of the Coast Guard is at 2100 Second Street, SW, in Washington, D.C. In 2005, the Coast Guard announced tentative plans to relocate to the grounds of the former St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington. That project is currently on hold because of environmental, historical, and congressional concerns. As of July 2006, there are several possible locations being considered, including the current headquarters location.

[edit] Personnel

[edit] Commissioned Officer Corps

There are many routes by which individuals can become commissioned officers in the US Coast Guard. The most common are:

[edit] United States Coast Guard Academy

Main article: United States Coast Guard Academy

The United States Coast Guard Academy is located on the Thames River in New London, Connecticut. It is the only military academy to which no Congressional or presidential appointments are made. All cadets enter by open competition utilizing SAT scores, high school grades, extracurricular activities, and other criteria. About 225 cadets are commissioned ensigns each year. Graduates of the Academy are obligated to serve five years on active duty. Most graduates (about 70%) are assigned to duty aboard a Coast Guard cutter after graduation, either as Deck Watch Officers (DWOs) or as Engineer Officers in Training (EOITs). Smaller numbers are assigned directly to flight training (about 10% of the class) at the Naval Flight Training Center in Pensacola, Florida or to shore duty at Coast Guard Sectors, Districts, or Area headquarters unit.

[edit] Officer Candidate School

In addition to the Academy, prospective officers may enter the Coast Guard through the Officer Candidate School (OCS) at the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut. OCS is a rigorous 17-week course of instruction which prepares candidates to serve effectively as officers in the United States Coast Guard. In addition to indoctrinating students into a military life-style, OCS also provides a wide range of highly technical information necessary for performing the duties of a Coast Guard officer.

Graduates of the program typically receive a commission in the Coast Guard at the rank of Ensign, but some with advanced graduate degrees can enter as Lieutenant (junior grade) or Lieutenant. Graduating OCS officers entering Active Duty are required to serve a minimum of three years, while graduating Reserve officers are required to serve four years. Graduates may be assigned to a ship, flight training, to a staff job, or to an operations ashore billet. However, first assignments are based on the needs of the Coast Guard. Personal desires and performance at OCS are considered. All graduates must be available for worldwide assignment.

In addition to United States citizens, foreign cadets and candidates also attend Coast Guard officer training. OCS represents the source of the majority of commissions in the Coast Guard, and is the primary channel through which enlisted ranks can ascend to the officer corps.

[edit] Direct Commission Officer Program

The Coast Guard's Direct Commission Officer course is administered by Officer Candidate School. Depending on the specific program and background of the individual, the course is three, four or five weeks long. The first week of the five-week course is an indoctrination week. The DCO program is designed to commission officers with highly specialized professional training or certain kinds of previous military experience. For example, lawyers entering as JAGs, doctors, intelligence officers, and others can earn commissions through the DCO program. (Chaplains are provided to the Coast Guard by the US Navy.)

[edit] College Student Pre-Commissioning Initiative (CSPI)

The College Student Pre-Commissioning Initiative (CSPI) is a scholarship program for college sophomores. This program provides students with valuable leadership, management, law enforcement, navigation and marine science skills and training. It also provides full payment of school tuition, fees, textbooks, a salary, medical insurance and other benefits during a student's junior and senior year of college. The CSPI program guarantees training at Officer Candidate School (OCS) upon successful completion of all program requirements. Each student is expected to complete his/her degree and all Coast Guard training requirements. Following the completion of OCS and commission as a Coast Guard officer, each student will be required to serve on active duty (full time) as an officer for 3 years.

Benefits: Full tuition, books and fees paid for two years, monthly salary of approximately $2,000, medical and life insurance, 30 days paid vacation per year, leadership training.

[edit] ROTC

Unlike the other armed services, the Coast Guard does not sponsor an ROTC program. It does, however, sponsor one Junior ROTC ("JROTC") program at the MAST Academy.

[edit] Chief Warrant Officers

Highly qualified enlisted personnel from E-6 through E-9, and with a minimum of eight years of experience, can compete each year for appointment as a Chief Warrant Officer (or CWO). Successful candidates are chosen by a board and then commissioned as Chief Warrant Officers (CWO-2) in one of sixteen specialties. Over time Chief Warrant Officers may be promoted to CWO-3 and CWO-4. The ranks of Warrant Officer (WO-1) and CWO-5 are not currently used in the Coast Guard. Chief Warrant Officers may also compete for the Chief Warrant Officer to Lieutenant program. If selected, the officer will be promoted to Lieutenant (O-3E). The "E" designates over four years active duty service as a Warrant Officer or Enlisted member and entitles the member to a higher rate of pay than other lieutenants.

[edit] Enlisted

Newly enlisted personnel are sent to 8 weeks of Basic Training at the Coast Guard Training Center Cape May in Cape May, New Jersey.

The current nine Recruit Training Objectives are:

* Self-discipline
* Military skills
* Marksmanship
* Vocational skills and academics
* Military bearing
* Physical fitness and wellness
* Water survival and swim qualifications
* Esprit de corps
* Core values (Honor, Respect, and Devotion to Duty)

[edit] Service Schools

Following graduation, most members are sent to their first unit while they await orders to attend advanced training in Class "A" Schools, in their chosen rating, the naval term for Navy Enlisted Code (NEC). Members who earned high ASVAB scores or who were otherwise guaranteed an "A" School of choice while enlisting can go directly to their "A" School upon graduation from Boot Camp.

[edit] The Coast Guard Maritime Law Enforcement Academy

The Coast Guard Maritime Law Enforcement Academy is located at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) in Charleston, South Carolina, following relocation and merger of the former Law Enforcement School at Yorktown, Virginia, and the former Boarding Team Member School at Petaluma, California.

The Academy presents five courses:

* Boarding officer
* Boarding team member, which is a small part of the boarding officer course
* Radiation detection course, which is a level II operator course
* Vessel inspection class for enforcing Captain of the Port orders.

Training ranges from criminal law and the use of force to boarding team member certification to the use of radiation detection equipment. Much of the training is live, using handguns with laser inserts or firing non-lethal rounds.[14]

[edit] Petty Officers

Petty officers follow career development paths very similar to those of US Navy petty officers.

[edit] Chief Petty Officers

Enlisted Coast Guard members who have reached the pay grade of E-7, or Chief Petty Officer, must attend the U.S. Coast Guard Chief Petty Officer Academy at Training Center Petaluma in Petaluma, California, or an equivalent Department of Defense school, in order to be advanced to pay grade E-8. United States Air Force master sergeants, as well as international students representing their respective maritime services, are also eligible to attend the Academy. The basic themes of this school are:

* Professionalism
* Leadership
* Communications
* Systems thinking and lifelong learning

[edit] Ranks
Officer Grade Structure of the United States Coast Guard
Admiral

(ADM)
Vice Admiral

(VADM)
Rear Admiral
(upper half)

(RADM)
Rear Admiral
(lower half)

(RDML)
Captain

(CAPT)
Commander

(CDR)
Lieutenant
Commander

(LCDR)
Lieutenant

(LT)
Lieutenant,
Junior Grade

(LTJG)
Ensign

(ENS)
O-10 O-9 O-8 O-7 O-6 O-5 O-4 O-3 O-2 O-1









Warrant Officer Grade Structure of the United States Coast Guard
CWO4 CWO3 CWO2


Non Commissioned Officer Grade Structure of the United States Coast Guard[2]
Crossed anchors in the graphics indicate a rating of Boatswain's Mate
Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard

(MCPOCG)
Area CMC/MCPOCG (Reserve Forces) Command Master Chief Petty Officer

(CMC)
Master Chief Petty Officer

(MCPO)
Senior Chief Petty Officer

(SCPO)
Chief Petty Officer

(CPO)
Petty Officer First Class

(PO1)
Petty Officer Second Class

(PO2)
Petty Officer Third Class

(PO3)
E-9 E-8 E-7 E-6 E-5 E-4









Enlisted Grade Structure of the United States Coast Guard
Seaman

(SN)
Seaman Apprentice

(SA)
Seaman Recruit

(SR)
E-3 E-2 E-1



[edit] Equipment

The equipment of the USCG consists of thousands of vehicles (boats, ships, helicopters, fixed-winged aircraft, automobiles), communication systems (radio equipment, radio networks, radar, data networks), weapons, infrastructure such as United States Coast Guard Air Stations and local Small Boat Stations, each in a large variety.

Main article: Equipment of the United States Coast Guard

[edit] Symbols

[edit] Core values

The Coast Guard, like the other armed services of the United States, has a set of core values which serve as basic ethical guidelines to Coast Guard members. As listed in the recruit pamphlet, The Helmsman,[15] they are:

* Honor: Absolute integrity is our standard. A Coast Guardsman demonstrates honor in all things: never lying, cheating, or stealing. We do the right thing because it is the right thing to do—all the time.
* Respect: We value the dignity and worth of people: whether a stranded boater, an immigrant, or a fellow Coast Guard member; we honor, protect, and assist.
* Devotion to Duty: A Coast Guard member is dedicated to five maritime security roles: Maritime Safety, Maritime Law Enforcement, Marine Environmental Protection, Maritime Mobility and National Defense. We are loyal and accountable to the public trust. We welcome responsibility.[16]

[edit] Coast Guard Ensign
Coast Guard Ensign
Coast Guard Ensign

The Coast Guard Ensign (flag) was first flown by the Revenue Cutter Service in 1799 to distinguish revenue cutters from merchant ships. The order stated the Ensign would be "16 perpendicular stripes, alternate red and white, the union of the ensign to be the arms of the United States in a dark blue on a white field." (There were 16 states in the United States at the time).

The purpose of the flag is to allow ship captains to easily recognize those vessels having legal authority to stop and board them. This flag is flown only as a symbol of law enforcement authority and is never carried as a parade standard. See [3]

[edit] Coast Guard Standard
Parade Standard of the U.S. Coast Guard
Parade Standard of the U.S. Coast Guard

The Coast Guard Standard is used in parades and carries the battle honors of the U.S. Coast Guard. It was derived from the jack of the Coast Guard ensign which used to fly from the stern of revenue cutters. The emblem is a blue eagle from the coat of arms of the United States on a white field. Above the eagle are the words "UNITED STATES COAST GUARD;" below the eagle is the motto, "SEMPER PARATUS" and the inscription "1790."

[edit] Racing Stripe
Racing Stripe
Racing Stripe

The Racing Stripe was designed in 1964 by the industrial design office of Raymond Loewy Associates to give the Coast Guard a distinctive, modern image and was first used in 1967. The symbol is a narrow blue bar, a narrow white stripe between, and a broad red[17] bar with the Coast Guard shield centered. The stripes are canted at a 64 degree angle, coincidentally the year the Racing Stripe was designed. The Stripe has been adopted for the use of other coast guards, such as the Canadian Coast Guard, the Italian Guardia Costiera, the Indian Coast Guard, the German Federal Coast Guard, and the Australian Customs Service. Auxiliary vessels maintained by the Coast Guard also carry the Stripe in inverted colors.

[edit] Semper Paratus

The official march of the Coast Guard is "Semper Paratus" (Latin for "Always Ready"). An audio clip can be found at [4].

[edit] Missions

Main article: Missions of the United States Coast Guard

Coast Guard Ensign (Photo U.S. Coast Guard)


USCGC Steadfast

USCG HH-65 Dolphin

USCG HH-60J JayHawk
USCG HC-130H departs Mojave

USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties

Coast Guard motor lifeboat maritime safety operation

A Coast Guard helicopter crew member looks out over post-Katrina New Orleans

The Coast Guard carries out five basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions. The five roles are:

* Maritime safety (including search and rescue)
* Maritime mobility
* maritime security
* National defense
* Protection of natural resources

The eleven statutory missions, found in section 888 of the Homeland Security Act are:

* Ports, Waterways and Coastal Security (PWCS)
* Counter Drug Law Enforcement
* Migrant Interdiction
* Other Law Enforcement (foreign fisheries)
* Living Marine Resources (domestic fisheries)
* Marine (maritime) Safety
* Marine (maritime) Environmental Protection
* Ice Operations
* Aids to Navigation (ATON)
* Defense Readiness
* Marine (maritime) Environmental Response

The OMEGA navigation system and the LORAN-C transmitters outside the USA were also run by the United States Coast Guard. The U.S. Coast Guard Omega Stations at Lamoure, North Dakota and Kāne'ohe, Hawai'i (Oahu) were both formally decommissioned and shut down on September 30, 1997.

[edit] Uniforms

In 1972, the current Coast Guard dress blue uniform was introduced for wear by both officers and enlisted personnel; the transition was completed during 1974. (Previously, a U.S. Navy-style uniform with Coast Guard insignia was worn.) Relatively similar in appearance to the old-style U.S. Air Force uniforms, the uniform consists of a blue four-pocket single breasted jacket and trousers in a slightly darker shade. A light-blue button-up shirt with a pointed collar, two front button-flap pockets, "enhanced" shoulder boards for officers, and pin-on collar insignia for Chief Petty Officers and enlisted personnel is worn when in shirt-sleeve order (known as "Tropical Blue Long"). It is similar to the World War II-era uniforms worn by Coast Guard Surfmen. Officer rank insignia parallels that of the U.S. Navy but with the gold Navy "line" star being replaced with the gold Coast Guard Shield and with the Navy blue background color replaced by Coast Guard blue. Enlisted rank insignia is also similar to the Navy with the Coast Guard shield replacing the eagle on collar and cap devices. Group Rate marks (stripes) for junior enlisted members (E-3 and below) also follow U. S. Navy convention with white for seaman, red for fireman, and green for airman. In a departure from the U. S. Navy conventions, all Petty Officers E-6 and below wear red chevrons and all Chief Petty Officers wear gold. Unlike the US Navy, officers and CPO's do not wear khaki; all personnel wear the same color uniform. See USCG Uniform Regulations [5] for current regulations.

Coast Guard officers also have a white dress uniform, typically used for formal parade and change-of-command ceremonies. Chief Petty Officers, Petty Officers, and enlisted rates wear the standard Service Dress Blue uniform for all such ceremonies, except with a white shirt (replacing the standard light-blue). A white belt may be worn for honor guards. A mess dress uniform is worn by members for formal (black tie) evening ceremonies.

The current working uniform of a majority of Coast Guard members is the Operational Dress Uniform (ODU). The ODU is similar to the Battle Dress Uniform of other armed services, both in function and style. However, the ODU is in a solid dark blue with no camouflage patterns and does not have lower pockets on the blouse. The ODU is worn with steel-toed boots in most circumstances, but low-cut black or brown boat shoes may be prescribed for certain situations. The former dark blue working uniform has been withdrawn from use by the Coast Guard but may be worn by Auxiliarists until no longer serviceable. There is a second phase of Operational Dress Uniforms currently in the trial phases. This prototype resembles the current Battle Dress blouse, which is worn on the outside, rather than tucked in.

Coast Guard members serving in expeditionary combat units such as Port Security Units, Law Enforcement Detachments, and others, wear working operational uniforms that resemble Battle Dress uniforms, complete with "woodland" or "desert" camouflage colors. These units typically serve under, or with, the other armed services in combat theaters, necessitating similar uniforms.

Enlisted Coast Guardsmen wear the combination covers for full dress, a garrison cover for Class "B," wear, and a baseball-style cover either embroidered with "U.S. Coast Guard" in gold block lettering or the name of their ship, unit or station in gold, for the ODU uniform. Male and female company commanders (the Coast Guard equivalent of Marine Corps drill instructors) at Training Center Cape May wear the traditional "Smokey the Bear" campaign hat.

A 2006 issue of the Reservist magazine was devoted to a detailed and easy to understand graphical description of all the authorized uniforms.

[edit] Issues

The Coast Guard faces several issues in the near future.

Lack of coverage affects many areas with high maritime traffic. For example, local officials in Scituate, Massachusetts, have complained that there is no permanent Coast Guard station, and the presence of the Coast Guard in winter is vital. One reason for this lack of coverage is the relatively high cost of building storm-proof buildings on coastal property; the Cape Hatteras station was abandoned in 2005 after winter storms wiped out the 12-foot (3.7 m) sand dune serving as its protection from the ocean. Faced with these issues the Coast Guard has contracted with General Dynamics C4 System to provide a complete replacement of their 1970's era radio equipment. Rescue 21 is the United States Coast Guard's advanced command, control and communications system. Created to improve the ability to assist mariners in distress and save lives and property at sea, the system is currently being installed in stages across the United States. The nation's existing maritime search and rescue (SAR) communications system has been in operation since the early 1970s. Difficult to maintain, increasingly unreliable and prone to coverage gaps, this antiquated system no longer meets the safety needs of America's growing marine traffic. In addition, it is incapable of supporting the Coast Guard's new mission requirements for homeland security, which require close cooperation with Department of Defense agencies as well as federal, state and local law enforcement authorities. Modernizing this system enhances the safety and protection of America's waterways.

Lack of strength to meet its assigned missions is being met by a legislated increase in authorized strength from 39,000 to 45,000. In addition, the volunteer Auxiliary is being called to take up more non-combatant missions. However, volunteer coverage does have limits.

Aging vessels are another problem, with the Coast Guard still operating some of the oldest naval vessels in the world. In 2005, the Coast Guard terminated contracts to upgrade the 110-foot (33.5 m) Island Class Cutters to 123-foot (37.5 m) cutters because of warping and distortion of the hulls. In late 2006, Admiral Thad Allen, Commandant of the Coast Guard, decommissioned all eight 123-foot (37 m) cutters due to dangerous conditions created by the lengthening of the hull- to include compromised watertight integrity. The Coast Guard has, as a result of the failed 110 ft (34 m) conversion, revised production schedules for the Fast Response Cutter (FRC). Of the navies and coast guards of the world's 40 largest navies, the U.S. Coast Guard's is the 38th oldest.[18]

Live fire exercises by Coast Guard boat and cutter crews in the U.S. waters of the Great Lakes attracted attention in the U.S. and Canada. The Coast Guard had proposed the establishment of 34 locations around the Great Lakes where live fire training using vessel-mounted machine guns were to be conducted periodically throughout the year. The Coast Guard said that these exercises are a critical part of proper crew training in support of the service's multiple missions on the Great Lakes, including law enforcement and anti-terrorism. Those that raised concerns about the firing exercises commented about safety concerns and that the impact on commercial shipping, tourism, recreational boating and the environment may be greater than what the Coast Guard had stated. The Coast Guard took public comment and conducted a series of nine public meetings on this issue. After receiving more than 1,000 comments, mostly opposing the Coast Guard's plan, the Coast Guard announced that they were withdrawing their proposal for target practice on the Great Lakes, although a revised proposal may be made in the future.[19][20][21][22][23]

[edit] Deployable Operations Group (DOG)

The Deployable Operations Group is a recently formed Coast Guard command. The DOG brings numerous existing deployable law enforcement, tactical and response units under a single command headed by a rear admiral. The planning for such a unit began after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and culminated with its formation on July 20th, 2007. The unit will contain several hundred highly trained Coast Guardsmen. Its missions will include maritime law enforcement, anti-terrorism, port security, and pollution response. It will include the world famous National Strike Force. Full operational capability is planned by summer 2008.[24]

[edit] Coast Guard Auxiliary

Main article: United States Coast Guard Auxiliary

The United States Coast Guard Auxiliary is the uniformed volunteer component of the United States Coast Guard, established on June 23, 1939. It works within the Coast Guard in carrying out its noncombatant and non-law enforcement missions. As of November 18, 2007 there were 30,074 active Auxiliarists. The Coast Guard has assigned primary responsibility for most recreational boating safety tasks to the Auxiliary, including public boating safety education and voluntary vessel safety checks. In recent history prior to 1997, Auxiliarists were limited to those tasks and on-water patrols supporting recreational boating safety.

In 1997, however, new legislation authorized the Auxiliary to participate in any and all Coast Guard missions except military combat and law enforcement. 33 CFR 5.31 states that: Members of the Auxiliary, when assigned to specific duties shall, unless otherwise limited by the Commandant, be vested with the same power and authority, in execution of such duties, as members of the regular Coast Guard assigned to similar duties.

Auxiliarists may support the law enforcement mission of the Coast Guard but do not directly participate in it. Auxiliarists and their vessels are not allowed to carry any weapons while serving in any Auxiliary capacity; however, they may serve as scouts, alerting regular Coast Guard units. Auxiliarists use their own vessels (i.e., boats, yachts) and aircraft, in carrying out Coast Guard missions, or apply specialized skills such as Web page design or radio watchstanding to assist the Coast Guard. When appropriately trained and qualified, they may serve upon Coast Guard vessels.

Auxiliarists undergo one of several levels of background check. For most duties, including those related to recreational boating safety, a simple identity check is sufficient. For some duties in which an Auxiliarist provides direct augmentation of Coast Guard forces, such as tasks related to port security, a more in-depth background check is required. Occasionally an Auxiliarist will need to obtain a security clearance through the Coast Guard in order to have access to classified information in the course of assigned tasking.

The basic unit of the Auxiliary is the Flotilla, which has at least 10 members and may have as many as 100. Five Flotillas in a geographical area form a Division. There are several divisions in each Coast Guard District. The Auxiliary has a leadership and management structure of elected officers, including Flotilla Commanders, Division Captains, and District Commodores, Atlantic and Pacific Area Commodores, and a national Commodore. However, legally, each Auxiliarist has the same 'rank', Auxiliarist.

In 2005, the Coast Guard transitioned to a geographical Sector organization. Correspondingly, a position of 'Sector Auxiliary Coordinator' was established. The Sector Auxiliary Coordinator is responsible for service by Auxiliarists directly to a Sector, including augmentation of Coast Guard Active Duty and Reserve forces when requested. Such augmentation is also referred to as force multiplication.

Auxiliarists wear the similar uniforms as Coast Guard officers with modified officers' insignia based on their office: the stripes on uniforms are silver, and metal insignia bear a red or blue "A" in the center. Unlike their counterparts in the Civil Air Patrol, Auxiliarists come under direct orders of the Coast Guard.

[edit] Coast Guard Reserve

Main article: United States Coast Guard Reserve

The United States Coast Guard Reserve is the military reserve force of the Coast Guard. The Coast Guard Reserve was founded on February 19, 1941. Coast Guard reservists normally drill two days a month and an additional 12 days of Active Duty for Training each year. Coast Guard reservists possess the same training and qualifications as their active duty counterparts, and as such, can be found augmenting active duty Coast Guard units every day.

During the Vietnam War and shortly thereafter, the Coast Guard considered abandoning the Reserve program, but the force was instead reoriented into force augmentation, where its principal focus was not just reserve operations, but to add to the readiness and mission execution of every day active duty personnel.

Since September 11, 2001, over 8,500 Reservists have been activated and served on tours of active duty. Coast Guard Port Security Units are entirely staffed with Reservists, except for five to seven active duty personnel. Additionally, most of the staffing the Coast Guard provides to Naval Coastal Warfare units are reservists.

The Reserve is managed by the Director of Reserve and Training, RDML Daniel R. May.

[edit] Medals and honors

See also: Awards and decorations of the United States military

One Coast Guardsman, Douglas Albert Munro, has earned the Medal of Honor, the highest military award of the United States.[25]

Six Coast Guardsmen have earned the Navy Cross and numerous men and women have earned the Distinguished Flying Cross.

The highest peacetime decoration awarded within the Coast Guard is the Homeland Security Distinguished Service Medal; prior to the transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, the highest peacetime decoration was the Department of Transportation Distinguished Service Medal. The highest unit award available is the Presidential Unit Citation.

In wartime, members of the Coast Guard are eligible to receive the U.S. Navy version of the Medal of Honor. A Coast Guard Medal of Honor is authorized but has not yet been developed or issued.

In May 2006, at the Change of Command ceremony when Admiral Thad Allen took over as Commandant, President George W. Bush awarded the entire Coast Guard, including the Coast Guard Auxiliary, the Coast Guard Presidential Unit Citation with hurricane device, for its efforts after Hurricane Katrina.

[edit] Organizations

[edit] Ancient Order of the Pterodactyl

Those who have piloted or flown in U.S. Coast Guard aircraft under official flight orders may join the Ancient Order of the Pterodactyl ("Flying Since the World was Flat").

[edit] USCGA Alumni Association

The United States Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association is devoted to providing service to and promoting fellowship among all U.S. Coast Guard Academy alumni and members of the Association.

Membership Types: Academy graduates and those who have attended the Academy are eligible for Regular membership; all others interested in the Academy and its Corps of Cadets are eligible for Associate membership. (Website)

[edit] Coast Guard CW Operators Association

The Coast Guard CW Operators Association (CGCWOA) is a membership organization comprised primarily of former members of the United States Coast Guard who held the enlisted rating of Radioman (RM) or Telecommunications Specialist (TC), and who employed International Morse Code (CW) in their routine communications duties on Coast Guard cutters and at shore stations. (Website)

[edit] USCG Chief Petty Officers Association

Members of this organization unite to assist members and dependents in need, assist with Coast Guard recruiting efforts, support the aims and goals of the Coast Guard Chief Petty Officers Academy, keep informed on Coast Guard matters, and assemble for social ammenties; and include Chief, Senior Chief, and Master Chief Petty Officers, active, reserve and retired. Membership is also open to all Chief Warrant Officers and Officers who have served as a Chief Petty Officer.

[edit] Publications

The Coast Guard maintains a library of publications for public use as well as publications for Coast Guard and Auxiliary use.

Coast Guard, COMDTPUB P5720.2, is the regular publication for Coast Guardsmen.

[edit] Notable Coast Guardsmen and others associated with the USCG

Source: U.S. Coast Guard

* Derroll Adams, folk musician
* Nick Adams, actor
* Brandon Alani, singer, songwriter
* Beau Bridges, actor
* Lloyd Bridges, actor
* Sid Caesar, comedian
* Lou Carnesecca, basketball coach, St. John's University
* Howard Coble, U.S. Congressman, North Carolina
* Chris Cooper, actor
* Richard Cromwell, actor
* Walter Cronkite, newscaster
* William D. Delahunt, U.S. Congressman, Massachusetts
* Mel Torme, jazz musician
* Jack Dempsey, professional boxer
* Buddy Ebsen (1908–2003), actor, comedian, dancer
* Blake Edwards, writer, director, producer
* Edwin D. Eshleman (1920-1985), former U.S. Congressman, Pennsylvania
* Arthur Fiedler, conductor
* Arthur A. Fontaine, captain, college sailing national champion, ISCA Hall of Fame
* Charles Gibson, newscaster
* Arthur Godfrey, entertainer
* Otto Graham, professional football player and coach
* Alex Haley, author of Roots and Coast Guard chief journalist
* Alan Hale, Jr., actor
* Weldon Hill, pseudonym of William R. Scott, author of novel Onionhead, based on his World War II Coast Guard service
* William Hopper, actor
* Tab Hunter, actor
* Harvey E. Johnson, Jr., Vice Admiral, Deputy Director FEMA
* Steve Knight, Vocalist for Flipsyde
* Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, athlete, actor
* Jack Kramer, tennis professional
* Jacob Lawrence, artist
* Victor Mature, actor
* Douglas Munro, the only Coast Guardsman to be awarded the Medal of Honor
* Frank Murkowski, former governor and former U.S. Senator, Alaska
* Sam Nunn, former U.S. Senator, Georgia
* Arnold Palmer, professional golfer
* Ed Parker, martial artist
* Claiborne Pell, former U.S. Senator, Rhode Island
* Jon Douglas Rainey, co-host of the Discovery Channel reality series It Takes a Thief
* Cesar Romero, actor
* Sergei I. Sikorsky, son of Igor Sikorsky and former chairman of Sikorsky Aircraft Corp. [6]
* Sloan Wilson, writer
* Dorothy C. Stratton first director of the SPARS
* Gene Taylor, U.S. Congressman, Mississippi
* Ted Turner, businessman
* Rudy Vallee, entertainer
* Tom Waits, musician and actor
* Thornton Wilder, writer
* Gig Young, actor
* Popeye, Cartoon character, had tattoos and uniforms signifying he was in the USCG. "Popeye the Sailor Meets Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" shows him under a USCG sign.

[edit] Popular culture

* The Coast Guard has been featured in several television series, such as Baywatch, Miami Vice, CSI: Miami, and Deadliest Catch; and in film.
* A comedy, Onionhead, portrayed Andy Griffith as a Coast Guard recruit.
* The 2000 film The Perfect Storm depicted the rescue operations of the USCGC Tamaroa (WMEC-166) as one of its subplots.
* Special Counter-Drug helicopter units known as Helicopter Interdictions Squadrons (HITRON) are seen in action on Bad Boys II.
* In the 2005 family comedy Yours, Mine, and Ours, Dennis Quaid plays a fictional U.S. Coast Guard Academy superintendent who marries a character played by Rene Russo and together have 18 children.
* The 2006 film The Guardian, starring Kevin Costner and Ashton Kutcher, was based on the training and operation of Coast Guard Rescue Swimmers.
* A Coast Guard cutter and its commander and crew figured prominently in Tom Clancy's book Clear and Present Danger.
* The 2008 fourth season of the television series Lost erroneously depicted air crash survivors being transported to Hawaii in a Coast Guard HC-130 aircraft. However, since the survivors had landed on the Indonesian island of Sumba (in the Indian Ocean, thousands of miles from any Coast Guard district), arrangements for their repatriation would have been the business of the US State Department.

[edit] See also
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BAE Systems to Unveil Adaptive Camouflage Cloak for Combat Vehicles at DSEi



BAE Systems has recently tested an ‘invisibility cloak’ that allows a vehicle to blend into its surroundings, effectively becoming invisible to thermal imaging systems. The company will debut its new technology at the DSEi defense and security expo in London next week.

The system called ‘ADAPTIV’ was developed and patented in Sweden, it operates over infra-red and other frequencies. ADAPTIV can instantly blend the vehicle into the background, reducing detection range below 500 meters. Furthermore, the new technology can also mimic natural objects and other vehicles, and offer cooperative Interrogator Friend/Foe (IFF) capability by displaying distinctive patterns visible only at certain spectral range or in response to an interrogation signal (for example, illumination by coded laser designation).

ADAPTIV can instantly blend a combat vehicle into the background, reducing detection range below 500 meters. Photo: BAE Systems,

The system combines sheets of lightweight, hexagonal metallic ‘pixels’ designed to change temperature very rapidly presenting a thermal pattern that optimally blends with its surrounding. Each electrically powered pixel is individually heated or cooled using commercially available semi-conducting technology.

The system combines sheets of lightweight, hexagonal metallic 'pixels' designed to change temperature very rapidly presenting a thermal pattern that optimally blends with its surrounding. Alternatively, it can mimic another vehicle or display identification tags, reducing the risk of fratricide. Photos: BAE Systems

The pattern is determined by an on-board computer feeding from on-board cameras that pick up the background scenery. The system allows even a moving tank to match its surroundings. Alternatively, it can mimic another vehicle or display identification tags, reducing the risk of fratricide.

Project manager, Peder Sjölund explains: “Earlier attempts at similar cloaking devices have hit problems because of cost, excessive power requirements or because they were insufficiently robust. Our panels can be made so strong that they provide useful armor protection and consume relatively low levels of electricity, especially when the vehicle is at rest in ‘stealth reconnaissance’ mode and generator output is low.”

Trials by BAE Systems in mid-July showed that one side of a CV90 could be made effectively invisible or appear to be other objects, including a 4×4 vehicle, when viewed in the infra-red spectrum.”We can resize the pixels to achieve stealth for different ranges.” Sjölund added, “A warship or building, for instance, might not need close-up stealth, so could be fitted with larger panels.” Earlier this year the British media reported about another adaptive camouflage program pursued by BAE Systems, utilizing a kind of electronic ink, to ‘paint’ the background image on the vehicle’s surface.

Current work focuses mainly on the infra-red spectrum, as this is most important to the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV), which funds part of the work. However, BAE Systems engineers have combined the pixels with other technologies, which provide camouflage in other parts of the electro-magnetic spectrum at the same time to provide all-round stealth, which will be developed further over the next few years.

Combat vehicle protection technologies have evolved dramatically in recent years, moving far beyond traditional ballistic and blast protection, spanning into ‘hit avoidance’ through the use of countermeasures and active protection and signature management, eliminating part of the risk by avoiding detection or target acquisition by enemy weapon systems. Part of the trend of signature management is the use of advanced camouflage, hiding the protected vehicle from visible observation (by advanced camouflage materials) and imaging systems, particularly thermal imagers, which provide the core for most of the modern automated engagement systems (including target acquisition systems and missile seekers).

A similar system is also under development in israel – ‘Invisible Reactive Armor Protection (IRAP)’ utilizing the ‘Blax Fox’ thermal camouflage system from Eltics and IMI’s hybrid armor technology. In the U.S., DARPA and the U.S. Army research and development center have pursued similar capabilities for future spirals of the ‘Manned Ground Vehicle’ – the core maneuver element of the now terminated Future Combat System.

FA-70 panther 2

Air superiority fighter
Stealth Interceptor, air superiority and multirole combat aircraft
General characteristics

Program cost US$66.7 billion
Unit cost US$250 million

* Crew: 2 (Pilot and Radar Intercept Officer)
* Length: 72 ft 5 in
* Wingspan: 52 ft 8 in
* Height: 15 ft 11 in
* Wing area: 1000 ft²
* Empty weight: 30,000 lb
* Loaded weight: 60,600 lb
* Max takeoff weight: 65,000 lb
* Powerplant: 2× G Pratt & Whitney YF220 , 65,000 lbf

Performance

* Maximum speed: Mach 8.6 (mph = 6 546.38064 m2 / s2, 2 926.494 m2 / s km/h) at altitude
* Cruise speed: Mach 3.4+ est. (mph = 2 588.10397 m3 / s2) 1 156.986 m2 / s+ km/h) hypercruise at altitude
* Combat radius: 900-520 mi[15] (1448.4096 nmi, 1.448.4096 km)
* Service ceiling: 95,000 ft (28.95600m)
* Wing loading: 70 lb/ft² (456 kg/m²;)

# Secondary Powerplant: 1× General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136 afterburning turbofan, >40,000 lbf (178 kN) [in development]
# Lift fan (STOVL): 1× Rolls-Royce LiftSystem driven from either F135 or F136 power plant, 18,000 lbf (80 kN)
# Internal fuel: 35.00 IB

Armament

* Guns: 2 × GAU-22/A 25 mm (0.984 in) cannon in internal mounted
* Hardpoints: 4× external pylons on wings with a capacity of 40,000 lb ( internal mounted on Rotary Launcher Assembly (RLA)
* Missiles: 12 loud to 24
*Internal: 12 air-to-air missiles, or 16 air-to-air missiles and 24 air-to-ground weapons.
* External: 14 air-to-air missiles, or 4 air-to-ground weapons and 2 to 4 air-to-air missiles [40] with combinations for the following missiles:
*2x Rear-defence 10 ronds gided sabo


   Missiles:
       Air-to-air missiles:
           AIM-120 AMRAAM
           AIM-9X Sidewinder
           IRIS-T
           MBDA Meteor (pending further funding)
       Air-to-surface missiles:
           AGM-88 AARGM
           AGM-158 JASSM
           Brimstone missile / MBDA SPEAR
           Joint Air-to-Ground Missile
           Storm Shadow missile
           SOM
       Anti-ship missiles:
           JSM
           LRASM
   Bombs:
       Mark 84, Mark 83 and Mark 82 GP bombs
       Mk.20 Rockeye II cluster bomb
       Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser capable
       Paveway series laser-guided bombs
       Small Diameter Bomb (SDB)
       JDAM series
       B61 nuclear bomb
       AGM-154 JSOW
     GBU-50 crusher

Avionics:

   Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems AN/APG-81 AESA radar
   Lockheed Martin AAQ-40 E/O Targeting System (EOTS)
   Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems AN/AAQ-37 Distributed Aperture System (DAS) missile warning system
   BAE Systems AN/ASQ-239 (Barracuda) electronic warfare system
   Harris Corporation Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) communication system

AN/APG-81

The AN/APG-81 is an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) designed by Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems for the F-35 Lightning II.
The Joint Strike Fighter AN/APG-81 AESA radar is a result of the US government's competition for the world's largest AESA acquisition contract. Westinghouse Electronic Systems (acquired by Northrop Grumman in 1996) and Hughes Aircraft (acquired by Raytheon in 1997) received contracts for the development of the Multifunction Integrated RF System/Multifunction Array (MIRFS/MFA) in February 1996. Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman were selected as the winners of the Joint Strike Fighter competition; The System Development and Demonstration (SDD) contract was announced on 26 October 2001.
The AN/APG-81 is a successor radar to the F-22's AN/APG-77. Over 3,000 AN/APG-81 AESA radars are expected to be ordered for the F-35, with production to run beyond 2035, and including large quantities of international orders. As of August 2007, 8 APG-81s have already been produced and delivered. The first three blocks of radar software have been developed, flight tested, and delivered ahead of schedule by the Northrop Grumman Corporation. Capabilities of the AN/APG-81 include the AN/APG-77's air-to-air modes plus advanced air-to-ground modes including high resolution mapping, multiple ground moving target detection and track, combat identification, electronic warfare, and ultra high bandwidth communications. The current F-22 production radar is the APG-77v1, which draws heavily on APG-81 hardware and software for its advanced air-to-ground capabilities.[2]
In August 2005, the APG-81 radar was flown for the first time aboard Northrop Grumman's BAC 1-11 airborne laboratory. Since then, the radar system has accumulated over 300 flight hours, maturing all five blocks of software. The first radar flight on Lockheed Martin's CATBird avionics test bed aircraft took place in November 2008. Announced on 6/22/10: The radar met and exceeded its performance objectives successfully tracking long-range targets as part of the first mission systems test flights of the F-35 Lightning II BF-4 aircraft.[3]
The AN/APG-81 team won the 2010 David Packard Excellence in Acquisition Award for performance against jammers.

The Lockheed Martin Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod (ATP), designated AN/AAQ-33 in U.S. Military Service, provides positive target identification, autonomous tracking, coordinate generation, and precise weapons guidance from extended standoff ranges. The Sniper ATP is used on the F-15E Strike Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft, B-1 (Rod Pod), UK Harrier GR9,.[1] and Canadian CF-18 Hornet. [2] The Sniper ATP is in service with Norway, Oman, Poland, Singapore, Canada, Belgium, Turkey, Saudi Arabia[3] and the UK MoD.[4][5] In July 2007, Sniper ATP was acquired by Pakistan, making it the tenth country in the world to be in possession of the Sniper pod.[6] The Sniper ATP contains a laser designator and tracker for guiding laser-guided bombs. The pod also features a third-generation FLIR receiver and a CCD television camera. FLIR allows observation and tracking in low light / no light situations, while the CCD camera allows the same functions during day time operations.
A team of Lockheed Martin UK, BAE Systems and SELEX Galileo (formerly Selex S&AS) has successfully demonstrated and flown a Sniper ATP on board a Tornado GR4 combat aircraft.
The U.S. Air Force initial seven-year contract for Sniper ATP has potential value in excess of $843 million. The Sniper ATP has delivered over 125 pods and the U.S. Air Force plans to procure at least 522 Sniper ATPs.
PANTHER is the export equivalent to the Lockheed Martin Sniper Extended Range (XR) targeting pod.

Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) is a future data waveform to provide secure data-linking technology between stealth aircraft. It began as a method to coordinate between F-35 aircraft (the Joint Strike Fighter), but HQ Air Combat Command wants to expand the capabiltiy to coordinate future USAF strike forces of all AF stealth aircraft, including the B-2, F-22, and unmanned systems. MADL is expected to provide needed throughput, latency, frequency-hopping and anti-jamming capability with phased Array Antenna Assemblies (AAAs) that send and receive tightly directed radio signals.[1]
The Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics directed the Air Force and Navy to integrate MADL among the F-22, F-35 and B-2, to one another and to the rest of network.

Helmet Mounted hud



The FA-70 need not be physically pointing at its target for weapons to be successful. This is possible because of sensors that can track and target a nearby aircraft from any orientation, provide the information to the pilot through his helmet (and therefore visible no matter which way they are looking), and provide the seeker-head of a missile with sufficient information. Recent missile types provide a much greater ability to pursue a target regardless of the launch orientation, called "High Off-Boresight" capability, although the speed and direction in which the munition is launched affect the effective range of the weapon. Sensors use combined radio frequency and infra red (SAIRST) to continually track nearby aircraft while the pilot's helmet-mounted display system (HMDS) displays and selects targets. The helmet system replaces the display suite-mounted head-up display used in earlier fighters.
the FA-70's systems provide the edge in the "observe, orient, decide, and act" OODA loop; stealth and advanced sensors aid in observation (while being difficult to observe), automated target tracking helps in orientation, sensor fusion simplifies decision making, and the aircraft's controls allow action against targets without having to look away from them.
The problems with the current Vision Systems International helmet mounted display led Lockheed Martin to issue a draft specification for proposals for an alternative on 1 March 2011.[199] The alternative system will be based on Anvis-9 night vision goggles. It will be supplied by BAE systems.[201] The BAE system does not include all the features of the VSI helmet and is currently intended only for use during the testing program. In 2011, Lockheed granted VSI a contract to fix the vibration, jitter, night-vision and sensor display problems in their helmet mounted display. The improved displays are expected to be delivered in third quarter of 2013

Helmet Mounted Sight
The Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS) or Display (HMD) is a relatively recent addition to the fighter cockpit. The first devices in this category emerged during the late seventies, as an aid to targeting second generation heatseeking missiles. Given the limitations of both sight and missile technology of that period, the HMS slipped into obscurity for several years, only to be resurrected with the advent of fourth generation heatseeking missiles (WVR AAMs). At this time the HMS and newer, more capable HMDs are seeing a resurgence in the marketplace and can now be expected to become a standard feature in the cockpit of any new build fighter aircraft.
The fundamental idea behind all HMD/HMS designs is that of using the pilot's Eyeball Mk.1 as a cueing device to direct a missile seeker at a target, to facilitate a rapid lock and missile shot. This was not a very strong requirement with second and third generation heatseeking missiles, since the capable Air Intercept (AI) radars which proliferated with the teen series (and teenski series) fighters typically had several dogfighting modes which were designed to rapidly acquire and track a target. The missile seekers were "slaved" to the antenna boresight, and thus once the radar locked on to the target the missile seekers would also lock very shortly thereafter. Each missile would be fed with an elevation and azimuth signal produced by the radar, and these signals would be used to steer the missile seeker direction relative to the airframe.
When the first fourth generation missiles appeared, the Soviet Vympel R-73 (AA-11 Archer) and shortly thereafter the Israeli Rafael Python 4, it was clearly apparent that with very large off boresight angles, typically in excess of 60 degrees of arc, the AI intercept radar would no longer be adequate. The reason was simple, in that most antennas could not be easily slewed to angles beyond about 60 degrees. Space under radomes was limited, radome designs not optimised for beam quality at large off-boresight angles, gimbal design limits and servomotor slew rates all contributed to this situation. Last but not least, the cost of retrofitting large numbers of radars would not be trivial. And with the latest fourth generation missiles, like the AIM-132 ASRAAM, the missile itself could be fired over the shoulder at targets in the aft hemisphere. Therefore the HMS idea was resurrected.

Fly-By-Light

The Fly-By-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is developing and demonstrating dual use fly-by-light hardware for flight control systems on military and commercial aircraft. Under the transport aircraft portion of this program, we and our industry teammates are demonstrating two representative fly-by-light systems. These fly-by-light demonstrations include a ground demonstration of a partial primary flight control system and a flight demonstration of an aileron trim control system. This paper describes these and discusses the dual use fly-by-light hardware developed for transport aircraft as well as the associated FLASH program demonstrations.


Adaptive Camouflage
Lightweight optoelectronic systems built around advanced image sensors and display panels have been proposed for making selected objects appear nearly transparent and thus effectively invisible. These systems are denoted "adaptive camouflage" because unlike traditional camouflage, they would generate displays that would change in response to changing scenes and lighting conditions. Fa-70 use 3 Generation based off of snake skin design


Gloved Close-coupled canard

In the close-coupled canard, the foreplane is located just above and forward of the main wing. At high angles of attack the canard surface directs airflow downwards over the wing, reducing turbulence which results in reduced drag and increased lift
Pratt & Whitney YF220pw-200
Scram-LACE

Scramjet


are mechanically very similar to ramjets. Like a ramjet, they consist of an inlet, a combustor, and a nozzle. The primary difference between ramjets and scramjets is that scramjets do not slow the oncoming airflow to subsonic speeds for combustion, they use supersonic combustion instead. The name "scramjet" comes from "supersonic combusting ramjet." Since scramjets use supersonic combustion they can operate at speeds above Mach 6 where traditional ramjets are too inefficient. Another difference between ramjets and scramjets comes from how each type of engine compresses the oncoming air flow: while the inlet provides most of the compression for ramjets, the high speeds at which scramjets operate allow them to take advantage of the compression generated by shock waves, primarily oblique shocks.[20]
Very few scramjet engines have ever been built and flown. In May 2010 the Boeing X-51 set the endurance record for the longest scramjet burn at over 200 seconds.[21]

Precooled jets / LACE

Intake air is chilled to very low temperatures at inlet in a heat exchanger before passing through a ramjet and/or turbojet and/or rocket engine. Easily tested on ground. Very high thrust/weight ratios are possible (~14) together with good fuel efficiency over a wide range of airspeeds, Mach 0-5.5+; this combination of efficiencies may permit launching to orbit, single stage, or very rapid, very long distance intercontinental travel. Exists only at the lab prototyping stage. Examples include RB545, Reaction Engines SABRE, ATREX. Requires liquid hydrogen fuel which has very low density and requires heavily insulated tankage.

AN/AAQ-40

The Electro-optical Targeting System (EOTS) is an affordable, high-performance, lightweight, multi-functional system for precision air-to-air and air-to-surface targeting. The low-drag, stealthy EOTS is integrated into the Lightning II's fuselage with a durable sapphire window and is linked to the aircraft's integrated central computer through a high-speed fiber-optic interface.

The EOTS uses a staring mid-wave 3rd-generation forward-looking infrared that provides superior target detection and identification at greatly increased standoff ranges. EOTS also provides high-resolution imagery, automatic tracking, infrared search and track, laser designation and rangefinding and laser spot tracking. As the world’s first and only system that shares a Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod and IRST systems legacy, it provides high reliability and efficient two-level maintenance.

Internal mounted on Rotary Launcher Assembly

Each weapons bay is equipped with a rotary launcher and two bomb-rack assemblies. In tests, the FA-70 successfully released B-61  nuclear and mk84 conventional missiles an bombs  from the rotary rocket launcher, and  Aim-120  and aim 188 ADRAM conventional weapons from the missile an bomb racks. The B61-12 is an earth-penetrating nuclear bomb for use against deeply buried and hardened targets. The B61  is a strategic free-fall nuclear bomb.

                                                                 Rotary Launcher Assembly

                                                         weapons louds



PGU-23/U TP
PGU-20/U API
PGU-25/U HEI PGU-23/U TP
PGU-20/U API
PGU-25/U HEI PGU-23/U TP
PGU-20/U API
PGU-25/U HEI
Stations internal weapon bays
12 AIM-120C AMRAAM or
10 AIM-132 ASRAAM and

2 AGM-154 JSOW or
2 Brimstone or
2 GBU-12 Paveway LGB or
2 GBU-31/32/38 JDAM or
8 GBU-39 SDB or
2 CBU-87/89 CBU or
2 CBU-103/104/105 WCMD internal weapon bays
2 AIM-120C AMRAAM or
2 AIM-132 ASRAAM and

2 AGM-154 JSOW or
2 Brimstone or
2 GBU-12 Paveway LGB or
2 GBU-31/32/38 JDAM or
8 GBU-39 SDB or
2 CBU-87/89 CBU or
2 CBU-103/104/105 WCMD
12 AIM-120C AMRAAM or
12 AIM-132 ASRAAM and

5 AGM-154 JSOW or
6 Brimstone or
4GBU-12 Paveway LGB or
4 GBU-31/32/38 JDAM or
8 GBU-39 SDB or
12 CBU-87/89 CBU or
12 CBU-103/104/105 WCMD
2 under-wing missiles
4 AIM-9X Sidewinder or
4 AIM-120B/C AMRAAM 4 under-wing missiles
2 AIM-9X Sidewinder or
2 AIM-120B/C AMRAAM 4 under-wing missiles
2 AIM-9X Sidewinder or
2 AIM-120B/C AMRAAM
24  hardpoints
AGM-65 Maverick
AGM-88 HARM
AGM-158 JASSM
Storm Shadow
GBU-10/12/16/24 LGB
GBU-31 JDAM
Mk 82/83/84 GP
CBU-99/100 Rockeye II
transport pods 4 hardpoints
AGM-65 Maverick
AGM-88 HARM
AGM-158 JASSM
Storm Shadow
GBU-10/12/16/24 LGB
GBU-31 JDAM
Mk 82/83/84 GP
CBU-99/100 Rockeye II
transport pods 4 hardpoints
AGM-65 Maverick
AGM-88 HARM
AGM-158 JASSM
Storm Shadow
GBU-10/12/16/24 LGB
GBU-31 JDAM
Mk 82/83/84 GP
CBU-99/100 Rockeye II
transport pods


Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) is a future data waveform to provide secure data-linking technology between stealth aircraft. It began as a method to coordinate between F-35 aircraft (the Joint Strike Fighter), but HQ Air Combat Command wants to expand the capabiltiy to coordinate future USAF strike forces of all AF stealth aircraft, including the B-2, F-22, and unmanned systems. MADL is expected to provide needed throughput, latency, frequency-hopping and anti-jamming capability with phased Array Antenna Assemblies (AAAs) that send and receive tightly directed radio signals.[1] MADL uses the Ku band.

FA-70  EOTS

The Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics directed the Air Force and NaF-35 Lightning II EOTS
The Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS) is the world’s first and only sensor
that combines forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and infrared search and track (IRST)
functionality. It provides the Warfighter with an affordable, high-performance, lightweight,
multi-functional system for precision air-to-air and air-to-surface tracking in a compact
package. The pilot has access to high-resolution imagery, automatic tracking, IRST, laser
designation and rangefinding and laser spot tracking at greatly increased standof
f ranges.
Integrated into the F-35 Lightning II’s fuselage with a durable sapphire window, the
low-drag, stealthy EOTS is linked to the aircraft’s central computer through a high-speed
fiber-optic interfacevy to integrate MADL among the F-22, F-35 and B-2, to one another and to the rest of network.


Features
• Rugged, low-profile, faceted window for
supersonic, low-observable performance
• Compact single aperture design
• Lightweight (<200 lbs), including
window assembly
• Advanced, third-generation, focal plane
array
• Air-to-surface FLIR tracker and air-to-air
IRST modes
• Modular design for two-level
maintenance to reduce life cycle cost
• Automatic boresight and aircraft
alignment
• Tactical and eye-safe diode pumped laser
• Laser spot tracker
• Passive and active ranging
• Highly accurate geo-coordinate
generation to meet precision strike
requirements




The Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES) was designed to be rugged and lightweight compared to earlier systems. It also was designed to be easy to maintain and updatable. It includes the following features:

   Electronic Sequencing and timing
   Mortar-deployed main chute
   Auto sensing of egress conditions
   Parachute reefing to control opening at all speed ranges
   Multi-Mode operation for optimum recovery of the crewman

The ACES II is a third-generation seat, capable of ejecting a pilot from zero-zero conditions up to maximum altitude and airspeeds in the 600 KEAS range. The peak catapult accelleration is about 12gz. The ACES II has three main operating modes, one each for the low speed/low altitude, medium speed, and high speed/high altitude. In Mode 1, which includes 0-0 up to 250kts, the parachute is inflating in less than two seconds. In Mode 2 the chute is inflating in less than 6 seconds. Mode 2 is effective up to the maximum rated speed of the seat. Mode 3 deployment is delayed by the sequencer until the seat-man package reaches either Mode 2, or Mode 1 conditions, whichever comes first. Primarily, Mode 3 refers to operation above 15000 feet where separation from the seat would result in disconnection from the emergency oxygen, and also possible lead to more severe opening shock of the parachute due to differing atmospheric conditions.

Seat modes are selected by the sequencer based on atmospheric conditions, and the modes vary depending on differences in the conditions such as apparent airspeed and apparent altitude.

A light-weight crewman would reach an apogee of close to 200 feet if they ejected at ground level with zero airspeed. Typical performance is as follows:

Aircraft Attitude Velocity
Knots Altitude
Required
0-Deg Pitch, 60-Deg Roll* 120 0
0-Deg Pitch, 180-Deg Roll 150 150
0-Deg Pitch, 0-Deg Roll 150 116
10,000-FPM Sink Rate
-60-Deg Pitch, 0-Deg Roll 200 335
-30-Deg Pitch, 0-Deg Roll 450 497
-60-Deg Pitch, 60-Deg Roll 200 361
-45-Deg Pitch, 180-Deg Roll 250 467
* For this case, impact occurs at the instant the
seat and aircraft are separated. In all other cases,
conditions are at initiation of the catapult rocket.

The seat structure is primarily aluminum alloy stamp formed with ridges for structural strength. The box-like structure is refered to as a monocoque construction. The back section which is nominally 16 inches wide has a set of three rollers on each side which interface with the extruded aluminum rails in the cockpit. These rails are identical to the rails used for Escapac seats (also a Douglas Aircraft {McDonnell-Douglas} product). The seat bucket is wider with a maximum width of 20 inches. The seat itself weighs approximately 127 pounds in most versions, with the rocket-catapult weighing 21LBs. The propulsion is a CKU-5/A/A rocket-catapult which uses a conventional solid propellant catapult charge to start seat movement, and a solid-propellant rocket motor to sustain the movement. The rocket motor is ignited at the end of the catapult stroke as the seat leaves the aircraft. The rocket-catapult is attatched to the seat at the headrest end and to the cockpit at the base via a twin-barrel linear actuator which provides for seat height adjustment. The nominal adjustment range is +2.5-inch vertical adjustment. The actuator is attatched at the fixed base to the cockpit structure and at the upper end via twin screw barrels to the base of the rocket-catapult. I have recently recieved information that the CKU-5/A/A is being phased out and replaced with the more environmentally friendly propellent version known as the CKU-5/B.

Seat functions are normally activated by the Recovery Sequencing Subsytem which consists of the environmental sensing unit , and the recovery sequencing unit, an electronic box located inside the seat rear on the right hand side. The environmental sensing unit consists of two altitude compensated dynamic pressure transducers, and two static pressure transducers. The dynamic pressure sensors (pitot tubes) are located on or near the headrest and read the air pressure as the seat exits the aircraft. The pressure differential between them and the ambient (static) sensors behind the seat is compared by the recovery sequencing unit to determine what operating mode the sequencer should select. The sequencer is fully redundant with two thermal batteries, two electrical systems, and an individual bridge wire from each in each of the electro-explosive squibs. The thermal batteries are activated by hot gas bled off from the catapult firing. There is a small window on the right side of the seat back to check the batteries for signs that they have been fired.

Firing of the seat is normally by pulling one of the ejection control handles mounted on the seat bucket sides. (On ACES seats fitted to F-16s and F-22s the ejection control handle is located in the center of the front of the seat bucket) The side pull handles are mechanically linked so that raising one will lift the other as well. Raising the handles actuates a pair of initiators via mechanical linkages. See below for the basic sequence of events that follows. On the F-16 the center pull handle rotates a bellcrank to pull the pair of linkages visible in this picture to withdraw the sears from both initiators. This seat was fired, and the sears are seen dangling from the linkages. In the left of the picture is the spring which provides the resistance to the pull making it about a 40-50 lb pull. On the right side of the picture is the linkage from the safety handle which locks the bellcrank mechanism.


One particularly unique feature to the ACES II is the STAPAC package. STAPAC is a vernier rocket motor mounted under the seat near the rear. It is mounted on a tilt system controlled by a basic pitch-rate gyro system. This system is designed to help solve one of the great problems inherent to ejection seat systems. Center of mass/Center of gravity is extremely important in terms of keeping the thrust of the booster rocket from inducing a tumble. Rocket nozzles for the main boost of a seat are aligned to provide thrust through the nominal center of gravity of the seat-man package. The STAPAC provides a counter force to prevent extreme pitching in cases where the CG is off by up to +2 inches. This picture displays a F-16 ACES II from below. The STAPAC is visible as is the seat separation rocket on the left side. The seat is resting on its front and a pair of ground handling skids are mounted on the seat sides. The yellow flag is a safety pin preventing accidental firing of the STAPAC. The white colored lines are from the sequencer, and the twin firing initator cartridges are visible at the lower front with the black pyrotechnic lines leading from them.

Another unusual feature is related to the survival kit. In most ejection seats the survival kit is a rigid fiberglass box that makes up the seat inside the seat bucket. The ACES II survival kit is a soft pack that is stored under a fiberglass seat lid that is hinged at the front. When the pilot separates from the seat, the straps that connect him to the survival kit lift the seat lid up and forward. The seat kit then slips free from the rear end. The seat lid is latched in place normally, and released at seat separation when the Restraint Release Cartridge fires and rotates a bellcrank that releases the seat lid, shoulder harnesses, lap belt, and chute mortar disconnect. On the front of the seat bucket is a port that allows the crewmember to select the operation mode of the URT-33C survival beacon. The port also has a switch that allows the crewman to select automatic deployment of the seat kit, or manual deployment. For the URT-33C beacon, in the AUTO mode, the beacon would activate at man-seat separation. (For maintainance, a equipment release knob is located at the top rear of the right side of the seat bucket.)

The Inertia Reel Harness Assembly is located in the center of the seat back just below the headrest. The inertia reel fulfills two functions: (1) it acts like the shoulder belt in a car, restraining the pilot against a 2gx forward (-x) motion. (2) upon ejection, it retracts the pilot to an upright posture to minimize the possibility of spinal damage due to spinal misallignment upon catapult ignition. On the left side of the seat bucket there is a handle which allows the crew member to manually lock the reel prior to intense manuvers or landing to prevent possible injuries.

The Drogue System consists of a hemisflo chute, a small extraction chute, and the Drogue Mortar. The drogue mortar is fired in Mode 2 and Mode 3 to slow and stabilize the seat-man package. This is intended to prevent or limit the injuries to the crewmember as he/she is exposed to the windblast after exiting the aircraft. The mortar fires a 1.2 Lb slug of metal that draws the extraction chute out which by means of a lanyard deploys the drogue chute. The extraction chute is packed in a small wedge-shaped container on the upper left rear of the seat covered with metalized fabric. The lanyard is also covered in the metalized fabric. The drogue mortar is below this, and the drogue is packed in the metal covered box below this. The lid to the drogue is retained by a small plunger unit that is held in place by machining on the slug and released when the mortar fires. The drogue bridles are attached on either side of the seat. Many of these features are visible in this pictureThe bridles are wrapped around a set of rods and are cut by a set of pyrotechnic cutters when the sequencer determines that it is time to jettison the drogues prior to main chute deployment.


The seat is safed by means of a Safety Lever on the left side of the seat bucket which prevents the seat from being fired when the lever is in the up/forward position. When it is down/back flat against the side of the bucket, it allows the seat to be fired. The picture shows a F-16 handle in the Safe position. This picture shows a fired seat with the handle in the armed position. Note the firing handle is pulled out and resting on the seat cushion. The small tab on the handle engages a microswitch in the hole in the seat bucket side to electrically report to the aircraft the arming state of the seat.

The Emergency Manual Chute Handle is located on the right hand side of the seat bucket, and functions to fire the main chute mortar and initiate seat separation in case of failure of the electronic sequencer. Unlike other seats, the manual chute handle is inhibited in the aircraft and prevents the systems from functioning while the seat is still in the rails. In the event of ground egress, the crewman would have to unstrap the two shoulder harness connections, the two seat kit connections and the lap belt prior to egressing the aircraft. Given the 0-0 capability of the seat, in any case requiring extremely rapid egress, ejection would be a viable alternative. In early seats this function did not include the mortar cartridge and the handle was labled 'Restraint Emergency Release'. Pulling it would unlatch the same items, but relied on the pilot chute in the headrest to deploy the main parachute. The recommended procedure was to pull the handle with the right hand and push up on the pitot tube extensions with the left for more positive extension. On seats like the B-1B which had folding pitot tubes this was not an option, and the additional mortar cartridge was added. This picture shows both handles, the early one from a fired seat, the second from a live seat, showing the safety pin installation as well.


The emergency oxygen system consists of an oxygen bottle attached to the seat back, an automatic activation lanyard, and a manual pull ring (the green ring visible on the left hand seat pan side in this picture). As the seat rises up the rails, the lanyard activates the oxygen bottle and allows the crewman access to oxygen as long as he is still connected to the seat. During an in-flight emergency that does not require ejection, the oxygen bottle provides breathable air for enough time to return the aircraft to 10000 feet or below where the atmosphere is thick enough for the pilot to breath.

ACES II Event/Time Sequence
Typical Event Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
Rocket-Catapult Fires 0.0 0.0 0.0
Drogue Deploys Note 2 0.17 0.17
STAPAC Ignites 0.18 0.18 0.18
Parachute Deploys 0.20 1.17 Note 1
Drogue Releases from seat Note 2 1.32 Note 1
Seat Releases from Crewman 0.45 1.42 Note 1
Parachute Inflates 1.8 2.8 Note 1
Survival Kit Deploys 5.5 6.3 Note 1
Note 1: In Mode 3 the sequence delays until the conditions drop below the Mode 3 boundry, then the parachute deploys after a 1.0 second delay.
Note 2: Drogue Chute is not deployed in Mode 1 Ejections, but the drogue line cutters will fire to make sure.
Note 3: The info in this table is for the F-15/F-16/F-117. Other seats have slightly different timings.

ACES II Explosives
Mechanical and Electro-explosive
(2) JAU-8/A25 Ejection Initiatiors for the left and right ejection control handles.
(1) Inertia Reel Gas Initiator which provides ballistic pressure to propel grease into the inertia reel that locks the pilot back into the seat upon ejection.
(1) Pitch Stabilization and Control Assy (STAPAC) which includes a gas grain generator and a vernier rocket which is ignited by the #2 P-lead from the Recovery Sequencer. This STAPAC is used to stabilize and correct for the pitch axis of the seat during a MODE 1 (low and slow) ejection. The STAPAC fires in all modes of ejection.
(1) Drogue Gun Cartridge for the drogue gun. This cartridge fires the drogue gun which propels a 1.2 pound slug into the airstream and to deploy the extraction chute, and eventually the hemisflow drogue chute, to slow down and stabilize the ejection seat during a MODE 2 or 3 high speed ejection. This drogue gun is fired from electrical voltage provided to P-3 from the Recovery Sequencer.
(2) Mortar Disconnect Assy. Cartridges fired by the #4 P-lead (primary cartridge) and P-11 from the emergency power supply (secondary cartridge) that is used to propel and deploy the recovery parachute.
(2) Severance Cutters that is used to cut away the drogue chute in all three modes of recovery. (The drogue chute is not deployed in MODE 1 but the bridle lines are cut anyway by the sequencer. This simplifies the sequencer by not adding the additional function needed to prevent the cutters from firing.) The cutters are fired from the # 5 and 6 P-leads from the Recovery Sequencer.
(1) Restraint Release Cartridge that is connected to the P-7 lead from the Recovery Sequencer. This component, when fired, rotates the bellcrank down and releases the lap belts, inertia reel straps, seat pan latch, and primary mortar disconnect pin.
(1) Emergency Mortar Cartridge that is connected to the P-11 lead from the Recovery Sequencer. This is used to fire the main chute mortar either in the event of a failure (or suspected failure) of the sequencer separation, or in the event that the crewman determines that it is in his/her best interest to separate from the seat earlier than the sequencer would.
(2) Reefing Line Cutters attached to the recovery parachute that fires 1.15 seconds after the recovery parachute is deployed. This delays the full inflation of the chute so the pilot does not get ripped in two by a rapid deceleration after it is deployed. Pilots just hate when they get ripped in two.
The Trajectory Divergence Rocket separates the two seats from each other in two place aircraft such as the F-15E and F-16D after ejection. It also functions to add a roll impulse to the seat in Mode 1 ejections that provides for greater separation between the crewman and the seat. The Divergence rocket is fired by P-9 of the recovery sequencer. Single seat F-16s are also fitted with a TDR as shown in this picture.
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Northrop Lockheed B-3 XR

B-3 Long Range Strike Platform

Under current plans, the B-52, along with the younger B-1B Lancer and the new stealthy B-2 Spirit, will be kept around until approximately 2037, by which time the Air Force calculates that attrition will have reduced the fleet below the minimum 170 aircraft. The B-52s may fly to 2045.

Based on current operating procedures, attrition models, and service lives, the total bomber inventory is predicted to fall below the required 170 aircraft fleet by 2037. This date will become the target Initial Operational Capability (IOC) date for a follow-on to the current bomber capability, and an acquisition process can be planned by backing up from this date. Based on current projections for airframe economic service life and forecast mishap rate, initiating a replacement process no later than 2013 will ensure a capability to fill the long-range air power requirement as the current systems are retired. There are, however, additional concerns besides service life and mishap rates that could shift this replacement timeline. Changes in employment concepts, driven by technological advances in munitions and threats, or improvements in industry’s ability to perform cost effective major structural extensions could extend the today’s bomber force well beyond current projections. This may shift the acquisition timeline for a replacement capability further into the future.

The Light Bomber (Manned) concept calls for a medium-sized aircraft that blends the advantages of a tactical fighter with a strategic bomber to develop a medium/long range, high payload capability (inter-theater) affordable bomber. The aircraft will utilize some level of low-observable technology to obtain an effective yet affordable aircraft which can provide for multiple/heavy weapons carriage and launch for missions requiring real time decision making/replanning or autonomous operations. Cost would be controlled by utilizing off-the-shelf systems and affordable stealth technologies (JSF technology). Logistic support would be enhanced by maximizing commonality of support equipment with existing systems.

The Bomber Industrial Capabilities Study was directed by Congress, chartered by the DOD, and conducted by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC). The study concluded that building a new bomber type, a B-3, could easily cost in excess of $35 billion for research and development alone (with unit flyaway costs about the same as a B-2). Technology concepts from the USAF Scientific Advisory Board's (SAB) New World Vistas and technology concepts submitted for the 2025 Study were reviewed and concepts harvested from these efforts included the Future Attack Aircraft. This concept envisions a 500-nm-range manned or unmanned aircraft that would use stealth technology (both RF and IR) to reach a target and employ laser or high-power microwave (HPM) weapons. An unmanned aircraft with a "tunable" HPM weapon could provide either the nonlethal or lethal punch SAF needs in the constabulary mission.

Two concepts under consideration by Air Force Materiel Command included:

* Multi-mission - Manned, multi-role capability, radius > 450+ range (hi-med-hi), Payload??, medium threat, Unit Flyaway Price (UFP) <$75M (BY00) Number of Concepts Scored: 3 (‘96); 1 (‘97); 1 (‘98)
* 10.2 Deep Strike - Manned, 1000NM < radius < 2000NM, 12-24 klbs, high-med-high or hi-lo-hi, med-high threat, $50M < UFP < $250M (BY00)

A 1999 RAND Corporation study articulated a rationale for acquiring a Mach 2 supersonic bomber with the following characteristics

* unrefueled range of 3,250 nmi
* weight of 290,000 to 350,000 pounds each
* payload of 15,000 to 20,000 pounds
* support of 37 to 40 percent of the current USAF tanker fleet and 100 air superiority fighters.

The Mach 2 bomber could attack targets almost anywhere in the world while operating from well-protected, permanent bases on US and UK territory. A total inventory of approximately 80 to 105 of these Mach 2 bombers could deliver enough PGMs (about 560 tons per day) to replicate the USAF Desert Storm effort.
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