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FDR, arguable one of the best presidents of all time. Known for his program "The New Deal" and other such accomplishments, what is not not known is his many victories in battle against many different types of enemies. FDR possessed great power and technology as can be seen from his transforming wheel chair in which he slayed many foes.

Get a print high quality11x17 print of this here-->[link]
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In 1752 before Ben Franklin invented Pizza, Gameboy, the iPad2 or Mexican food he was contemplating how to conquer electricity. Being the genius he was he decided go get it at its source, this being Zeus. Strapping himself to a kite, and equipping some homemade lightning claws he ascended through the clouds and into the realm of the Gods to battle it out with Zeus. This is a painting capturing the exact moment the battle started.


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Buy an 11"x17" print of this awesome, and truly patriotic image above, you will support me creating future pieces in the future and you will be also supporting my beer fund and my liver thanks you.



He's one of America's most bad-ass presidents....Teddy Roosevelt. Not only did Teddy Roosevelt give a speech with a bullet in his chest, but what many people don't know is he slaughtered many bigfoot in his time...this is a picture of one of those events.

Jimmy Johns
Fubar, Fubar 2
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The Consolidated B-24 Liberator entered service in 1941 with the USAAF. It was a four-engined heavy bomber which was widely used during WW2 by the RAF, RAAF, and SAAF and many others.

The Liberator was more modern than the Fortress and outperformed it in many areas except the crucial problem of withstanding battle damage. It was however an outstanding production success with over 18,000 built and used in all theatres of the war.

The Liberator (B-24J) was armed with 10 x 12.7mm machine guns and carried a 8,000 lb bomb load for short range missions.

This example is a B-24J of the 44th Bomb Group USAAF circa 1944.
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The Messerschmitt Bf-110 was a heavy fighter which entered service with the Luftwaffe in 1937. It was initially successful, but heavy losses against more agile fighters led to it being switched to night fighter duty.

The Bf-110 was also adapted for ground attack, both as a fighter-bomber, and tank-buster, but it was the night-fighter version that was most used. It was also used by the air forces of Hungary, Italy, and Romania.

The Bf-110C was armed with 4 x 7.92mm machine guns and 2 x 20mm cannon, with a further 7.92mm machine gun for defence.

This example is a Bf-110C of 2/NJG4 Luftwaffe, circa 1942.
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The Supermarine Spitfire entered service in WW2 and become one of the best known and iconic aircraft of the time. In total there were 24 Marks of Spitfire produced, and many 'sub variants' within those versions. It was used by almost every Allied Air Force, and continued in service well after the war with countries such as Burma, Denmark, Egypt, and Israel.

Various wing types were introduced from the Mark 5 onwards including a 'universal' C wing which could have different gun fittings.

The 'A' Wing had 8 x 7.7mm machine guns.
The 'B' Wing had 4 x 7.7mm machine guns and 2 x 20mm cannon.
The 'C' Wing had 4 x 7.7mm machine guns and 2 x 20mm cannon or 4 x 20mm cannon.
The 'E' Wing had 2 x 12.7mm machine guns and 2 x 20mm cannon.

There were also 'LF' and 'HF' wings on some Marks which were specialised Low Altitude (clipped) or High Altitude (extended) wings.

The Spitfire Mark I had a 1,030 hp Rolls-Royce Merlin engine and could reach 350 mph.
The Spitfire F Mark 22 had a 2,035 hp Rolls-Royce Griffon engine and could reach 450 mph.

This example is a Mark VIII of 457 Squadron RAAF, circa 1944.
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Cryptid 024, The Wendego

A.K.A. Witigo, Witiko and Wee-Tee-Go

Location: Northern United States and Canada

Type: Hairy Humanoid

Evidence: Scattered Sightings, some dating back hundreds of years

Possible Population size: Indistinguisable.

My thoughts and theories:
Considered by many modern paranormal researchers to be an alternate (or regional) name for the more traditional hairy-hominid known as Sasquatch, the Wendigo is considered by most Native American tribes (particularly the Inuits) to be another - and infinitely more dangerous - breed of beast altogether.
Known to different North American tribal groups by the names Witigo, Witiko and Wee-Tee-Go, this animal is almost universally described as being a lanky, 15-foot tall, beast-like phantasm, with glowing eyes, long, yellowed canine teeth, and a hyper-extended tongue. This quasi-animal is almost always depicted with a coat of matted fur, but there are some eyewitness accounts which insist that the creature is hairless and covered with a sallow, jaundiced skin. Based upon these descriptions it is not surprising that this being has inspired terror in all who have encountered it.
Achieving international acclaim in Algernon Blackwood's 1907 short story called "The Wendigo", legends of this animal date back for centuries, and have almost always been associated with the act of cannibalism. In fact, one persistent tale details the Wendingo's origin as being that of a human who was forced to resort to consuming his peers (no doubt in an unfortunate Donner Party-esque situation) in order to survive a particularly brutal Canadian winter.
The sole survivor of this ordeal was corrupted by his actions and possessed by evil spirits who transformed him into this hideous monstrosity. The legend insists that all those who have participated in the act of cannibalism (even in order to survive) risk the chance that they themselves may be transformed into a member of this bloodthirsty, half-corporeal, species.
Legends such as these have persisted (especially in northern Ontario) even into the 20th century, assuming almost the same position that Werewolves once dominated in Europe throughout the middle ages. There is even one intriguing case which hails from October of 1907 (a popular year for the Wendingo), which involved a Cree man named Jack Fiddler, who had claimed to have killed 14 of these monsters during his lifetime.
The story garnered international attention when the then 87 year-old men was sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of a Cree woman, whom he claimed was on the verge of transforming completely into a ravenous member of the Wendingo clan. Neither Fiddler, nor his son Joseph, hesitated in pleading guilty to the crime, but both insisted that their decisive action averted what could have quickly become a profound tragedy for the other members of their tribe. Until the end of his days this Native American "Van Helsing" held true to his conviction that the sacrifice he and his son had made was indeed a noble one.
Closing statement: Although the creature seems to mostly exist in legend with little to no proof of it's existance, I've always been told that there is a little truth to every tall tale. This one in particular may be easily be denounced as someone retelling his whitness to the ghoulish sight one might find when stumbling across an individual enguageing in the act of cannibalism. Possibly, a lone man with weeks of hair growth, driven insane by his deeds, perched over the remains of peers and growling like an animal might very much so look more monster than human to us. On the other hand, with so much of the Canadian fronteer unexplored, it is also possible that a horrific creature like the Wendego may exist. Even our own bodies could hide ressive geans that, when triggered could revert us back to a more primal state.
After all, every culture around the world has at least one legend revolving around humans acheving in-human transformation.
File End.
Cryptid Files: [link]
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Cryptid 035 Kongamato

Location: Jiundu Country, Central Africa

Type: Living Fossil

Evidence: Sightings by credable sorces and tribesmen alike.

Possible Population size: Unknown

Some 65 million years ago, starting in the Jurassic and lasting into the Cretaceous, there existed a powerful flying reptile known as the Pterosaurs. The majority of fossils found have been in marine deposits, which means they probably were fish eaters and spent most of their time over coastal waters. These Pterosaurs apparently managed to fly with no feathers, their main aerodynamic feature where wings of membrane supported by an enormously elongated fourth finger. They had hollow limb bones and a large keeled breastbone attached to strong wing muscles which where needed for true flight, not just gliding.
The large expenditure of energy required to remain in flight for long periods of time, and the resulting loss of heat caused by the surface of their wings exposed to moving air, means that they must have had some method of regulating body heat, although it is doubtful they were truly warm blooded as mammals are. The majority of the Pterosaurs species where anywhere from the size of a sparrow to the size of an eagle, however some larger species have been discovered. The Pteranodon with a wingspan of 27 ft. and the colossal Quetzalcoatlus, with a wingspan of 50 ft, possibly 60 ft. are two examples of these larger species. Some pterosaurs even had fur, although they are in now way related to mammals. It would seem impossible that these creatures could have survived to the present day. After all, if they existed surely people would see them flying about as they hunted for food. How could a flying population of reptiles remain hidden? There are reports that people have been seeing flying creatures that match the description of pterosaurs for a hundreds of years. People have even been reportedly killed by these ancient flying creatures.
In 1923 a traveler by the name of Frank H. Melland worked for a time in Zambia. He gathered native reports of ferocious flying reptiles. The natives called this creature Kongamato which translated into “overwhelmer of boats". The Kongamato was said to have lived in the Jiundu swamps in the Mwinilunga District of western Zambia, near the border of Congo and Angola. It was described as having no feathers, smooth black or red skin, a wingspan between 4 ft. and 7 ft., and possessing a beak full of teeth.
It had a reputation for capsizing canoes and causing death to anyone who merely looked at it. When showed drawings of pterosaurs the native people present immediately and unhesitatingly picked it out and identified it as a Kongamato. Among the natives who did so was a rather wild and quite unsophisticated headman from the Jiundu country, where the Kongamato is supposed to be most active.
In 1925, a distinguished English newspaper correspondent, G. Ward Price, was with the future Duke of Windsor on an official visit to Rhodesia. He reported a story that a civil servant told them of the wounding of a man who entered a feared swamp in Rhodesia known to be the home of demons. The brave native entered the swamp, determined to explore it in spite of the dangers. When he returned he was on the verge of death from a great wound in his chest. He recounted how a strange huge bird with a long beak attacked him. When the civil servant showed the man a picture of a pterosaur, from a book of prehistoric animals, the man screamed in terror and fled from the servant's home
In 1942 Colonel C. R. S. Pitman reported stories the natives told him of a large bat - bird like creature that lived the dense swampy regions of Northern Rhodesia, now Zambia. Tracks of the creatures were seen, with evidence of a large tail dragging the ground. These reports were not limited to Zambia, but also came from other locations in Africa such as Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya. Skeptics suggest that these fantastic sounding tales derived from the fanciful imaginations of natives who were hired to work on archeological digs where fossilized pterosaurs were uncovered in Tendagaru, Tanzania, in the years prior to World War I. These digs, however, took place over 900 miles from Zambia. Why did no reports of living pterosaurs come from Tanzania, where these imaginative natives lived?
Perhaps the most striking report of living pterosaurs comes not from natives, but from white explorers in the employment of the British Museum. In 1932 through 1933 the Percy Sladen Expedition ventured deep into West Africa. In charge of the team was Ivan T. Sanderson, a well-known zoologist and writer. While in the Assumbo Mountains in the Cameroons, they made camp in a wooded valley near a steep banked river. They were out hunting near the river when Sanderson shot a large fruit-eating bat. Upon being shot the creature fell into the swift moving river below, as Sanderson was carefully making his way in the fast moving current, he lost his balance and fell in. He had just regained his balance when his companion suddenly shouted "Look out!"
"And I looked. Then I let out a shout also and instantly bobbed down under the water, because, coming straight at me only a few feet above the water was a black thing the size of an eagle. I had only a glimpse of its face, yet that was quite sufficient, for its lower jaw hung open and bore a semicircle of pointed white teeth set about their own width apart from each other. When I emerged, it was gone. George was facing the other way blazing off his second barrel.
I arrived dripping on my rock and we looked at each other. "Will it come back?" we chorused. And just before it became too dark to see, it came again, hurtling back down the river, its teeth chattering, the air "shss-shssing" as it was cleft by the great, black, dracula-like wings. We were both off-guard, my gun was unloaded, and the brute made straight for George. He ducked. The animal soared over him and was at once swallowed up in the night."
When Sanderson and George returned to camp they asked the natives about the creature. Sanderson asked them, spreading his arms, what kind of bat is this large and is all black? "Olitiau!" was the response. The natives asked Sanderson where they had seen this creature, to which Sanderson pointed back at the river. The natives fled in terror in the opposite direction, taking only their guns and leaving their valuables behind.
In 1956 in Zambia along the Luapula River, engineer J.P.F. Brown was driving back to Salisbury from a visit to Kasenga in Zaire. He stopped at a location called Fort Rosebery, just to the west of Lake Bangweulu, for a break. It was about 6:00 p.m. when he saw two creatures flying slowly and silently directly overhead. Bewildered he observed that these creatures looked prehistoric. He estimated a wingspan of about 3-3 1/2 feet, a long thin tail, and a narrow head, which he likened to an elongated snout of a dog. One of them opened its mouth in which he saw a large number of pointed teeth. He gave the beak to tail length at about 4 1/2 feet.
In 1957, at a hospital at Fort Rosebery, the same location J. P. F. Brown had reported seeing strange flying creatures the year before, a patient came in with a severe wound in his chest. The doctor asked him what had happened and the native claimed that a great bird had attacked him in the Bangweulu Swamps. When asked to sketch the bird, the native drew a picture of a creature that resembled a pterosaur.
The most recent sighting was in 1988. Professor Roy Mackal led an expedition to Namibia where reports of a creature with a wingspan of up to 30 ft were collected. The avian cryptid usually glided through the air, but also was capable of true flight. It was usually seen at dusk, gliding between crevices between two hills about a mile apart. Although the expedition was not successful in getting solid evidence, one team member, James Kosi, reportedly saw the creature from about 1000 ft. away. He described it as a giant glider shape, black with white markings.
But could ancient prehistoric flying reptiles thought to have died out 65 million years ago still be roaming the dense swampy areas and hot desert mountain regions of Africa, or could there be a simpler explanation for these sightings. There are two species of birds that live in the swampy areas of Zambia that could possibly be mistaken for some kind of prehistoric apparition, especially under low light conditions or at nighttime. The shoebill stork is a dark colored bird with an 8 ft. wingspan and a decidedly prehistoric appearance. They have become rare, and can only be found in the deep recesses of swamps in Zambia and neighboring countries. However, there is no evidence of the shoebill behaving aggressively towards humans, and in fact they try to avoid humans as much as possible.
They have large bills, but they are not pointed, and they do not have teeth, in fact no known bird living today has real teeth. Another odd-looking bird that lives in the area is the saddle billed stork. These rather beautiful birds have a wingspan of up to 8½ feet, a long bright red bill with a horizontal black stripe ¾ up from the tip and with a yellow blaze from the eyes down and into the stripe, with additional orange stripes on the sides of the head. Their overall coloration is black and white with a black head, featherless red feet, and a beak that is long and pointed. Although it would be difficult to confuse this bird with a featherless, monotone colored pterosaur, its beak is similar.
It also is not beyond the realm of possibility that perhaps a deranged, sick, threatened, or confused saddle-billed stork could attack a human and plunge its beak into a man's chest. Both of these candidates are rather poor substitutes for pterosaurs, although they probably do account for some of the reports. Many of the natives are very superstitious, and fervently believe in the stories of monsters in the swamps waiting to attack intruders. It is not difficult to imagine that a quick flyby of one of these large birds in the dark could send one running back to camp with a story of a near miss by a flying demon.
Whether the reports are of actual sightings of pterosaur related creatures, or if it they represent some unknown huge sort of bat or bird, perhaps time will tell. Of all the remote, inaccessible locations in the world where unknown creatures could still exist, probably the best candidates would have to be the deep enormous swamps in Africa. These swamps are so overgrown with vines and undergrowth that human travel is next to impossible. In addition, the ground is often so soft that humans could not even stand without sinking, and the many rivers and waterlogged areas block many avenues of penetration. Vicious insects and other critters that can cause sickness from disease or death from venom accompany the hostile terrain.
The area is racked with political instability, patrolled by guerillas and armed bandits with little respect for non-native intruders, which provides a powerful disincentive to would-be explorers. Over flights by aircraft are ineffective since the treetops are so thick in the deep swamps that little or nothing can been seen underneath. Africa is hiding its secrets well. If there are living dinosaurs alive today, these dense over grown swampy areas of Africa are a prime candidate for harboring them.

Closing statement:
Despite many sightings by credible eye-witnesses the Kongamato has left behind no physical evidence to prove that it actually exists. Natives, close to death after a run in with the creature, do not prove anything other than an attack of some kind did happen. As with the majority of crypid it will take a body, alive or dead, to prove to the world that the Kongamato exists in reality not in just myth and legend.

Cryptid Files: [link]
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Cryptid 009 Lizard Men

Location: World Wide

Type: Humanoid Hybrid

Evidence: Beyond eyewitness sightings, there remains little to no physical evidence of the creature’s existence.

Possible Population size: Unknown

The Term Lizard Men is not specific to one specific cryptid; instead it is used to describe a broad spectrum of bipedal hominid like lizard men, sometimes referred to as Homo-subterreptus. Sightings of Lizard Men are reported all over the globe, including the Intulo of South Africa, the South Carolina Lizard Man, the New Jersey Gator Man and the Loveland Frogmen of Ohio.
Out of all of the many lizard men stories, one of the most well known is the story of the South Carolina lizard man. Native Americans that called the Carolinas home used to talk about a race or lizard or fish men who lived in the area they called the Inzignanin. Reports by modern man of the South Carolina Lizard Man started around 1972, however the first official documented sighting on the creature occurred on June 29th 1988. The encounter took place on a back woods road near Scape Ore Swamp, outside of Bishopville, South Carolina at around 2 a.m. 17 year old Christopher Davis had just finished changing his flat tire, while putting the jack into the trunk of his car Davis reported the following encounter:
“I looked back and saw something running across the field towards me. It was about 25 yards away and I saw red eyes glowing. I ran into the car and as I locked it, the thing grabbed the door handle. I could see him from the neck down; it had three big fingers, long black nails and green rough skin. It was strong and angry. I looked in my mirror and saw a blur of green running. I could see his toes and then he jumped on the roof of my car. I thought I heard a grunt and then I could see his fingers through the front windshield, where they curled around on the roof. I sped up and swerved to shake the creature off.”
The creature eventually lost its grip and was flung off the rooftop and onto the side of the road. Understandable Davis did not turn back to assess the well being of the beast but upon making it home he noticed that his side view mirror and roof top suffered considerable damage. Throughout what remained of that year, numerous witnesses came forth with their own frightening tales of the aggressive creature and several strange 3 toe foot prints where cast in the area. The latest encounter with the South Carolina Lizard Man occurred in 2004 when it reportedly tried to pull a young girl into the river she was walking by.

Not much is known about the Intulo of South Africa, thought to dwell in the province of KwaZulu Natal this so called “lizard man” is described as mostly reptilian with human characteristics. This description of the Intulo is similar to other so called “New World Lizard Men” like the Gator Man of the American South East, the New Jersey Gator Man and the Lizard Man of South Carolina. There are some researchers who believe that the Intulo is a form of primate with reptilian like features, a description which matches some accounts of the Honey Island Swamp Monster. The Intulo is also a “Lizard Man” like creature in both Xosa and Zulu Mythology.
Sightings of the Intulo have only taken place in the KwaZulu Natal region of South Africa; at least the ones that have been brought forward. Most translations state that the sightings are referred to in past tense meaning that modern day stories may be describing older tales but other argue this is not true. Very little is known about these creatures and few modern day sightings on the Intulo exist.

Closing Statement:
Many theories have been presented in relation to the identity of the Lizard men, theories such as Aliens, Living Dinosaurs, and even off shoots of evolution in which the reptilian hierarchy continued to evolve along the same path as early primates. At one point in time reptiles ruled the earth, it is not out of the realm of possibility that the most dominate species on the planet could continue to evolve in small numbers unseen by mankind. Although no reptilian species known to man have shown signs of such advanced evolution, the reptile is the oldest and most successful species on the plant and could hold secrets that have yet come to light.
Another theory in regards to lizard men is that they may be reptilian aliens. Many UFO and alien abduction cases have made note of aliens being reptile like and since have been declared "reptilians". Many cryptozoology related reptilian sightings may have a tie to the possible alien race. Although this theory tends to loose credibility when various conspiricy theories are shoehorned into the mix.

Cryptid Files: [link]
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SO...anyone else see the trailer for JW...cause this is all I could see throughout the WHOLE TRAILER!!
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"The Second Lunch"

"Ciro" - Scipionyx samniticus eating its second prey,
a Derasmosaurus.

acrylics by brush and airbrush on cardboard

8,4 x 11,88 inches / 21 x 29,7 cm

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Superorder: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
(unranked): Coelurosauria
Genus: Scipionyx
dal Sasso & Signore, 1998
S. samniticus dal Sasso & Signore, 1998

Scipionyx is a very small genus of theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Italy, around 113 million years ago. There has been only one skeleton discovered, which is notable for the preservation of soft tissue and internal organs. It is the fossil of a juvenile only a few inches long. Adult size is estimated to be 2 metres (approx. 6 feet). The name Scipionyx comes from the Latin word Scipio and the Greek onyx, meaning "Scipio's claw", and for Scipione Breislak, the geologist who wrote the first description of the formation in which the fossil was found. The specific name samniticus means "From the Samnium", the Latin name of the region around Pietraroja. The specimen is also popularly nicknamed "Skippy, or "Doggy"
Scipionyx was discovered in the spring of 1981 by Giovanni Todesco, an amateur paleontologist, near Pietraroja, approximately 50 kilometers from Naples. The fossils were preserved in the Pietraroia limestone formation, well known for unusually well-preserved fossils. Todesco thought the remains belonged to that of a fossil bird. Unaware of the importance of his findings, he kept the strange fossil in the basement of his house until 1992 when he met two paleontologists, Cristiano dal Sasso of the Natural History Museum of Milan and Marco Signore of the University of Naples Federico II, who identified it as the first Italian dinosaur. The magazine Oggi gave the tiny dinosaur the nickname Ciro, a typical Neapolitan name. In 1998, Scipionyx made the front cover of Nature.

Scipionyx is classified as a coelurosaurian theropod. Because the only remains recovered belong to that of a juvenile, it has not been possible to assign this dinosaur to a more specific group. Coelurosaur characteristics included a sacrum (a series of vertebrae that attach to the hips) longer than in other dinosaurs, a tail stiffened towards the tip, and a bowed ulna (lower arm bone). The tibia (lower leg bone) is also characteristically longer than the femur (upper leg bone) in coelurosaurs. Fossil evidence indicates that most coelurosaurs were probably feathered.
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realized for a 30 cm large tatoo

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Superorder: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea
Family: Tyrannosauridae
Subfamily: Tyrannosaurinae
Genus: Tyrannosaurus
Osborn, 1905
T. rex (type)
Osborn, 1905
Cope, 1892
Osborn, 1905
Bakker, Williams & Currie, 1988
Olshevsky, 1995
Olshevsky, 1995
Tyrannosaurus (pronounced /tɨˌrænəˈsɔːrəs/ or /taɪˌrænoʊˈsɔːrəs/, meaning 'tyrant lizard';) is a genus of theropod dinosaur. The famous species Tyrannosaurus rex ('rex' meaning 'king' in Latin), commonly abbreviated to T. rex, is a fixture in popular culture around the world. It lived throughout what is now western North America, with a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils of T. rex are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the last three million years of the Cretaceous Period, approximately 68 to 65 million years ago; it was among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist prior to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event.
Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a bipedal carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail. Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, Tyrannosaurus forelimbs were small, though unusually powerful for their size, and bore two primary digits, along with a possible third vestigial digit. Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded T. rex in size, it was the largest known tyrannosaurid and one of the largest known land predators, measuring up to 13 metres (43 ft) in length,[1] up to 4 metres (13 ft) tall at the hips,[2] and up to 6.8 metric tons (7.5 short tons) in weight.[3] By far the largest carnivore in its environment, T. rex may have been an apex predator, preying upon hadrosaurs and ceratopsians, although some experts have suggested it was primarily a scavenger.
More than 30 specimens of T. rex have been identified, some of which are nearly complete skeletons. Soft tissue and proteins have been reported in at least one of these specimens. The abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including life history and biomechanics. The feeding habits, physiology and potential speed of T. rex are a few subjects of debate. Its taxonomy is also controversial, with some scientists considering Tarbosaurus bataar from Asia to represent a second species of Tyrannosaurus and others maintaining Tarbosaurus as a separate genus. Several other genera of North American tyrannosaurids have also been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus.
Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the largest land carnivores of all time; the largest complete specimen, FMNH PR2081 ("Sue"), measured 12.8 metres (42 ft) long, and was 4.0 metres (13 ft) tall at the hips.[2] Mass estimates have varied widely over the years, from more than 7.2 metric tons (7.9 short tons),[4] to less than 4.5 metric tons (5.0 short tons),[5][6] with most modern estimates ranging between 5.4 and 6.8 metric tons (6.0 and 7.5 short tons).[7][8][9][3] Although Tyrannosaurus rex was larger than the well known Jurassic theropod Allosaurus, it was slightly smaller than Cretaceous carnivores Spinosaurus and Giganotosaurus.[10][11]
The neck of T. rex formed a natural S-shaped curve like that of other theropods, but was short and muscular to support the massive head. The forelimbs were long thought to bear only two digits, but there is an unpublished report of a third, vestigial digit in one specimen.[12] In contrast the hind limbs were among the longest in proportion to body size of any theropod. The tail was heavy and long, sometimes containing over forty vertebrae, in order to balance the massive head and torso. To compensate for the immense bulk of the animal, many bones throughout the skeleton were hollow, reducing its weight without significant loss of strength.[1]
The largest known T. rex skulls measure up to 5 feet (1.5 m) in length.[13] Large fenestrae (openings) in the skull reduced weight and provided areas for muscle attachment, as in all carnivorous theropods. But in other respects Tyrannosaurus’ skull was significantly different from those of large non-tyrannosauroid theropods. It was extremely wide at the rear but had a narrow snout, allowing unusually good binocular vision.[14][15] The skull bones were massive and the nasals and some other bones were fused, preventing movement between them; but many were pneumatized (contained a "honeycomb" of tiny air spaces) which may have made the bones more flexible as well as lighter. These and other skull-strengthening features are part of the tyrannosaurid trend towards an increasingly powerful bite, which easily surpassed that of all non-tyrannosaurids.[16][17][18] The tip of the upper jaw was U-shaped (most non-tyrannosauroid carnivores had V-shaped upper jaws), which increased the amount of tissue and bone a tyrannosaur could rip out with one bite, although it also increased the stresses on the front teeth.[19][20]

Life restoration of a Tyrannosaurus rex.
The teeth of T. rex displayed marked heterodonty (differences in shape).[21][1] The premaxillary teeth at the front of the upper jaw were closely packed, D-shaped in cross-section, had reinforcing ridges on the rear surface, were incisiform (their tips were chisel-like blades) and curved backwards. The D-shaped cross-section, reinforcing ridges and backwards curve reduced the risk that the teeth would snap when Tyrannosaurus bit and pulled. The remaining teeth were robust, like "lethal bananas" rather than daggers; more widely spaced and also had reinforcing ridges.[22] Those in the upper jaw were larger than those in all but the rear of the lower jaw. The largest found so far is estimated to have been 30 centimetres (12 in) long including the root when the animal was alive, making it the largest tooth of any carnivorous dinosaur.
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really old piece of Fabio pastori paleoart
ecoline with airbrush on card board

Marine Reptiles
Rulers of the acient seas

During the Mesozoicperiod when dinosaurs ruled life on land, sea reptiles were the absolute rulers of the seas and oceans. Some of these animals were 14 meters in length Plesiosaurs appeared during the Triassic, later they split up into two superfamilies, the Plesiosauroidae that looked liked dolfines with lang necks en snakelike heads, and the Pliosauroidae with there stubby body's, short necks en crocodile-like heads.

Both superfamilies lived troughout the Mesozoic period. Plesiosaurs are from origin landanimals, which adapted to live in the sea, there legs changhed in to swimmingpeddals and instead of five they developed ten finger- and toobones. They moved trough the water by flapping there peddals up and down, so it looked as if they flew trough the water as birds .

The pelvis and shoulderbones were deformed to massive boneplates, a unique characteristic for plesiosaurs. Ichtyosaurs were the highest specialised marine reptiles of there time, they were verry similar to modern dolphins. Thanks to their build they could swim with a speed of 40 km/h. Ichtyosaurs used tunlike the plesiosaurs their tail fin for movement.

They were so adapted to water that they couldn't go on shore anymore. Ichthyosaurs were viviparous animals and they lived for more then 100 milion years on earth. The earliest fossil records of ichthyosaurs are dated from the Early Triassic and the latest from the Middle Cretaceous, the greatest diversity among these animals appeared during the Jurassic.

Mosasaurs were flesh eating land animals that returned to sea to take over the gape that the ichthyosaurs left after they disappeared. They quickly spread and evolved into twenty different families with more than seventy genera.

There lifespan was a relatively short one, twenty-five million years after their entrance and even before the end of the Cretaceous they were already disappeared from the Earth leaving their place to marine mammals.
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P-38 Lightning

Type Heavy fighter
Manufacturer Lockheed
Designed by Kelly Johnson
Maiden flight 27 January 1939
Introduction 1941
Retired 1949
Primary user United States Army Air Force
Produced 1941–45
Number built 10,037[1]
Unit cost US$ 97,147 in 1944[2]

The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was a World War II American fighter aircraft. Developed to a United States Army Air Corps requirement, the P-38 had distinctive twin booms and a single, central nacelle containing the cockpit and armament. The aircraft was used in a number of different roles, including dive bombing, level bombing, ground strafing, photo reconnaissance missions,[3] and extensively as a long-range escort fighter when equipped with droppable fuel tanks under its wings. The P-38 was used most extensively and successfully in the Pacific Theater of Operations and the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations, where it was flown by the American pilots with the highest number of aerial victories to this date. America's top ace Richard Bong earned 40 victories (in a Lightning he called Marge), and Thomas McGuire (in Pudgy) scored 38. In the South West Pacific theater, it was a primary fighter of United States Army Air Forces until the appearance of large numbers of P-51D Mustangs toward the end of the war.[4][5]

The P-38 was the only American fighter aircraft in active production throughout the duration of American involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to VJ Day.

Design and development
Lockheed YP-38 (1943)
Lockheed YP-38 (1943)

Lockheed designed the P-38 in response to the 1937 United States Army Air Corps Circular Proposal X-608 request for a high-altitude interceptor aircraft having "the tactical mission of interception and attack of hostile aircraft at high altitude". Specifications called for a maximum airspeed of at least 360 miles per hour (580 km/h) at altitude, and a climb to 20,000 feet (6100m) within 6 minutes;[6] the toughest set of specifications USAAC had presented to that date. The Bell P-39 Airacobra and the Curtiss P-40 Warhawk were designed to the same requirement, as was the unbuilt Vultee XP1015.

The Lockheed design team, under the direction of Hall Hibbard and “Kelly” Johnson, considered a range of configurations.[7] All options considered by Lockheed were twin-engined, as it was judged that no single available engine was powerful enough to be able to meet the USAAC's requirements. (Engine development during World War II subsequently saw an approximate doubling of fighter engine horsepower, allowing many later single engine designs to achieve 400+ mph.)

The eventual design was somewhat unique in comparison to existing fighter aircraft. The Lockheed team chose twin booms to accommodate the tail assembly, engines and turbo superchargers, with a central nacelle for the pilot and armament. The nose was designed to carry two Browning .50" (12.7 mm) machine guns with 200 rounds per gun, two .30" (7.62 mm) Brownings with 500 rounds per gun, and an Oldsmobile 37 mm cannon with 15 rounds. Clustering all the armament in the nose was unlike most other U.S. aircraft, which used wing-mounted guns where the trajectories were set up to crisscross at one or more points in a "convergence zone". The nose-mounted guns did not suffer from having their useful ranges limited by pattern convergence, meaning good pilots could shoot much farther. A Lightning could reliably hit targets at any range up to 1,000 yards (910 m), whereas other fighters had to pick a single convergence range between 100 and 250 yards (230 m). The clustered weapons had a "buzz saw" effect on the receiving end, making the aircraft effective for strafing as well.

The Lockheed design incorporated tricycle undercarriage and a bubble canopy, and featured two 1000 hp (746 kW) turbo-supercharged 12-cylinder Allison V-1710 engines fitted with counter-rotating propellers to eliminate the effect of engine torque, with the superchargers positioned behind the engines in the booms.[8] It was the first American fighter to make extensive use of stainless steel and smooth, flush-riveted butt-jointed aluminum skin panels. It was the first fighter faster than 400 mph (640 km/h).

Lockheed won the competition on 23 June 1937 with its Model 22, and was contracted to build a prototype XP-38[9] for US$163,000,[2] though Lockheed's own costs on the prototype would add up to US$761,000.[10] Construction began in July 1938 and the XP-38 first flew on 27 January 1939.[11] The 11 February 1939 flight to relocate the aircraft for testing at Wright Field was extended by General Henry "Hap" Arnold, commander of the USAAC, to demonstrate the performance of the aircraft. It set a cross-continent speed record by flying from California to New York in seven hours and two minutes,[8] but landed short of the Mitchel Field runway in Hempstead, New York, and was wrecked. However, on the basis of the record flight, the Air Corps ordered 13 YP-38s on 27 April 1939 for US$134,284 apiece.[12][1] (The initial "Y" in "YP" was the USAAC's designation for service test aircraft, the "X" in "XP" was for "experimental".)
Mechanized P-38 conveyor lines.
Mechanized P-38 conveyor lines.

Manufacture of the YP-38s fell behind schedule, at least partly due to the need for mass-production suitability making them substantially different in construction than the prototype. Another factor was the sudden required facility expansion of Lockheed in Burbank, taking it from a specialized civilian firm dealing with small orders to becoming a large government defense contractor making Venturas, Harpoons, Lodestars, Hudsons, and designing the Constellation airliner for TWA. The first YP-38 was not completed until September 1940, with its maiden flight on 17 September.[13] The 13th and final YP-38 was delivered to the Air Corps in June 1941; 12 aircraft were retained for flight testing and one for destructive stress testing. The YPs were substantially redesigned and differed greatly in detail from the hand-built XP-38. They were lighter, included changes in engine fit, and the propeller rotation was reversed, with the blades rotating outwards (away) from the cockpit at the top of their arc rather than inwards as before. This improved the aircraft's stability as a gunnery platform.[11]
Cockpit view of a P-38G. Note the yoke, rather than the more-usual stick.
Cockpit view of a P-38G. Note the yoke, rather than the more-usual stick.

Test flights revealed problems initially believed to be tail flutter. During high-speed flight approaching Mach 0.68, especially during dives, the aircraft's tail would begin to shake violently and the nose would tuck under, steepening the dive. Once caught in this dive, the fighter would enter a high-speed compressibility stall and the controls would lock up, leaving the pilot no option but to bail out (if possible) or remain with the aircraft until it got down to denser air where he might have a chance to pull out. During a test flight in May 1941, USAAC Major Signa Gilkey managed to stay with a YP-38 in a compressibility lockup, riding it out until he recovered gradually using elevator trim.[8] Lockheed engineers were very concerned at this limitation, but first they had to concentrate on filling the current order of aircraft. Sixty-five Lightnings were finished by September 1941, with more on the way.

By November 1941, many of the initial assembly line challenges had been met and there was some breathing room for the engineering team to tackle the problem of frozen controls in a dive. Lockheed had a few ideas for tests that would help them find an answer. The first solution tried was the fitting of spring-loaded servo tabs on the elevator trailing edge; tabs that were designed to aid the pilot when control yoke forces rose over 30 pounds, as would be expected in a high-speed dive. At that point, the tabs would begin to multiply the effort of the pilot's actions. The expert test pilot, 43-year-old[14] Ralph Virden, was given a specific high-altitude test sequence to follow and was told to restrict his speed and fast maneuvering in denser air at low altitudes since the new mechanism could exert tremendous leverage under those conditions. A note was taped to the instrument panel of the prototype underscoring this instruction. On 4 November 1941, Virden climbed into YP-38 #1 and completed the test sequence successfully, but 15 minutes later was seen in a steep dive followed by a high-G pullout. The tail unit of the aircraft failed at about 3,000 ft (910 m) during the high-speed dive recovery; Virden was killed in the subsequent crash. The Lockheed design office was justifiably upset, but their design engineers could only conclude that servo tabs were not the solution for loss of control in a dive. Lockheed still had to find the problem; the Army Air Corps was sure it was flutter, ordering Lockheed to look more closely at the tail.

Although the P-38's empennage was completely skinned in aluminum (not fabric) and was quite rigid, in 1941, flutter was a familiar engineering problem related to a too-flexible tail. At no time did the P-38 suffer from true flutter.[15] To prove a point, one elevator and its vertical stabilizers were skinned with metal 63% thicker than standard—the increase in rigidity made no difference in vibration. Army Lt. Colonel Kenneth B. Wolfe (head of Army Production Engineering) asked Lockheed to try external mass balances above and below the elevator, though the P-38 already had large mass balances elegantly placed within each vertical stabilizer. Various configurations of external mass balances were equipped and dangerously steep test flights flown to document their performance. Explaining to Wolfe in Report No. 2414, Kelly Johnson wrote "...the violence of the vibration was unchanged and the diving tendency was naturally the same for all conditions."[16] The external mass balances did not help at all. Nonetheless, at Wolfe's insistence, the additional external balances were a feature of every P-38 built from then on.[17]
P-38 pilot training manual compressibility chart shows speed limit vs. altitude.
P-38 pilot training manual compressibility chart shows speed limit vs. altitude.

After months of pushing NACA to provide Mach 0.75 wind tunnel speeds (and finally succeeding), the compressibility problem was revealed to be the center of lift moving back toward the tail when in high-speed airflow. The compressibility problem was solved by changing the geometry of the wing's underside when diving so as to keep lift within bounds of the top of the wing. In February 1943, quick-acting dive flaps were tried and proven by Lockheed test pilots. The dive flaps were installed outboard of the engine nacelles and in action they extended downward 35° in 1½ seconds. The flaps did not act as a speed brake, they affected the center of pressure distribution so that the wing would not lose its lift.[18] Late in 1943, a few hundred dive flap field modification kits were assembled to give North African, European and Pacific P-38s a chance to withstand compressibility and expand their combat tactics. Unfortunately, these crucial flaps did not always reach their destination. In March 1944, 200 dive flap kits intended for ETO P-38Js were destroyed in a mistaken identification incident in which an RAF fighter shot down the Douglas C-54 Skymaster bringing the shipment to England. Back in Burbank, P-38Js coming off the assembly line in spring 1944 were towed out to the tarmac and modified in the open air. The flaps were finally incorporated into the production line in June 1944 on the last 210 P-38Js. The delay in bringing the dive flap and its freedom of tactical maneuver to the fighting pilot was far too lengthy. Of all Lightnings built, only the final 50% would have the dive flaps installed as an assembly line sequence.

Johnson later recalled:
“ I broke an ulcer over compressibility on the P-38 because we flew into a speed range where no one had ever been before, and we had difficulty convincing people that it wasn't the funny-looking airplane itself, but a fundamental physical problem. We found out what happened when the Lightning shed its tail and we worked during the whole war to get 15 more knots [28 km/h] of speed out of the P-38. We saw compressibility as a brick wall for a long time. Then we learned how to get through it.[19] ”

Buffeting was another early aerodynamic problem, difficult to sort out from compressibility as both were reported by test pilots as "tail shake". Buffeting came about from airflow disturbances ahead of the tail; the airplane would shake at high speed. Leading edge wing slots were tried as were combinations of filleting between the wing, cockpit and engine nacelles. Air tunnel test number 15 solved the buffeting completely and its fillet solution was fitted to every subsequent P-38 airframe. Fillet kits were sent out to every squadron flying Lightnings. The problem was traced to a 40% increase in air speed at the wing-fuselage junction where the chord/thickness ratio was highest. An airspeed of 500 mph (800 km/h) at 25,000 ft (7,600 m) could push airflow at the wing-fuselage junction close to the speed of sound. Filleting forever solved the buffeting problem for the P-38E and later models.[15]

Another issue with the P-38 arose from its unique design feature of outwardly rotating counter-rotating propellers. Losing one of two engines in any twin engine non-centerline thrust aircraft on takeoff creates sudden drag, yawing the nose toward the dead engine and rolling the wingtip down on the side of the dead engine. Normal training in flying twin-engine aircraft when losing an engine on takeoff would be to push the remaining engine to full throttle; if a pilot did that in the P-38, regardless of which engine had failed, the resulting engine torque and p-factor force produced a sudden uncontrollable yawing roll and the aircraft would flip over and slam into the ground. Eventually, procedures were taught to allow a pilot to deal with the situation by reducing power on the running engine, feathering the prop on the dead engine, and then increasing power gradually until the aircraft was in stable flight. Single-engine takeoffs were possible, though not with a maximum combat load.[20]

The engine sounds were a unique, rather quiet "whuffle", because the exhausts were muffled by the General Electric turbosuperchargers on the twin Allison V12s. There were early problems with cockpit temperature regulation; pilots were often too hot in the tropic sun as the canopy could not be opened without severe buffeting, and were often too cold in northern Europe and at high altitude, as the distance of the engines from the cockpit prevented easy heat transfer. Later variants received modifications to solve these problems.
P-38 at sunset.
P-38 at sunset.

On 20 September 1939, before the YP-38s had been built and flight tested, the USAAF ordered 66 initial production P-38 Lightnings, 30 of which were delivered to the USAAF in mid-1941, but not all these aircraft were armed. The unarmed aircraft were subsequently fitted with four .50s (instead of the two .50 and two .30 of their predecessors) and a 37 mm cannon. They also had armor glass, cockpit armor and fluorescent cockpit controls.[21] One was completed with a pressurized cabin on an experimental basis and designated XP-38A.[22] Due to reports the USAAF was receiving from Europe, the remaining 36 in the batch were upgraded with small improvements such as self-sealing fuel tanks and enhanced armor protection to make them combat-capable. The USAAF specified that these 36 aircraft were to be designated P-38D. As a result, there never were any P-38Bs or P-38Cs. The P-38D's main role was to work out bugs and give the USAAF experience with handling the type.[23]

In March 1940, the French and the British ordered a total of 667 P-38s, designated Model 322F for the French and Model 322B for the British. The aircraft would be a variant of the P-38E, without turbo-supercharging (due to a U.S. government export prohibition), and twin right-handed engines instead of counter-rotating, for commonality with the large numbers of Curtiss P-40 Tomahawks both nations had on order. After the fall of France in June 1940, the British took over the entire order and re-christened the plane Lightning I. Three were delivered in March 1942 and, after discovering, without superchargers, at low altitude and when using lower-octane British aircraft fuel, they had a maximum speed of 300 miles per hour (480 km/h) and poor handling characteristics, the entire order was canceled. The remaining 140 Lightning I's were completed for the USAAF with counter-rotating engines but still minus turbo-superchargers. Most were relegated to United States Army Air Forces training units under the designation RP-322.[24] These aircraft helped the USAAF train new pilots to fly a powerful and complex new fighter. A few Model 322 aircraft were later used as test modification platforms such as for smoke-laying canisters and dual air-dropped torpedoes. The RP-322 was a fairly fast aircraft (some of the fastest post-war racing P-38s were virtually identical in layout to the P-322-II)[25] at low altitude and well suited as a trainer. The other positive result of the failed British/French order was to give the aircraft its name. Lockheed had originally dubbed the aircraft Atalanta in the company tradition of naming planes after mythological and celestial figures, but the RAF name won out.

[edit] Operational service
P-38s deck-loaded on CVE, ready for shipment, cocooned against salt, at New York.
P-38s deck-loaded on CVE, ready for shipment, cocooned against salt, at New York.

The first unit to receive P-38s was the 1st Fighter Group. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the unit joined the 14th Pursuit Group in San Diego to provide West Coast defense.[26]

[edit] Entry to the war

The first Lightning to see active service was the F-4 version, a P-38E in which the guns were replaced by four cameras. They joined the 8th Photographic Squadron out of Australia on 4 April 1942.[11] Three F-4s were operated by the Royal Australian Air Force in this theater for a short period beginning in September 1942.

On 29 May 1942, 25 P-38s began operating in the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. The fighter's long range made it well-suited to the campaign over the almost 1,200 mile (2,000 km)–long island chain, and it would be flown there for the rest of the war. The Aleutians were one of the most rugged environments available for testing the new aircraft under combat conditions. More Lightnings were lost due to severe weather and other conditions than enemy action, and there were cases where Lightning pilots, mesmerized by flying for hours over gray seas under gray skies, simply flew into the water. On 9 August 1942, two P-38Es of the 343rd Fighter Group, Eleventh Air Force, at the end of a 1,000 mile (1,600 km) long-range patrol, happened upon a pair of Japanese Kawanishi H6K "Mavis" flying boats and destroyed them,[11] making them the first Japanese aircraft to be shot down by Lightnings.

[edit] European theater
P-38 participating in the Normandy campaign as evidenced by the D-Day invasion stripes.
P-38 participating in the Normandy campaign as evidenced by the D-Day invasion stripes.

After the Battle of Midway, the USAAF began redeploying fighter groups to Britain as part of Operation Bolero, and Lightnings of the 1st Fighter Group were flown across the Atlantic via Iceland. On 14 August, a P-38F and a P-40 operating out of Iceland shot down a Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor over the Atlantic. This was the first Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed by the USAAF.[27]

P-38 Lightnings had a number of lucky escapes, exemplified by the arrival of the 71st fighter squadron at Goxhill (Lincolnshire, England) in July 1942. The official handover ceremony was scheduled for mid-August, but on the day before the ceremony, Goxhill experienced its only air raid of the war. A single German bomber flew overhead and dropped a very well aimed bomb right on the intersection between the two newly concreted runways, but it didn’t explode and the aircraft were able to continue their mission. (As it turned out, the bomb could not be removed and, for the duration of the war, aircraft had to pass over it every time they took off.)

After 347 sorties with no enemy contact, the 1st, 14th and 82nd Fighter Groups were transferred to the 12th Air Force in North Africa as part of the force being built up for Operation Torch. On 19 November 1942, Lightnings escorted B-17s on a raid over Tunis. On 5 April 1943, 26 P-38Fs of the 82nd destroyed 31 enemy aircraft, helping to establish air superiority in the area, and earning it the German nickname "der Gabelschwanz-Teufel" – the Fork-Tailed Devil.[26] The P-38 remained active in the Mediterranean for the rest of the war. It was in this theatre that the P-38 suffered its heaviest losses in the air. On 25 August 1943, 13 P-38s were shot down in a single sortie by Jagdgeschwader 53 Bf 109s without achieving a single kill.[28] On 2 September ten P-38s were shot down, in return for a single kill, the 67-victory ace Franz Schiess (who was also the leading "Lightning" killer in the Luftwaffe with 17 destroyed).[28]

Experiences over Germany had shown a need for long-range escort fighters to protect the Eighth Air Force's heavy bomber operations. The P-38Hs of the 55th Fighter Group were transferred to the Eighth in England in September 1943, and were joined by the 20th, 364th and 479th Fighter Groups soon after.

In the Mediterranean Theater, Italian pilots started to face P-38s from late 1942 and considered the type a formidable foe even compared to other lethal fighters including the Supermarine Spitfire. A small number of P-38s fell into the hands of German and Italian units and were subsequently tested and used in combat. Col. Tondi used a P-38, possibly an "E" variant, that landed in Sardinia due to a navigational error. Tondi claimed at least one B-24, downed on 11 August 1943. The P-38 eventually was acquired by Italy for postwar service.

The P-38 performed well in the ETO, but suffered frequent engine failures, due to the inadequate cooling system. Many of the aircraft's problems were addressed by the P-38J, but by September 1944, all but one of the Lightning groups in the Eighth Air Force had converted to the P-51. The Eighth did continue to operate the F-5 reconnaissance version with more success.[26]

[edit] Pacific theater
Col. MacDonald and Al Nelson in the Pacific.
Col. MacDonald and Al Nelson in the Pacific.

The P-38 was used most extensively and successfully in the Pacific theater, where it proved ideally suited, combining excellent performance with very long range. The P-38 was used in a variety of roles, especially escorting bombers at altitudes between 18-25,000ft. The P-38 was credited with destroying more Japanese aircraft than any other USAAF fighter.[1] Freezing cockpits were not a problem at low altitude in the tropics. In fact, since there was no way to open a window while in flight as it caused buffeting by setting up turbulence through the tailplane, it was often too hot; pilots taking low altitude assignments would often fly stripped down to shorts, tennis shoes, and parachute. While the P-38 could not out-maneuver the Mitsubishi Zero and most other Japanese fighters, its speed and rate of climb gave American pilots the option of choosing to fight or run, and its focused firepower was even more deadly to lightly-armored Japanese warplanes than to the Germans'. The concentrated, parallel stream of bullets allowed aerial victory at much longer distances than fighters carrying wing guns. It is therefore ironic that Dick Bong, the United States' highest scoring World War II air ace (40 victories solely in P-38s), would fly directly at his targets to make sure he hit them (as he himself acknowledged his poor shooting ability), in some cases flying through the debris of his target (and on one occasion colliding with an enemy aircraft which was claimed as a "probable" victory). The twin Allison engines performed admirably in the Pacific.

On 2-4 March 1943, P-38s flew top cover for Fifth Air Force and Australian bombers and attack-planes during the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, a crushing defeat for the Japanese. Two P-38 aces from the 39th Fighter Squadron were killed on the second day of the battle: Bob Faurot and Hoyt "Curley" Eason (a veteran with five victories who had trained hundreds of pilots, including Dick Bong).

General George C. Kenney, commander of the USAAF Fifth Air Force operating in New Guinea, could not get enough P-38s, though since they were replacing serviceable but inadequate P-39s and P-40s, this might seem like guarded praise. Lightning pilots began to compete in racking up scores against Japanese aircraft.

[edit] Isoroku Yamamoto

Main article: Death of Isoroku Yamamoto

The Lightning figured in one of the most significant operations in the Pacific theater, the interception, on 18 April 1943, of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the architect of Japan's naval strategy in the Pacific including the attack on Pearl Harbor. When American codebreakers found out that he was flying to Bougainville Island to conduct a front-line inspection, 16 P-38G Lightnings were sent on a long-range fighter-intercept mission, flying 435 mi (700 km) from Guadalcanal at heights from 10-50 ft (3-15 m) above the ocean to avoid detection. The Lightnings met Yamamoto's two Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" fast bomber transports and six escorting Zeros just as they arrived. The first Betty crashed in the jungle and the second ditched near the coast. Two Zeros were also claimed by the American fighters with the loss of one P-38. Japanese searchers found Yamamoto's body at the jungle crash site the next day.[29]

[edit] Service record
Pilot and aircraft armorer inspect ammunition for the central 20 mm cannon
Pilot and aircraft armorer inspect ammunition for the central 20 mm cannon

The P-38's service record shows mixed results, but usually because of misinformation. P-38s have been described as being harder to fly than single-engined planes, but this was because of inadequate training in the first few months of the war. The P-38's engine troubles at high altitudes only occurred with the Eighth Air Force. One reason for this was the inadequate cooling systems of the G and H models; the improved P-38 J and L had tremendous success flying out of Italy into Germany at all altitudes.[26] Up until the -J-25 variant, P-38s were easily avoided by German fighters because of the lack of dive flaps to counter compressibility in dives. German fighter pilots not wishing to fight would perform the first half of a Split S and continue into steep dives because they knew the Lightnings would be reluctant to follow.

On the positive side, having two engines was a built-in insurance policy. Many pilots made it safely back to base after having an engine fail en route or in combat. On March 3, 1944, the first Allied fighters reached Berlin on a frustrated escort mission. Lt. Col. Jack Jenkins of 55FG led the group of P-38H pilots, arriving with only half his force after flak damage and engine trouble took their toll. On the way in to Berlin, Jenkins reported one rough-running engine and one good one, causing him to wonder if he'd ever make it back. The B-17s he was supposed to escort never showed up, having turned back at Hamburg. Jenkins and his wingman were able to drop tanks and outrun enemy fighters to return home with three good engines between them.[30]
P-38J flying over California.
P-38J flying over California.

In the ETO, P-38s made 130,000 sorties with a loss of 1.3% overall, comparing favorably with ETO P-51s which posted a 1.1% loss, considering that the P-38s were vastly outnumbered and suffered from poorly thought-out tactics. The majority of the P-38 sorties were made in the period prior to Allied air superiority in Europe when pilots fought against a very determined and skilled enemy.[31] Lt. Colonel Mark Hubbard, a vocal critic of the aircraft, rated it third best Allied fighter in Europe.[32] The Lightning's greatest virtues were long range, heavy payload, high speed, fast climb, and concentrated firepower. The P-38 was a formidable interceptor and attack aircraft and, in the hands of any pilot, dangerous in air-to-air combat.

In the Pacific theater, the P-38 downed over 1,800 Japanese aircraft, with more than 100 pilots becoming aces by downing five or more enemy.[29] American fuel supplies contributed to a better engine performance and maintenance record, and range was increased with leaner mixtures. In the second half of 1944, the P-38L pilots out of Dutch New Guinea were flying 950 miles (1,530 km), fighting for 15 minutes and returning to base.[33] Such long legs were invaluable until the P-47N and P-51D entered service.

[edit] Postwar operations

The end of the war left the USAAF with thousands of P-38s rendered obsolete by the jet age. One hundred late-model P-38L and F-5 Lightnings were acquired by Italy through an agreement dated April 1946. Delivered, after refurbishing, at the rate of one per month, they finally were all sent to the AMI by 1952. The Lightnings served in 4 Stormo and other units including 3 Stormo, flying reconnaissance over the Balkans, ground attack, naval cooperation and air superiority missions. Due to unfamiliarity in operating heavy fighters, old engines, and pilot errors, a large number of P-38s were lost in at least 30 accidents, many of them fatal. Despite this, many Italian pilots liked the P-38 because of its excellent visibility on the ground and stability at takeoff. The Italian P-38s were phased out in 1956; none survived the inevitable scrapyard.[34]

Surplus P-38s were also used by other foreign air forces with a dozen sold to Honduras and fifteen retained by China. Six F-5s and two unarmed black two-seater P-38s were operated by PRD forces based in Cuba in 1947. The majority of wartime Lightnings present in the continental U.S. at the end of the war were put up for sale for US$1,200 apiece; the rest were scrapped. P-38s in distant theaters of war were bulldozed into piles and abandoned or scrapped; very few avoided that fate.

Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier was among those who bought a Lightning, choosing a P-38J model and painting it red to make it stand out as an air racer and stunt flyer. Lefty Gardner, former B-24 and B-17 pilot and associate of the Confederate Air Force, bought a mid-1944 P-38L-1-LO that had been modified into an F-5G. Gardner painted it white with red and blue trim and named it White Lightnin'; he reworked its turbo systems and intercoolers for optimum low-altitude performance and gave it P-38F style air intakes for better streamlining. P-38s were popular contenders in the air races from 1946 through 1949, with brightly colored Lightnings making screaming turns around the pylons at Reno and Cleveland.

F-5s were bought by aerial survey companies and employed for mapping. From the 1950s on, the use of the Lightning steadily declined, and only a little more than two dozen still exist, with few still flying. One example is a P-38L owned by the Lone Star Flight Museum in Galveston, Texas, painted in the colors of Charles MacDonald's Putt Putt Maru. Two other examples are F-5Gs which were owned and operated by Kargl Aerial Surveys in 1946, and are now located in Chino, California at Yanks Air Museum, and in McMinnville, Oregon at Evergreen Aviation Museum.

[edit] Variants
Production numbers[35] Variant Produced Comment
XP-38 1 Prototype
YP-38 13 Evaluation planes
P-38 30 Initial production plane
XP-38A 1 Pressurized cockpit
P-38D 36
P-38E 210
F-4 100+ recons based on P-38E
Model 322 3 RAF planes
RP-322 147 USAAF trainers
P-38F 527
F-4A 20 recons based on P-38F
P-38G 1,082
F-5A 180 recons based on P-38G
XF-5D 1 converted F-5A
P-38H 601
F-5C 123 based on P-38H
P-38J 2,970 new radiator style
F-5B 200 based on P-38J
F-5E 605 P-38J/L conversion
P-38K 1 paddle props
P-38L-LO 3,810
P-38L-VN 113
F-5F based on P-38L
P-38M 75 night-fighter

Over 10,000 Lightnings were manufactured in all; becoming the only U.S. combat aircraft that remained in continuous production throughout the duration of American participation in World War II. The Lightning had a major effect on other aircraft; its wing, in a scaled-up form, was used on the L-049 Constellation.[36]

The first combat-capable Lightning was the P-38E, which featured improved instruments, and electrical and hydraulic systems. Part-way through production, the older Hamilton Standard Hydromatic hollow steel propellers were replaced by new Curtiss Electric duraluminum propellers. The definitive armament configuration, featuring four .50 caliber (12.7 mm) machine guns with 500 rounds per gun, and a Hispano 20 mm cannon with 150 rounds in place of the unreliable Oldsmobile 37 mm gun, was standardized.[clarify]

While the machine guns had been arranged symmetrically in the nose on earlier variants, they were "staggered" in the P-38E and later versions, with the muzzles protruding from the nose in the relative lengths of roughly 1 6:2. This was done to ensure a straight ammunition-belt feed into the weapons, as the earlier arrangement led to jamming.

The first P-38E rolled out of the factory in October 1941. Over a hundred P-38Es were completed in the factory or converted in the field to a photo-reconnaissance variant, the F-4, in which the guns were replaced by four cameras. Most of these early reconnaissance Lightnings were retained stateside for training, but the F-4 was the first Lightning to be used in action in April 1942.
Ground crew members of the 459th Fighter Squadron, nicknamed the "Twin Dragon Squadron", working on a Lockheed P-38 at an air base in Chittagong, India - January 1945.
Ground crew members of the 459th Fighter Squadron, nicknamed the "Twin Dragon Squadron", working on a Lockheed P-38 at an air base in Chittagong, India - January 1945.

After 210 P-38Es were built, they were followed, starting in April 1942, by the P-38F, which incorporated racks inboard of the engines for fuel tanks or a total of 2,000 pounds (900 kg) of bombs. The P-38F was heavier, with more powerful engines that used more fuel. Without external fuel tanks, the range was reduced. General Spaatz, then commander of the Eighth Air Force in the UK, said of the P-38F: "I'd rather have an airplane that goes like hell and has a few things wrong with it, than one that won't go like hell and has a few things wrong with it."[37] A total of 527 P-38Fs were built.

The P-38F was followed in early 1943 by the P-38G, utilizing more powerful Allisons of 1,400 hp (1,040 kW) each and equipped with a better radio. The P-38G was followed in turn by the P-38H, with further uprated Allisons (1,425 hp [1,060 kW] each), an improved 20 mm cannon and a bomb capacity of 3,200 pounds (1,450 kg). These models were also field-modified into F-4A and F-5A reconnaissance aircraft. An F-5A was modified to an experimental two-seat reconnaissance configuration, with additional cameras in the tail booms. Both the P-38G and P-38H models' performance was restricted by an intercooler system integral to the wing's leading edge that had been designed for smaller engines(Although most ground crews removed this in order to get more power at lower altitudes where the danger of oveheating was reasonably low) . The new engines could heat up too much and were subject to explosive detonation in the carburetor if operated beyond recommended limits.

Early variants did not enjoy a high reputation for maneuverability, though they could be agile at low altitudes if flown by a capable pilot, using the P-38's forgiving stall characteristics to their best advantage. From the P-38F-15 model onwards, a "combat maneuver" setting was added to the P-38's Fowler flaps. When deployed at the eight-degree maneuver setting, the flaps allowed the P-38 to out-turn many contemporary single-engined fighters at the cost of some added drag. However, early variants were hampered by high aileron control forces and a low initial rate of roll.

[edit] Lightning in maturity: P-38J, P-38L
Four P-38s flying in formation.
Four P-38s flying in formation.

The definitive P-38J was introduced in August 1943. The turbocharger intercooler system on previous variants had been housed in the leading edges of the wings and had proven vulnerable to combat damage and could explode if the wrong series of controls were mistakenly activated. In the P-38J model, the streamlined engine nacelles of previous Lightnings were changed to fit the intercooler radiator between the oil coolers, forming a "chin" that visually distinguished the J model from its predecessors. While the P-38J used the same V-1710-89/91 engines as the H model, the new core-type intercooler more efficiently lowered intake manifold temperatures and permitted a substantial increase in rated power. The leading edge of the outer wing was fitted with 55-gallon fuel tanks, filling the space formerly occupied by intercooler tunnels.

The final 210 J models, designated P-38J-25-LO, alleviated the compressibility problem through the addition of a set of electrically-actuated dive recovery flaps just outboard of the engines on the bottom centerline of the wings. With these improvements, a USAAF pilot reported a dive speed of almost 600 miles per hour (970 km/h), although the indicated air speed was later corrected for compressibility error, and the actual dive speed was lower.[38]

The P-38J-25-LO production block also introduced hydraulically-boosted ailerons, one of the first times such a system was fitted to a fighter. This significantly improved the Lightning's rate of roll and reduced control forces for the pilot. With a truly satisfactory Lightning in place, Lockheed ramped up production, working with subcontractors across the country to produce hundreds of Lightnings each month.

There were two P-38Ks developed in 1942–1943, one official and one an internal Lockheed experiment. The first was a battered RP-38E test mule fitted with paddle-bladed "high activity" Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propellers similar to those used on the P-47. The new propellers required spinners of greater diameter, and the thrust line was slightly higher. New cowlings were fashioned to properly blend the spinners into the nacelles. The aircraft also received the chin intercoolers developed for the P-38J.

The first prototype's performance led to an official request for the second aircraft, a modified P-38G-10-LO (re-designated P-38K-1-LO) fitted with the aforementioned four-blade propellers and new Allison V-1710-75/77 (F15R/L) powerplants rated at 1,875 bhp (1,398 kW) at War Emergency Power. The AAF took delivery in September, 1943, at Eglin Field. In tests, the P-38K-1 achieved 432 mph (695 km/h) at military power and was predicted to exceed 450 mph (720 km/h) at War Emergency Power with a similar increase in load and range. The initial climb rate was 4,800 feet (1,500 m) per minute and the ceiling was 46,000 feet (14,000 m). It reached 20,000 feet (6,100 m) in five minutes flat; this with a coat of camouflage paint which added weight and drag. However, the War Production Board refused to authorize P-38K production due to the two- to three-week interruption in production necessary to implement cowling modifications for the revised spinners and higher thrust line.[39] Some doubted Allison's ability to deliver the F15 engine in quantity.[40] As promising as it had looked, the P-38K project came to a halt.

The P-38L was the most numerous variant of the Lightning, with 3,923 built, 113 by Consolidated-Vultee in their Nashville plant. It entered service with the USAAF in June of 1944, in time to support the Allied invasion of France on D-Day. Lockheed production of the Lightning was distinguished by a suffix consisting of a production block number followed by "LO," for example "P-38L-1-LO", while Consolidated-Vultee production was distinguished by a block number followed by "VN," for example "P-38L-5-VN."

The P-38L was the first Lightning fitted with zero-length rocket launchers. Seven HVARs (high velocity aircraft rockets) on pylons beneath each wing, and later, ten rockets on each wing on "Christmas tree" launch racks. The P-38L also had strengthened stores pylons to allow carriage of 2,000 pound (900 kg) bombs or 300 US gallon (1,140 liter) drop tanks.
F-5B, reconnaissance version of P-38.
F-5B, reconnaissance version of P-38.

Lockheed modified 200 P-38J airframes in production to become unarmed F-5B photo-reconnaissance aircraft, while hundreds of other P-38Js and P-38Ls were field-modified to become F-5Es, F-5Fs, and F-5Gs. A few P-38Ls were field-modified to become two-seat TP-38L familiarization trainers.

Late model Lightnings were delivered unpainted, as per USAAF policy established in 1944. At first, field units tried to paint them, since pilots worried about being too visible to the enemy, but it turned out the reduction in weight and drag was a minor advantage in combat.

The P-38L-5, the most common sub-variant of the P-38L, had a modified cockpit heating system which consisted of a plug-socket in the cockpit into which the pilot could plug his heat-suit wire for improved comfort. These Lightnings also received the uprated V-1710-111/113 (F30R/L) engines, and this dramatically lowered the amount of engine failure problems experienced at high altitude.

[edit] Pathfinders, Night Fighter and other variants

The Lightning was modified for other roles. In addition to the F-4 and F-5 reconnaissance variants, a number of P-38Js and P-38Ls were field-modified as formation bombing "pathfinders" or "droopsnoots", fitted with a glazed nose with a Norden bombsight, or a H2X radar "bombing through overcast" nose. A pathfinder would lead a formation of other P-38s, each overloaded with two 2,000 lb (907 kg) bombs; the entire formation releasing when the pathfinder did.
Lockheed 422 P-38M Night Lightning (44-27234 c/n 422-8238).
Lockheed 422 P-38M Night Lightning (44-27234 c/n 422-8238).

A number of Lightnings were modified as night fighters. There were several field or experimental modifications with different equipment fits that finally led to the "formal" P-38M night fighter, or Night Lightning. Seventy-five P-38Ls were modified to the Night Lightning configuration, painted flat-black with conical flash hiders on the guns, an AN/APS-6 radar pod below the nose, and a second cockpit with a raised canopy behind the pilot's canopy for the radar operator. The headroom in the rear cockpit was limited, requiring radar operators who were preferably short in stature.

The additional external clutter imposed surprisingly little penalty on the P-38M's performance, and it remained faster than the purpose-built Northrop P-61 Black Widow night fighter. The Night Lightnings saw some combat duty in the Pacific towards the end of the war, but, verifiably, none engaged in combat.

One of the initial production P-38s had its turbochargers removed, with a secondary cockpit placed in one of the booms to examine how flightcrew would respond to such an "asymmetric" cockpit layout. One P-38E was fitted with an extended central nacelle to accommodate a tandem-seat cockpit with dual controls, and was later fitted with a laminar flow wing.
Proposed floatplane P-38E testbed shown with second version of upswept tail designed to keep tail out of water upon takeoff
Proposed floatplane P-38E testbed shown with second version of upswept tail designed to keep tail out of water upon takeoff

Very early in the Pacific War, a scheme was proposed to fit Lightnings with floats to allow them to make long-range ferry flights. The floats would be removed before the aircraft went into combat. There were concerns that salt spray would corrode the tailplane, and so in March 1942, P-38E c/n 5204 was modified with a tailplane raised some 16-18 inches, booms lengthened by two feet and a rearward-facing second seat added for an observer to monitor the effectiveness of the new arrangement. A second version was crafted on the same airframe with the twin booms given greater sideplane area to augment the vertical rudders. This arrangement was removed and a final third version was fabricated that had the booms returned to normal length but the tail raised 33 inches. All three tail modifications were designed by George H. "Bert" Estabrook. The final version was used for a quick series of dive tests on December 7, 1942 in which Milo Burcham performed the test maneuvers and Kelly Johnson observed from the rear seat. Johnson concluded that the raised floatplane tail gave no advantage in solving the problem of compressibility. At no time was this P-38E testbed airframe actually fitted with floats, and the idea was quickly abandoned as the U.S. Navy proved to have enough sealift capacity to keep up with P-38 deliveries to the South Pacific.[10]

Still another P-38E was used in 1942 to tow a Waco troop glider as a demonstration. However, there proved to be plenty of other aircraft, such as C-47s, available to tow gliders, and the Lightning was spared this duty.

Standard Lightnings were even used as crew and cargo transports in the South Pacific. They were fitted with pods attached to the underwing pylons, replacing drop tanks or bombs, that could carry a single passenger in a lying-down position, or cargo. This was a very uncomfortable way to fly. Some of the pods weren't even fitted with a window to let the passenger see out or bring in light, and one fellow who hitched a lift on a P-38 in one of these pods later said that "whoever designed the damn thing should have been forced to ride in it."

Lockheed proposed a carrier-based Model 822 version of the Lightning for the United States Navy. The Model 822 would have featured folding wings, an arresting hook, and stronger undercarriage for carrier operations. The Navy was not interested, as they regarded the Lightning as too big for carrier operations and did not like liquid-cooled engines anyway, and the Model 822 never went beyond the paper stage. However, the Navy did operate four land-based F-5Bs in North Africa, inherited from the USAAF and redesignated FO-1.

A P-38J was used in experiments with an unusual scheme for mid-air refueling, in which the fighter snagged a drop tank trailed on a cable from a bomber. The USAAF managed to make this work, but decided it was not practical. A P-38J was also fitted with experimental retractable snow ski landing gear, but this idea never reached operational service either.

After the war, a P-38L was experimentally fitted with armament of three .60 in (15.2 mm) machine guns. The .60 caliber cartridge had been developed early in the war for an infantry "anti-tank rifle", a type of weapon developed by a number of nations in the 1930s when tanks were lighter but, by 1942, the idea of taking on a tank with a large-caliber rifle was considered to be somewhere between "outdated" and "suicidal".

The cartridge was not abandoned, with the Americans designing a derivative of the German MG 151 15 mm aircraft automatic cannon around it and designating the weapon the "T17", but though 300 of these guns were built and over six million .60 caliber rounds were manufactured, they never worked out all the bugs, and the T17 never saw operational service. The cartridge was "necked up" to fit 20 mm projectiles and became a standard U.S. ammunition after the war. The T17-armed P-38L did not go beyond unsuccessful trials.

Another P-38L was modified after the war as a "super strafer," with eight .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in the nose and a pod under each wing with two .50 in guns, for a total of 12 machine guns. Nothing came of this conversion, either.

A P-38L was modified by Hindustan Aeronautics in India as a fast VIP transport, with a comfortable seat in the nose, leather-lined walls, accommodations for refreshments and a glazed nose to give the passenger a spectacular view.

[edit] Operators

Main article: List of P-38 Lightning operators

P-38s of 449th Fighter Squadron, Chengkung, 1945.
P-38s of 449th Fighter Squadron, Chengkung, 1945.


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[edit] Noted P-38s
P-38J Lightning YIPPEE
P-38J Lightning YIPPEE

[edit] YIPPEE

The 5,000th Lightning built, a P-38J, was painted bright vermilion red, and had the name YIPPEE painted on the underside of the wings in big white letters as well as the signatures of hundreds of factory workers. This aircraft was used by Lockheed test pilots Milo Burcham and Tony LeVier in remarkable flight demonstrations, performing such stunts as slow rolls at treetop level with one prop feathered to show that the P-38 was not the unmanageable beast of legend. Their exploits did much to reassure pilots that the Lightning might be a handful, but it was by no means a "widow maker."

[edit] Survivors

Main article: Lockheed P-38 Survivors

[edit] Noted P-38 pilots

[edit] Richard Bong and Thomas McGuire
Major Richard Bong in his P-38.
Major Richard Bong in his P-38.

The American ace of aces and his closest competitor both flew Lightnings as they tallied 40 and 38 victories each. Majors Richard I. "Dick" Bong and Thomas J. "Tommy" McGuire of the USAAF competed for the top position, a rivalry made interesting by the contrast in personalities of the two men. Both Bong and McGuire were very aggressive and fearless in the air. After dogfights, their P-38s would be warped out of shape by overstress. On the ground, they were completely different men. Dick Bong was a modest, quiet, almost shy man, while the egotistical McGuire was "an unpleasant individual with a talent much bigger than he was," as one of his colleagues remembered him.

Bong was rotated back to the States as America's ace of aces, after making 40 kills. He was killed on 6 August 1945, the day the atomic bomb was dropped on Japan, when his P-80 Shooting Star jet fighter flamed out on takeoff. McGuire had been killed in air combat in January 1945 over the Philippines, after racking up 38 confirmed kills, making him the second-ranking American ace. Both men were awarded the Medal of Honor.
(L-R) Thomas B. McGuire and Charles Lindbergh discussing a mission on Bial Island in July 1944.
(L-R) Thomas B. McGuire and Charles Lindbergh discussing a mission on Bial Island in July 1944.

[edit] Charles Lindbergh

The famed aviator Charles Lindbergh toured the South Pacific as a civilian contractor for United Aircraft Corporation, comparing and evaluating performance of single- and twin-engined fighters for Vought. He worked to improve range and load limits of the F4U Corsair, flying both routine and combat strafing missions in Corsairs alongside Marine pilots. In Hollandia, he attached himself to the 475th FG flying P-38s so that he could investigate the twin-engine fighter. Though new to the machine, he was instrumental in extending the range of the P-38 through improved throttle settings, or engine-leaning techniques, notably by reducing engine speed to 1600 rpm, setting the carburetors for auto-lean and flying at 185 mph (298 km/h) indicated airspeed which reduced fuel consumption to 70 gallons an hour, about 2.6 mpg. This combination of settings had been considered dangerous; it was thought it would upset the fuel mixture and cause an explosion.[41] Everywhere Lindbergh went in the South Pacific, he was accorded the normal preferential treatment of a visiting colonel, though he had resigned his Air Corps Reserve colonel's commission three years before. While with the 475th, he held training classes and took part in a number of Army Air Corps combat missions. On 28 July 1944 Lindbergh shot down a Mitsubishi Ki-51 Sonia flown expertly by the veteran commander of 73rd Independent Flying Chutai, Imperial Japanese Army Captain Saburo Shimada. In an extended, twisting dogfight in which many of the participants ran out of ammunition, Shimada turned his aircraft directly toward Lindbergh who was just approaching the combat area. Lindbergh fired in a defensive reaction brought on by Shimada's apparent head-on ramming attack. Hit by cannon and machine gun fire, the Sonia's propeller visibly slowed, but Shimada held his course. Lindbergh pulled up at the last moment to avoid collision as the damaged Sonia went into a steep dive, hit the ocean and sank. Lindbergh's wingman, ace Joseph E. "Fishkiller" Miller, Jr., had also scored hits on the Sonia after it had begun its fatal dive, but Miller was certain the kill credit was Lindbergh's. The unofficial kill was not entered in the 475th's war record. On 12 August 1944 Lindbergh left Hollandia to return to the States.[42]

[edit] Charles MacDonald

The seventh-ranking American ace, Charles H. MacDonald, also flew a Lightning against the Japanese, scoring 27 kills in his famous aircraft, the "Putt Putt Maru".

[edit] Clay Tice

A P-38 piloted by Clay Tice was the first American aircraft to land in Japan after VJ-Day, when he and his wingman set down on Nitagahara because his wingman was low on fuel.[43]

[edit] Antoine de Saint-Exupery

Noted aviation pioneer and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupery vanished in a P-38 while on a flight over the Mediterranean, from Corsica to mainland France, on 31 July 1944. His health, both physical and mental (he was said to be intermittently subject to depression), had been deteriorating and there had been talk of taking him off flight status. There have been suggestions (although no proof to date) that this was a suicide rather than an aircraft failure or combat loss. In 2000, a French scuba diver found the wreckage of a Lightning in the Mediterranean off the coast of Marseille, and it was confirmed in April 2004 as Saint-Exupery's F-5B photographic reconnaissance aircraft. No evidence of air combat was found.[44] In March 2008 a former Luftwaffe pilot, Horst Rippert from Jagdgruppe 200, claimed his shooting down.[45]

[edit] Adrian Warburton

The RAF's legendary photo-recon "ace", Wing Commander Adrian Warburton DSO DFC, was the pilot of a Lockheed P-38 borrowed from the USAAF that took off on 12 April 1944 to photograph targets in Germany. W/C Warburton failed to arrive at the rendezvous point and was never seen again. In 2003, his remains were recovered in Germany from his wrecked USAAF P-38 Lightning.

[edit] Specifications (P-38L)
Lockheed P-38L Lightning at the National Museum of the United States Air Force.
Lockheed P-38L Lightning at the National Museum of the United States Air Force.

Data from Quest for Performance[46]

General characteristics

* Crew: One
* Length: 37 ft 10 in (11.53 m)
* Wingspan: 52 ft 0 in (15.85 m)
* Height: 9 ft 10 in (3.00 m)
* Wing area: 327.5 ft² (30.43 m²;)
* Airfoil: NACA 23016 / NACA 4412
* Empty weight: 12,780 lb (5,800 kg)
* Loaded weight: 17,500 lb (7,940 kg)
* Max takeoff weight: 21,600 lb (9,798 kg)
* Powerplant: 2× Allison V-1710-111/113 liquid-cooled turbosupercharged V-12, 1,725 hp (As certified by Lockheed and Allison Industries) (1,194 kW) each
* Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0268

* Drag area: 8.78 ft² (0.82 m²;)
* Aspect ratio: 8.26 Performance

* Maximum speed: 443mph War Emergency Power-1725 hp@64inHG(28,000ft)(Courtesy of Lockheed-Martin Corp.)

414mph on Military Power-1425hp@ 54inHG (667 km/h at 7,620 m)

* Stall speed: 105 mph (170 km/h)
* Range: 1,300 mi combat, over 3,300 mi (5,300 km) ferry (1,770 km / 3,640 km)
* Service ceiling 44,000 ft (13,400 m)
* Rate of climb: maximum: 4,750 ft/min (1,448 m/min)
* Wing loading: 53.4 lb/ft² (260.9 kg/m²;)
* Power/mass: 0.16 hp/lb (0.27 kW/kg)

Turn Radius: At Eglin Field in 1942, the P-38 was said to have an "equal or tighter radius of turn from 15,000 ft (4,600 m) on up" against the P-51, P-40, P-47 and other aircraft. The tests were conducted with the engine power restricted, which means the P-38F that was tested was probably a bit more maneuverable. Further versions of the P-38 were even more agile, especially the P-38L. (The rate of roll was also found too slow at high speeds and medium at low speeds.)

* Lift-to-drag ratio: 13.5

M2 machine gun armament in the nose of the P-38.
M2 machine gun armament in the nose of the P-38.

* 1× Hispano M2(C) 20 mm cannon with 150 rounds (2 AP, 2 tracer and 2 HE ammo belt composition) and 4× Colt-Browning MG53-2 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns with 500 rounds per gun. The rate of fire was about 650 rounds per minute for the 20×110 mm cannon round (130 g shell) at a muzzle velocity of about Template:Convert/LoffAyesDbSoff/s, and for the .50 in MGs (43–48 g), about 850 rpm at Template:Convert/LoffAyesDbSoff/s velocity.
* 4× M10 three-tube 4.5 in (112 mm) rocket launchers or:
* 10× 5 in (127 mm) HVARs (High Velocity Aircraft Rocket) and/or:
* either 2× 2,000 lb (907 kg) or 2× 1,000 lb (454 kg), 4× 500 lb (227 kg) or 4× 250 lb (113 kg) bombs
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McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II wild weasel


The F-4 Phantom is the Western world's most successful combat aircraft. Developed as carrier-born interceptor for the United States Navy, it eventually saw service in every traditional military mission: air superiority, close air support, interception, air defense suppression, long-range strike, fleet defence, attack and reconnaissance. It saw service in both the Vietnam War, Yom Kippur War and Operation Desert Storm with a record of 280 air-to-air victories and the destruction of more than 200 anti-aircraft sites.

Of the 5,057 built in the United States, the US Air Force took delivery of 2,857 aircraft. The US Navy and US Marine Corps 1,264 and international customers a combined total of 1,074. Now, more than 50 years after it's first flight, close to 700 Phantoms remain in active service with the air forces of seven nations (as of July 2007). In US service, is was withdrawn from service in 1996, ending a 38-year career. When production ended in 1981, 5,195 Phantoms had been built, including those built under licence in Japan, making it the most successful - and best looking - Western combat aircraft ever. In US Air Force service, it was replaced by the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon, in the US Navy it was replaced by the F-14 Tomcat and the F/A-18 Hornet.

Prior to 1953, McDonnell had already produced more than 1,000 carrier-based jet aircraft - the FH-1 Phantom (the Navy's first jet-powered, carrier-based aircraft), the F2H Banshee, and the F3H Demon. Preliminary design of what was to become the Phantom began in the summer of 1953 when McDonnell started to work on the McDonnell F3H-G, McDonnell Model 98B, loosely based on the F3H-3G Super Demon. In October 1954, the US Navy ordered two Wright J65 powered prototypes as YAH-1. In 1953, however, the company lost a new carrier-based fighter competition to the F8U Crusader, while A4D Skyhawk was ordered for the attack/strike role and the AH-1 was rejected.

Determined to continue to design and produce carrier-based aircraft, McDonnell reconfigured the AH-1 design by removing the guns, changing the fire control system to be compatible with air-to-air missiles, and removing all external armament stations except one at the centreline for a large external fuel tank. At this time, Sparrow missiles were in the development phase, and the airplane was configured to carry four, semi submerged in the bottom of the fuselage. This was the first such installation of missiles in a fighter. More powerful General Electric J-79 were substituted for the earlier J65, with corresponding changes in the duct area. Other features would make the airplane the Navy's first Mach 2-plus carrier-based aircraft. During this period, the Navy was undecided on a single or double place aircraft, but McDonnell prepared configurations of both and the US Navy selected the two-place version.

The configuration continued to change up to the signing of the detail specification in July 1955. By this time, the primary mission of the Phantom was all-weather fleet air defense, but the attack capability of the original design was retained, making the Phantom a logical choice for the US Air Force's Tactical Air Command and many other air forces. On May 26, 1955, the designated was changed in F4H-1 and the YF4H-1 prototype flew May 27, 1958 from Lambert St. Louis International Airport. In December 1958, the Navy awarded McDonnell a limited production contract. From that point, things went fast. On 29 December 1960, the Phantom joined the fleet when Number 28 left St. Louis for delivery to squadron VF-121 at the Naval Air Station Miramar, California.
Factory models

Designation YF4H-1 used for 2 prototypes. The first YF4H-1 was to have been powered by a pair of General Electric J79-GE-8 engines, but delays in their development led to the substitution of a pair of J79-GE-3A engines on loan from the Air Force. The first F4H-1 was a proof-of-concept aircraft and was not equipped with radar and was not wired for missile firings. However, four dummy Sparrow missiles were carried in their ventral under fuselage recesses. Ballast was provided in place of the Westinghouse AN/APQ-50 airborne intercept radar that was to be carried. The tandem cockpits were covered by a canopy that was flush with the top of the fuselage. However, on the first YF4H-1, only the pilot's cockpit was provisioned, with the rear radar operator's position being filled with test instrumentation.

Initial model, 45 delivered in 5 production blocks as F4F-1F, redesignated F-4A in December 1962. The - single seat - F-4A was powered by two J79-GE-2 or -2A turbojets, fitted with a modified Westinghouse AN/APQ-50 radar (with 24" dish), AN/AAA-4 infra red search and tracking sensor and lacked an ejection seat.

Initial production model for the US Navy, 649 delivered as F4H-1 (redesignated F-4B). Equipped with J79-GE-8 turbojets, Westinghouse AN/APQ-72 radar (with larger 32 inch radar dish hence the more bulbous nose), Lear AN/AJB-3 Low Altitude Bombing System (mainly to release the B61 nuclear bomb) and armed with four AIM-7D Sparrow III AAM's, four AIM-9B Sidewinders and SUU-23A 20 mm gun pod. The F-4B, as well as all other Phantom II versions, were fitted with Martin Baker Mk.7 ejection seats, with slightly different versions for US Navy and US Air Force. A number of decommissioned F-4Bs were modified as DF-4B drone directors, EF-4B ECM trainers and QF-4B target drone. The - early model - TF-4B trainer lacked ejection seats, the NF-4B was the development aircraft.

Reconnaissance model for the US Marine Corps, quite similar to the much more numerous RF-4C of the US Air Force. Like the RF-4C, the RF-4B was unarmed. The fighter's radar-equipped nose was replaced with a special nose specifically designed for reconnaissance applications. This nose was 4 feet 8 7/8 inches longer than the nose of the armed F-4B. The AN/APQ-72 radar of the F-4B was replaced by the much smaller Texas Instruments AN/APQ-99 forward-looking J-band monopulse radar which was optimized for terrain avoidance and terrain-following modes, and could also be used for ground mapping. There were three separate camera bays in the nose, designated Stations 1, 2, and 3. Station 1 could carry a single forward oblique or vertical KS-87 camera, Station 2 could carry a single KA-87 low-altitude camera, and Station 3 normally carried a single KA-55A or KA-91 high-altitude panoramic camera. The much larger KS-91 or KS-127A camera could also be carried. Unlike the cameras of the US Air Force's RF-4Cs, the RF-4B's cameras were fitted on rotating mounts so that the pilot could aim them at targets off the flight path. The rear cockpit was configured for a reconnaissance systems operator, with no flight controls being provided. Two Tracor AN/ALE-29 chaff/flare dispensers were installed, one on each side of the aircraft above the rear fuselage. For nighttime photography, a set of photoflash cartridges could be ejected upward from each side of the aircraft. An Loral (Goodyear) AN/APQ-102 reconnaissance SLAR was fitted, with antenna faired into the lower fuselage sides, just ahead of the intakes. This SLAR was capable of tracking both fixed and moving targets. An AN/AAD-14 infrared reconnaissance system was fitted in the fuselage belly just behind the SLAR. A Itek AN/APR-25 radar homing and warning system was used, an AN/ASW-25B data-link was installed. An Sanders AN/ALQ-126 deceptive electronic countermeasures package was installed, which obviated the need to carry external jammer pods.

Initial production model for the US Air Force, 583 aircraft delivered as F-110 Spectre, redesignated F-4C. Armed with AIM-101 Sparrow missiles, later redesignated AIM-7 Sparrow. Intitial F-4Cs were armed with infrared guided AIM-4D Falcon missiles. In November 1964 it was decided to replace them with AIM-9B/-D Sidewinders. Based on the F-4B airframe, with J79-GE-15 turbojets (basically an -8 with self-starter), AN/APQ-100 radar, dual-control cockpits, US Air Force air-to-air refuelling system and redesigned landing gear with low-pressure tyres and heavier brakes. The US Air Force Phantom II first flew May 27, 1963. Production deliveries began in November 1963. Submodels include the F-4C(S) export version for Spain (local designation C.12), GF-4C ground instruction airframe and NF-4C development airframe. The EF-4C Wild Weasel IV was a development of the F-4C, designed in parallel with the F-105 Wild Weasel III program. This aircraft, like the modified F-100F and F-105F, was intended to detect and attack North Vietnamese surface-to-air missile sites.

Tactical reconnaissance aircraft for the US Air Force, based on the F-4C airframe. Initially designated RF-110 Spectre. A total of 503 aircraft were delivered with J79-GE-15 engines, IRLS (AN/AAS-18A), SLAR (Loral (Goodyear) AN/APQ-102 or AN/UPD-4), AN/ALQ-99 radar (as in RF-4B) and Litton AN/ALQ-125 Tactical Electronic Reconnaissance-suite. Initially, the RF-4C carried no weapons, and the underfuselage Sparrow missile slots of the F-4C were omitted. However, in an emergency the RF-4C could carry a nuclear weapon on the centerline position, but this was rarely done in practice. Aircraft from the European-based 10th TRW were eventually fitted with AN/AJB-7 Low Altitude Bombing System (as in the F-4C) just in case the delivery of nuclear weapons ever became necessary. In later years, RF-4Cs were armed with AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles carried on the inner underwing pylon for self-defense. Submodels are the GRF-4C (GIA), NRF-4C (development airframe) and QRF-4C (target drone). Local Spanish designation CR.12.

Dedicated ground-attack model for US Force, 793 airframes delivered to US Force as well as 32 to Iran. Equipped with AN/APQ-109 radar, AN/ASG-21 Lead Computing Sight, AN/ASQ-91 Automatic Weapons Release Computer, Raytheon (Litton) AN/ALR-69) radar warning receiver and Sanders AN/ALQ-109 radar jammer. Several effort were made to give the F-4D (and other versions) a target designation capability. The first effort was the he Ford Aerospace AN/AVQ-10 Pave Knife, essentially an improvised Airborne Laser Designator (ALD). ALD was not a pod, but a hand-held laser operated by the weapon systems officer to mark targets for Paveway laser-guided bombs. The Ford Aerospace AN/AVQ-10 Pave Knife contained a steerable laser and closed-circuit television camera. The WSO or bombardier/navigator (BN) monitored the TV image with a small Sony TV in the cockpit and steered the laser onto the target with a hand controller, then passing the target information to the aircraft's gun sight. It was superseded by the Westinghouse AN/AVQ-23 Pave Spike. This was an electro-optical laser designator pod used to direct laser-guided bombs to target in daylight, visual conditions. It contained a laser boresighted to a television camera, which displayed its image on a cockpit screen. It was used in US Air Force F-4D/E variants from 1974 to 1982. The pod was mounted in the F-4's left forward missile well, in place of a AIM-7 Sparrow missile. Finally, the Phantoms used the Ford Aerospace AN/AVQ-26 Pave Tack, which had to be carried on the centerline station in place of the standard drop tank, and it imposed a substantial drag penalty. Crews referred to it as "Pave Drag" and it was generally unpopular. Some aircraft were wired to carry the GBU-8/-9 HOBOS. For air-to-air missions, the F-4D was initially armed with infrared guided AIM-4D Falcon missiles, later replaced by AIM-9B/-D Sidewinder. Also, Raytheon AIM-7 Sparrow AAM's, SUU-16/A or SUU-23/A gun pods and Martin Marietta AGM-62 Walleye were carried. Submodels include the NF-4D development airframe and GF-4D ground instruction airframe. The designation EF-4D was given to four F-4Ds modified for the Wild Weasel IV SAM suppression role.

Gunfighter model, 1,328 aircraft delivered with General Dynamics (General Electric) M61 Vulcan gun, J79-GE-17 engines, leading-edge slats, AN/APQ-120(V) radar, improved navigation equipment and increased fuel capacity. Later production blocks equipped with Target Identification System Electro Optical (TISEO), AN/AVQ-26 Pave Tack target designator. Delivered to US Air Force, Turkey, Iran and Greece (some converted to F-4E(SRA)). Licence built by Mitsubishi as F-4EJ, delivered to Israel as F-4E(I) Kurnass. Israeli aircraft can carry Shafrir 2 or Python (3,4), in addition to the AIM-7 Sparrow and AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles. Three Israeli aircraft were modified by General Dynamics as F-4E(S) Peace Jack, equipped with HIAC-1 LOROP long-range high resolution reconnaissance equipment. Submodels include GF-4E (ground instruction airframe), NF-4E (development aircraft) and QF-4E (target drone). The F-4E(F) was a proposal for a stripped, low cost, single-seat Phantom intended for the West German Luftwaffe. It was derived from the F-4E and differed by having the rear cockpit faired over and simplified avionics fitted. It had no AIM-7 Sparrow capability. It had modified slats, but was otherwise externally quite similar to the stock F-4E. Initially, the West German government intended to purchase the F-4E(F) for its interceptor squadrons. However, before any F-4E(F) aircraft could be built, the West German government changed its mind and opted for a more straightforward two-seat adaptation of the F-4E Phantom, the F-4F. No F-4E(F) aircraft were ever built. In US Air Force service, it was replaced by the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon.

Reconnaissance aircraft, based on the F-4E airframe, delivered to Greece, Iran, Israel (as Oref, Raven), Turkey and Germany. Licence built by Mitsubishi as RF-4EJ. In addition to the standard IRLS en SLAR, German aircraft were equipped with Loral AN/UPD-6, Isreali aircraft had the Loral AN/UPD-9 variant installed.

Simplified export for German Luftwaffe, based on the F-4E airframe, but with simplified AN/APQ-120 radar and lacking AIM-7 Sparrow armament and air to air refuelling capability. Measures taken to lighten the airframe were the deletion of the rear number-7 fuel tank, the mid-air refuelling receptacle (later restored), and the BLC system, cutting the weight of the F-4F by 1,500 kilograms (3,300 pounds) compared to the F-4E. Due to its lower weight the F-4F performance is somewhat better than the F-4E. Powered by MTU license built J79-MTU-17A turbojet engines. The first F-4F was delivered September 5, 1973, followed by 174 other airframes. The US based German Luftwaffe Phantoms were unofficially designated TF-4F and NTF-4F (development aircraft).
F-4G Wild Weasel V

Modification of 116 Block 42 to 45 F-4Es for the Suppression of Enemy Air Defence (SEAD) mission. Initially designated EF-4E, the F-4G Wild Weasel has an extensive ECM- and ESM-suite, based on the Loral AN/APR-38 EW with 52 antennae. The F-4G was equipped with Laser Guided Bombs and Anti Radiation Missiles, such as the Shrike, AGM-88 HARM or the Raytheon (Hughes) AGM-65 Maverick AGM. Decommissioned F-4Gs were modified by Tracor (now BAE Systems) to QF-4G target drone. Back in 1963, the designator F-4G was used for twelve converted F-4Bs to support the development of a ground control system for fleet air defence.

Designation for 552 new built aiframes, based on the F-4B, with improved smokeless J79-GE-10A turbojets, new AN/AWG-10 radar and improved wings with drooping ailerons and slotted tailplanes. Weapon delivery was greatly improved by the AN/AJB-7 Low Altitude Bombing System which provided substantially better ground attack capability over the Lear AN/AJB-3 fitted to the F-4B. The AN/AAA-4 infra-red sensor was finally removed. The three YF-4J prototypes were modified F-4B models. Submodels include the EF-4J (EW-trainer), QF-4J (target drone) and F-4J(UK) (designation for 15 F-4J transferred to the Royal Air Force).

Designation for 50 Phantom FG1 strike fighters delivered to the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm. The Royal Navy Phantom was originally to have been based on the US Navy F-4B. In fact, the original designation for the Royal Navy Phantom was to have been F-4B(RN). However, a change in plans led McDonnell to use the F-4J as the basis for the new aircraft, and the designation F-4K was assigned to the project. McDonnell built two YF-4K-26 prototypes and two F-4K-27 production aircraft. Main difference with model was the RB.168-25R Spey 203 turbofan. The additional power offered by the Spey was thought to be essential in order to provide sufficient power to operate the Phantom safely from smaller British aircraft carriers. In addition, the Spey was able to provide more bleed air for the boundary layer control system, which would permit slower approach speeds. However, the increased power of these engines required that the air intake area be increased by twenty percent and that the lower portion of the aft fuselage be redesigned. This did not prove to be an unqualified success. The larger air flow required larger air intakes, resulting in a 20% larger frontal area and subsequently increased drag. To make things worse, the wider engines required a redesign of the engine bay, ruining aircraft's drag-reducing area rule contours. As a result - aside from a massive increase in costs - the Spey equipped Phantoms were slower (especially at altitude), had a lower service ceiling and a worse rate of climb than the J79 powered versions. On the other hand, due to the turbofan's lower fuel consumption, it had a 15% better range. Radar was the Ferranti AN/AWG-11 (licence built AN/AWG-10) pulse doppler radar. The Phantom FG1 was initially armed with four Raytheon AIM-7 Sparrow missiles (in 1979 replaced by British Aerospace Skyflash missiles) and four AIM-9G Sidewinder missiles, later replaced by the later AIM-9L model. In the strike role, the Phantom FG1 could be armed with the WE177 nuclear bomb and Bullpup air-to-surface missiles. The first British Phantom arrived April 29, 1968 and served with the Royal Navy onboard HMS Ark Royal carriers. Only 24 out of the 52 ordered ever served with the Royal Navy, the other 28 being diverted to the Royal Air Force as Phantom FGR2.

Production model for the Royal Air Force, designated Phantom FGR2. Equipped with Spey turbofan engines and Ferranti AN/AWG-12 fire control radar, with better ground mapping modes than the Ferranti AN/AWG-12 fitted to the Phantom FG1. Unlike the Phantom FG1, the Phantom FGR2 could be armed with a belly mounted SUU-23/A gun pod. The YF-4M prototype flew February 17, 1967. The first Phantom FGR2 arrived in July 1968 and ultimately saw service in 14 Royal Air Force squadrons, serving in the air defence, reconnaissance and strike roles. The Phantom served in the Royal Air Force until 1992, when No. 72 Squadron disbanded and the other air defence squadrons were re-equipped with Panavia Tornado F2 fighters.

Designation for 178 modernised US Navy F-4B airframes. Retrofitted with J79-GE-10 turbojets and leading edge slats as fitted to the F-4E and F-4J avionics. Submodel is the QF-4N target drone.

Designation for 265 modernised US Navy F-4J airframes, retrofitted with J79-GE-10B turbojets, updated AN/AWG-10B fire control radar and F-4E leading-edge slats. One way that the F-4S could be externally distinguished from the earlier F-4N was by the shorter upper intake fairings of the S. Target drone designated QF-4S.
Mid-life upgrades
F-4F Peace Rhine

F-4F upgrade which upgraded the AN/APQ-120 radar and introduced the AIM-9L Sidewinder and AGM-65 Maverick AGMs to the German F-4F fleet. Some 90 F-4Fs were upgraded by DASA between 1975 and 1983.

Kampfwertsteigerung (or Improved Combat Efficiency) midlife-update for German F-4Fs. Fitted with AN/APG-65GY radar and wired for Raytheon (Hughes) AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles. Also, updated AN/ALR-68(V)3 radar warning receivers were fitted. The first F-4F-KWS flew May 2, 1990 and conversion was completed in October 1996.
F-4E Peace Icarus 2000

An advanced version of the KWS upgrade was fitted to Greek F-4E aircraft. In addition to the KWS standard, the Greek upgrade includes integration of the Rafael Litening II pod, AGM-142 Popeye missile, the latest GBU-series JDAM munitions and the European developed IRIS-T air-to-air missile. First flight was April 28, 1999. The final of 38 converted Phantoms was redelivered by DASA in 2004.

Alternative designation - used by Hellenic Aerospace Industries - for the Peace Icarus 2000 upgrade. Upgraded aircraft be can identified by their all-grey radome (no black tip anymore), the Ghost colour scheme, the four IFF transponders just in front of the windscreen and by a small GPS antenna just forward of the in-flight refuel receptacle.

Updated F-4EJ Phantoms for Japanse Air Self Defence Force (JASDF) with J/APG-66J radar and wired for AIM-7E/F Sparrow, AIM-9P/L Sidewinder and locally developed Mitsubishi AAM-3 missiles. In the air-to-ground role, the F-4EJ Kai can carry two ASM-1C anti-ship missiles. Upgraded RF-4EJs were designated RF-4EJ-Kai and are equipped with ANAPQ-172 radar and Thomson-CSF Astac Elint pod. The prototype F-4EJ Kai first flew July 17, 1984. Eventually, some 90 airframes were upgraded.
F-4E Kurnass 2000

Upgrade for Israeli F-4Es, designed by Israel Aircraft Industries. Upgrade includes structural improvements (replacement of aircraft skin plating), new hydraulic systems, additional fuel tanks and complete rewiring. New avionics include Elta EL/M-2002 radar, Kaiser HUD, Elbit LCD HDDs, HOTAS and Mil-Std-1553B databus. Planned re-engining with Pratt & Whitney PW1120 turbofan engines was cancelled. IAI also modified 84 Turkish F-4Es to F-4E-2000.
F-4E/2020 Terminator

In 1995, Israel Aircraft Industries of Israel implemented an upgrade similar to Kurnass 2000 on 54 Turkish F-4Es which were dubbed the F-4E 2020 Terminator. Dedicated to air-ground with Popeye-1/2, LGB, AGM-65 Mavericks and Litening III.
F-4E Simsek

Another local Turkish upgrade, dubbed Simsek (Lightning), introduces new avionics, navigation and secure digital communications equipment, plus replacement flight software and improved mission planning equipment. Related structural renovation work is being conducted by the air force's maintenance centre in Eskisehir. The first of 16 upgraded aircraft was delivered September 2010.
Phantom proposals and special versions

The former YRF-4C prototype became known as the Precision Aircraft Control Technology (PACT) demonstrator. It made its first flight with the new FBW system on April 29, 1972. For this program, it was fitted with a set of canard tailplanes mounted on the upper air intakes. These tailplanes had 20 degrees of movement. The first flight in the PACT configuration took place on April 29, 1974. In order to move the center of gravity to the rear and to destabilize the aircraft in pitch, lead ballast was added to the rear fuselage. A total of 30 test flights were made.

A 1966 proposal to the Royal Navy for a version of the F-4M with better catapult performance and a lower carrier approach speed than that of the F-4M. The F-4(HL) was to have been powered by a pair of Rolls-Royce RB.168-27R turbofans. It was to have had a 14-inch longer fuselage and was to have been equipped with wings with longer span (43 feet 5 1/2 inches, as compared to 38 feet 4 7/8 inches for the F-4M). Cancelled.

Proposed swing-wing model for US Navy as a less expensive alternative to the Grumman F-14 Tomcat. The wings would be shoulder-mounted and would be able to sweep from 23 to 75.5 degrees. The design has a striking resemblance to the Mikoyan Gurevich MiG-23. Cancelled.

Proposed version, powered by Rolls Royce RB.168-25R Spey turbofans and to be armed with either six Sparrow III missiles or two Phoenix long-range missiles. The increased power made available by the Spey would make the Phantom capable of being operated from smaller aircraft carriers which had previously used the Vought F-8 Crusader for defense. Cancelled.

Proposed swing-wing model for Royal Air Force. Cancelled.

At one time to have been applied to the F-4X project, which was a joint US/Israeli proposal for a special reconnaissance version of the Phantom that was to have been capable of Mach 3 performance. However, it is now believed that the designation F-4P was, in fact, never assigned to any Phantom project.

The F-4T was a late 1970s proposal by McDonnell for a stripped F-4E optimized for the air superiority role. All air-to-ground capability was to be eliminated, the armament consisting solely of the built-in M61 Vulcan cannon, the four belly-mounted Sparrow missiles, and the four wing-mounted Sidewinder missiles. A digital computer was to have handled the weapons system. By the late 1970s, the Phantom was clearly old technology, and no customers ever expressed any interest in the F-4T. The project was abandoned before anything could be built.

Mach 3 capable model with Pre Compressor Cooling, developed by General Dynamics. Based on standard F-4E aiframe, the F-4X would be capable of cruise speeds of Mach 2.4 and maximum speed of Mach 3.2. Configured as reconnaissance aircraft, an RF-4X would be capable of covering 62.160 km2 within 4 minutes when travelling at 4.100 km/h. Cancelled.
Super Phantom

Phantom modernization program, jointly developed by 1984 proposal, developed by Boeing and Pratt & Whitney, targeted primarily at foreign users of the Phantom. McDonnell had already turned down a similar idea, citing the fact that the Phantom was already old technology and fearing that Phantom upgrades would compete with their F-15 Eagle, which they also hoped to sell on the export market. To be powered by two Pratt & Whitney PW1120 turbofans and modernized avionics.

General characteristics

Crew: 2
Length: 63 ft 0 in (19.2 m)
Wingspan: 38 ft 4.5 in (11.7 m)
Height: 16 ft 6 in (5.0 m)
Wing area: 530.0 ft (49.2 m)
Airfoil: NACA 0006.464 root, NACA 0003-64 tip
Empty weight: 30,328 lb (13,757 kg)
Loaded weight: 41,500 lb (18,825 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 61,795 lb (28,030 kg)
Powerplant: 2 General Electric J79-GE-17A axial compressor turbojets, 11,905 lbf dry thrust (52.9 kN), 17,845 lbf in afterburner (79.4 kN) each
Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0224
Drag area: 11.87 ft (1.10 m)
Aspect ratio: 2.77
Fuel capacity: 1,994 U.S. gal (7,549 L) internal, 3,335 U.S. gal (12,627 L) with three external tanks (370 U.S. gal (1,420 L) tanks on the outer wing hardpoints and either a 600 or 610 U.S. gal (2,310 or 2,345 L) tank for the centerline station).
Maximum landing weight: 36,831 lb (16,706 kg)


Maximum speed: Mach 2.23 (1,472 mph, 2,370 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m)
Cruise speed: 506 kn (585 mph, 940 km/h)
Combat radius: 367 nmi (422 mi, 680 km)
Ferry range: 1,403 nmi (1,615 mi, 2,600 km) with 3 external fuel tanks
Service ceiling: 60,000 ft (18,300 m)
Rate of climb: 41,300 ft/min (210 m/s)
Wing loading: 78 lb/ft (383 kg/m)
lift-to-drag: 8.58
Thrust/weight: 0.86 at loaded weight, 0.58 at MTOW
Takeoff roll: 4,490 ft (1,370 m) at 53,814 lb (24,410 kg)
Landing roll: 3,680 ft (1,120 m) at 36,831 lb (16,706 kg)

VF-96 F-4J "Showtime 100" armed with Sidewinder and Sparrow missiles.


Up to 18,650 lb (8,480 kg) of weapons on nine external hardpoints, including general purpose bombs, cluster bombs, TV- and laser-guided bombs, rocket pods (UK Phantoms 6 Matra rocket pods with 18 SNEB 68 mm rockets each), air-to-ground missiles, anti-runway weapons, anti-ship missiles, targeting pods, reconnaissance pods, and nuclear weapons. Baggage pods and external fuel tanks may also be carried.
4 AIM-7 Sparrow in fuselage recesses plus 4 AIM-9 Sidewinders on wing pylons; upgraded Hellenic F-4E and German F-4F ICE carry AIM-120 AMRAAM, Japanese F-4EJ Kai carry AAM-3, Hellenic F-4E will carry IRIS-T in future. Iranian F-4s could potentially carry Russian and Chinese missiles. UK Phantoms carried Skyflash missiles[117]
1 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan 6-barreled gatling cannon, 640 rounds
4 AIM-9 Sidewinder, Python-3 (F-4 Kurnass 2000), IRIS-T (F-4E AUP Hellenic Air Force)
4 AIM-7 Sparrow, AAM-3(F-4EJ Kai)
4 AIM-120 AMRAAM for F-4F ICE, F-4E AUP (Hellenic Air Force)
6 AGM-65 Maverick
4 AGM-62 Walleye
4 AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-88 HARM, AGM-78 Standard ARM
4 GBU-15
18 Mk.82, GBU-12
5 Mk.84, GBU-10, GBU-14
18 CBU-87, CBU-89, CBU-58
Nuclear weapons, including the B28EX, B61, B43 and B57
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AIRWOLF US Coast Guard

The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and one of seven uniformed services. In addition to being a military branch at all times, it is unique among the armed forces in that it is also a maritime law enforcement agency (with jurisdiction both domestically and in international waters) and a federal regulatory agency. It is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security during peacetime and of the Department of the Navy at wartime[2].

As one of the five armed forces and the smallest armed service of the United States, its stated mission is to protect the public, the environment, and the United States economic and security interests in any maritime region in which those interests may be at risk, including international waters and America's coasts, ports, and inland waterways.

The Coast Guard has many statutory missions, which are listed below in this article.


[edit] Description

The Coast Guard, in its literature, describes itself as "a military, maritime, multi-mission service within the Department of Homeland Security dedicated to protecting the safety and security of America."

In addition, the Coast Guard has separate legal authority than the other four armed services. The Coast Guard operates under Title 10 of the United States Code and its other organic authorities, e.g., Titles 6, 14, 19, 33, 46, etc., simultaneously. Because of its legal authority, the Coast Guard can conduct military operations under the Department of Defense or directly for the President in accordance with 14 USC 1-3.

[edit] Role

The United States Coast Guard has a broad and important role in maritime homeland security, maritime law enforcement (MLE), search and rescue (SAR), marine environmental protection (MEP), and the maintenance of river, intracoastal and offshore aids to navigation (ATON). Founded by Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue Cutter Service on August 4, 1790, it lays claim to being the United States' oldest continuous seagoing service. As of October 2006, the Coast Guard had approximately 42,000 men and women on active duty, 8,100 reservists, 7,000 full time civilian employees and 30,000 Auxiliarists.[3]

While most military services are either at war or training for war, the Coast Guard is deployed every day. With a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on even the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is frequently lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in TIME Magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to [a military effort when catastrophe hits] may be as a model of flexibility, and most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself."[4]

The Coast Guard's motto is Semper Paratus, meaning "Always Ready". The service has participated in every U.S. conflict from 1790 through to today, including landing US troops on D-Day and on the Pacific Islands in World War II, in extensive patrols and shore bombardment during the Vietnam War, and multiple roles in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Maritime interception operations, coastal security, transportation security, and law enforcement detachments are its major roles in Iraq.

The formal name for a member of the Coast Guard is "Coast Guardsman", irrespective of gender. An informal name is "Coastie." "Team Coast Guard" refers to the three branches of the Coast Guard as a whole: Active Duty, Reservists, Civilians and the Auxiliary.

[edit] Search and Rescue

See National Search and Rescue Committee

Search and Rescue (SAR) is one of the Coast Guard's oldest missions. The National Search and Rescue Plan[5] designates the United States Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, and the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain Rescue Coordination Centers to coordinate this effort, and have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue.

* USCG Rescue Coordination Centers

[edit] National Response Center

Operated by the U.S. Coast Guard, the National Response Center (NRC) is the sole U.S. Government point of contact for reporting environmental spills, contamination, and pollution

The primary function of the National Response Center (NRC) is to serve as the sole national point of contact for reporting all oil, chemical, radiological, biological, and etiological discharges into the environment anywhere in the United States and its territories. In addition to gathering and distributing spill data for Federal On-Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC also takes Terrorist/Suspicious Activity Reports and Maritime Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan.[6]

* U.S. National Response Team

[edit] Authority as an armed service

The five uniformed services that make up the Armed Forces are defined in 10 U.S.C. § 101(a)(4):
“ The term "armed forces" means the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. ”

The Coast Guard is further defined by 14 U.S.C. § 1:
“ The Coast Guard as established January 28, 1915, shall be a military service and a branch of the armed forces of the United States at all times. The Coast Guard shall be a service in the Department of Homeland Security, except when operating as a service in the Navy. ”

Coast Guard organization and operation is as set forth in Title 33 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

On February 25, 2003, the Coast Guard was placed under the Department of Homeland Security. The Coast Guard reports directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security. However, under 14 U.S.C. § 3 as amended by section 211 of the Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2006, upon the declaration of war and when Congress so directs in the declaration, or when the President directs, the Coast Guard operates under the Department of Defense as a service in the Department of the Navy. 14 U.S.C. § 2 authorizes the Coast Guard to enforce federal law. Further, the Coast Guard is exempt from and not subject to the restrictions of the Posse Comitatus Act which restrict the law enforcement activities of the other four military services within United States territory.

On October 17, 2007, the Coast Guard joined with the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raised the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war.[7] This new strategy charted a course for the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent regional crises, manmade or natural, from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to avoid negative impacts to the United States. During the launch of the new U.S. maritime strategy at the International Seapower Symposium at the U.S. Naval War College, 2007, Coast Guard Commandant Admiral Thad Allen said the new maritime strategy reinforced the time-honored missions the service carried out in this U.S. since 1790. "It reinforces the Coast Guard maritime strategy of safety, security and stewardship, and it reflects not only the global reach of our maritime services but the need to integrate and synchronize and act with our coalition and international partners to not only win wars ... but to prevent wars," Allen said.[8]

[edit] Authority as a law enforcement agency

14 U.S.C. § 89 is the principal source of Coast Guard enforcement authority.

14 U.S.C. § 143 and 19 U.S.C. § 1401 empower US Coast Guard Active and Reserves members as customs officers. This places them under 19 U.S.C. § 1589a, which grants customs officers general law enforcement authority, including the authority to:

(1) carry a firearm;
(2) execute and serve any order, warrant, subpoena, summons, or other process issued under the authority of the United States;
(3) make an arrest without a warrant for any offense against the United States committed in the officer's presence or for a felony, cognizable under the laws of the United States committed outside the officer's presence if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony; and
(4) perform any other law enforcement duty that the Secretary of Homeland Security may designate.

The U.S. Government Accountability Office Report to the House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary on its 2006 Survey of Federal Civilian Law Enforcement Functions and Authorities identified the U.S. Coast Guard as one of 104 federal components employed which employed law enforcement officers.[9] The Report also included a summary table of the authorities of the U.S. Coast Guard's 192 special agents and 3,780 maritime law enforcement boarding officers.[10]

Coast Guardsmen have the legal authority to carry their service-issued firearms on and off base, thus giving them greater flexibility when being called to service. This is not always done, however, in practice; at many Coast Guard stations, commanders prefer to have all service-issued weapons in armories. Still, one court has held that Coast Guard boarding officers are qualified law enforcement officers authorized to carry personal firearms off-duty for self-defense.[11]

As members of a military service, Coast Guardsmen on active and reserve service are subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice and receive the same pay and allowances as members of the same pay grades in the other uniformed services.

[edit] History

Main article: History of the United States Coast Guard

Marines holding a sign thanking the US Coast Guard after the battle of Guam.
Marines holding a sign thanking the US Coast Guard after the battle of Guam.

The roots of the Coast Guard lie in the United States Revenue Cutter Service established by Alexander Hamilton under the Department of the Treasury on August 4, 1790. The first USCG station was in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Until the re-establishment of the United States Navy in 1798, the Revenue Cutter Service was the only naval force of the early U.S. It was established to collect taxes from a brand new nation of patriot smugglers. When the officers were out at sea, they were told to crack down on piracy; while they were at it, they might as well rescue anyone in distress.[12]

"First Fleet" is a term occasionally used as an informal reference to the US Coast Guard, although as far as one can detect the United States has never in fact officially used this designation with reference either to the Coast Guard or any element of the US Navy. The informal appellation honors the fact that between 1790 and 1798, there was no United States Navy and the cutters which were the predecessor of the US Coast Guard were the only warships protecting the coast, trade, and maritime interests of the new republic.[13]

The modern Coast Guard can be said to date to 1915, when the Revenue Cutter Service merged with the United States Life-Saving Service and Congress formalized the existence of the new organization. In 1939, the U.S. Lighthouse Service was brought under its purview. In 1942, the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation was transferred to the Coast Guard. In 1967, the Coast Guard moved from the Department of the Treasury to the newly formed Department of Transportation, an arrangement that lasted until it was placed under the Department of Homeland Security in 2002 as part of legislation designed to more efficiently protect American interests following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

In times of war, the Coast Guard or individual components of it can operate as a service of the Department of the Navy. This arrangement has a broad historical basis, as the Guard has been involved in wars as diverse as the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, and the American Civil War, in which the cutter Harriet Lane fired the first naval shots attempting to relieve besieged Fort Sumter. The last time the Coast Guard operated as a whole under the Navy was in World War II. More often, military and combat units within the Coast Guard will operate under Navy operational control while other Coast Guard units will remain under the Department of Homeland Security.

[edit] Organization

Main article: Organization of the United States Coast Guard

The headquarters of the Coast Guard is at 2100 Second Street, SW, in Washington, D.C. In 2005, the Coast Guard announced tentative plans to relocate to the grounds of the former St. Elizabeths Hospital in Washington. That project is currently on hold because of environmental, historical, and congressional concerns. As of July 2006, there are several possible locations being considered, including the current headquarters location.

[edit] Personnel

[edit] Commissioned Officer Corps

There are many routes by which individuals can become commissioned officers in the US Coast Guard. The most common are:

[edit] United States Coast Guard Academy

Main article: United States Coast Guard Academy

The United States Coast Guard Academy is located on the Thames River in New London, Connecticut. It is the only military academy to which no Congressional or presidential appointments are made. All cadets enter by open competition utilizing SAT scores, high school grades, extracurricular activities, and other criteria. About 225 cadets are commissioned ensigns each year. Graduates of the Academy are obligated to serve five years on active duty. Most graduates (about 70%) are assigned to duty aboard a Coast Guard cutter after graduation, either as Deck Watch Officers (DWOs) or as Engineer Officers in Training (EOITs). Smaller numbers are assigned directly to flight training (about 10% of the class) at the Naval Flight Training Center in Pensacola, Florida or to shore duty at Coast Guard Sectors, Districts, or Area headquarters unit.

[edit] Officer Candidate School

In addition to the Academy, prospective officers may enter the Coast Guard through the Officer Candidate School (OCS) at the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut. OCS is a rigorous 17-week course of instruction which prepares candidates to serve effectively as officers in the United States Coast Guard. In addition to indoctrinating students into a military life-style, OCS also provides a wide range of highly technical information necessary for performing the duties of a Coast Guard officer.

Graduates of the program typically receive a commission in the Coast Guard at the rank of Ensign, but some with advanced graduate degrees can enter as Lieutenant (junior grade) or Lieutenant. Graduating OCS officers entering Active Duty are required to serve a minimum of three years, while graduating Reserve officers are required to serve four years. Graduates may be assigned to a ship, flight training, to a staff job, or to an operations ashore billet. However, first assignments are based on the needs of the Coast Guard. Personal desires and performance at OCS are considered. All graduates must be available for worldwide assignment.

In addition to United States citizens, foreign cadets and candidates also attend Coast Guard officer training. OCS represents the source of the majority of commissions in the Coast Guard, and is the primary channel through which enlisted ranks can ascend to the officer corps.

[edit] Direct Commission Officer Program

The Coast Guard's Direct Commission Officer course is administered by Officer Candidate School. Depending on the specific program and background of the individual, the course is three, four or five weeks long. The first week of the five-week course is an indoctrination week. The DCO program is designed to commission officers with highly specialized professional training or certain kinds of previous military experience. For example, lawyers entering as JAGs, doctors, intelligence officers, and others can earn commissions through the DCO program. (Chaplains are provided to the Coast Guard by the US Navy.)

[edit] College Student Pre-Commissioning Initiative (CSPI)

The College Student Pre-Commissioning Initiative (CSPI) is a scholarship program for college sophomores. This program provides students with valuable leadership, management, law enforcement, navigation and marine science skills and training. It also provides full payment of school tuition, fees, textbooks, a salary, medical insurance and other benefits during a student's junior and senior year of college. The CSPI program guarantees training at Officer Candidate School (OCS) upon successful completion of all program requirements. Each student is expected to complete his/her degree and all Coast Guard training requirements. Following the completion of OCS and commission as a Coast Guard officer, each student will be required to serve on active duty (full time) as an officer for 3 years.

Benefits: Full tuition, books and fees paid for two years, monthly salary of approximately $2,000, medical and life insurance, 30 days paid vacation per year, leadership training.

[edit] ROTC

Unlike the other armed services, the Coast Guard does not sponsor an ROTC program. It does, however, sponsor one Junior ROTC ("JROTC") program at the MAST Academy.

[edit] Chief Warrant Officers

Highly qualified enlisted personnel from E-6 through E-9, and with a minimum of eight years of experience, can compete each year for appointment as a Chief Warrant Officer (or CWO). Successful candidates are chosen by a board and then commissioned as Chief Warrant Officers (CWO-2) in one of sixteen specialties. Over time Chief Warrant Officers may be promoted to CWO-3 and CWO-4. The ranks of Warrant Officer (WO-1) and CWO-5 are not currently used in the Coast Guard. Chief Warrant Officers may also compete for the Chief Warrant Officer to Lieutenant program. If selected, the officer will be promoted to Lieutenant (O-3E). The "E" designates over four years active duty service as a Warrant Officer or Enlisted member and entitles the member to a higher rate of pay than other lieutenants.

[edit] Enlisted

Newly enlisted personnel are sent to 8 weeks of Basic Training at the Coast Guard Training Center Cape May in Cape May, New Jersey.

The current nine Recruit Training Objectives are:

* Self-discipline
* Military skills
* Marksmanship
* Vocational skills and academics
* Military bearing
* Physical fitness and wellness
* Water survival and swim qualifications
* Esprit de corps
* Core values (Honor, Respect, and Devotion to Duty)

[edit] Service Schools

Following graduation, most members are sent to their first unit while they await orders to attend advanced training in Class "A" Schools, in their chosen rating, the naval term for Navy Enlisted Code (NEC). Members who earned high ASVAB scores or who were otherwise guaranteed an "A" School of choice while enlisting can go directly to their "A" School upon graduation from Boot Camp.

[edit] The Coast Guard Maritime Law Enforcement Academy

The Coast Guard Maritime Law Enforcement Academy is located at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) in Charleston, South Carolina, following relocation and merger of the former Law Enforcement School at Yorktown, Virginia, and the former Boarding Team Member School at Petaluma, California.

The Academy presents five courses:

* Boarding officer
* Boarding team member, which is a small part of the boarding officer course
* Radiation detection course, which is a level II operator course
* Vessel inspection class for enforcing Captain of the Port orders.

Training ranges from criminal law and the use of force to boarding team member certification to the use of radiation detection equipment. Much of the training is live, using handguns with laser inserts or firing non-lethal rounds.[14]

[edit] Petty Officers

Petty officers follow career development paths very similar to those of US Navy petty officers.

[edit] Chief Petty Officers

Enlisted Coast Guard members who have reached the pay grade of E-7, or Chief Petty Officer, must attend the U.S. Coast Guard Chief Petty Officer Academy at Training Center Petaluma in Petaluma, California, or an equivalent Department of Defense school, in order to be advanced to pay grade E-8. United States Air Force master sergeants, as well as international students representing their respective maritime services, are also eligible to attend the Academy. The basic themes of this school are:

* Professionalism
* Leadership
* Communications
* Systems thinking and lifelong learning

[edit] Ranks
Officer Grade Structure of the United States Coast Guard

Vice Admiral

Rear Admiral
(upper half)

Rear Admiral
(lower half)





Junior Grade


O-10 O-9 O-8 O-7 O-6 O-5 O-4 O-3 O-2 O-1

Warrant Officer Grade Structure of the United States Coast Guard

Non Commissioned Officer Grade Structure of the United States Coast Guard[2]
Crossed anchors in the graphics indicate a rating of Boatswain's Mate
Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard

Area CMC/MCPOCG (Reserve Forces) Command Master Chief Petty Officer

Master Chief Petty Officer

Senior Chief Petty Officer

Chief Petty Officer

Petty Officer First Class

Petty Officer Second Class

Petty Officer Third Class

E-9 E-8 E-7 E-6 E-5 E-4

Enlisted Grade Structure of the United States Coast Guard

Seaman Apprentice

Seaman Recruit

E-3 E-2 E-1

[edit] Equipment

The equipment of the USCG consists of thousands of vehicles (boats, ships, helicopters, fixed-winged aircraft, automobiles), communication systems (radio equipment, radio networks, radar, data networks), weapons, infrastructure such as United States Coast Guard Air Stations and local Small Boat Stations, each in a large variety.

Main article: Equipment of the United States Coast Guard

[edit] Symbols

[edit] Core values

The Coast Guard, like the other armed services of the United States, has a set of core values which serve as basic ethical guidelines to Coast Guard members. As listed in the recruit pamphlet, The Helmsman,[15] they are:

* Honor: Absolute integrity is our standard. A Coast Guardsman demonstrates honor in all things: never lying, cheating, or stealing. We do the right thing because it is the right thing to do—all the time.
* Respect: We value the dignity and worth of people: whether a stranded boater, an immigrant, or a fellow Coast Guard member; we honor, protect, and assist.
* Devotion to Duty: A Coast Guard member is dedicated to five maritime security roles: Maritime Safety, Maritime Law Enforcement, Marine Environmental Protection, Maritime Mobility and National Defense. We are loyal and accountable to the public trust. We welcome responsibility.[16]

[edit] Coast Guard Ensign
Coast Guard Ensign
Coast Guard Ensign

The Coast Guard Ensign (flag) was first flown by the Revenue Cutter Service in 1799 to distinguish revenue cutters from merchant ships. The order stated the Ensign would be "16 perpendicular stripes, alternate red and white, the union of the ensign to be the arms of the United States in a dark blue on a white field." (There were 16 states in the United States at the time).

The purpose of the flag is to allow ship captains to easily recognize those vessels having legal authority to stop and board them. This flag is flown only as a symbol of law enforcement authority and is never carried as a parade standard. See [3]

[edit] Coast Guard Standard
Parade Standard of the U.S. Coast Guard
Parade Standard of the U.S. Coast Guard

The Coast Guard Standard is used in parades and carries the battle honors of the U.S. Coast Guard. It was derived from the jack of the Coast Guard ensign which used to fly from the stern of revenue cutters. The emblem is a blue eagle from the coat of arms of the United States on a white field. Above the eagle are the words "UNITED STATES COAST GUARD;" below the eagle is the motto, "SEMPER PARATUS" and the inscription "1790."

[edit] Racing Stripe
Racing Stripe
Racing Stripe

The Racing Stripe was designed in 1964 by the industrial design office of Raymond Loewy Associates to give the Coast Guard a distinctive, modern image and was first used in 1967. The symbol is a narrow blue bar, a narrow white stripe between, and a broad red[17] bar with the Coast Guard shield centered. The stripes are canted at a 64 degree angle, coincidentally the year the Racing Stripe was designed. The Stripe has been adopted for the use of other coast guards, such as the Canadian Coast Guard, the Italian Guardia Costiera, the Indian Coast Guard, the German Federal Coast Guard, and the Australian Customs Service. Auxiliary vessels maintained by the Coast Guard also carry the Stripe in inverted colors.

[edit] Semper Paratus

The official march of the Coast Guard is "Semper Paratus" (Latin for "Always Ready"). An audio clip can be found at [4].

[edit] Missions

Main article: Missions of the United States Coast Guard

Coast Guard Ensign (Photo U.S. Coast Guard)

USCGC Steadfast

USCG HH-65 Dolphin

USCG HH-60J JayHawk
USCG HC-130H departs Mojave

USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties

Coast Guard motor lifeboat maritime safety operation

A Coast Guard helicopter crew member looks out over post-Katrina New Orleans

The Coast Guard carries out five basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions. The five roles are:

* Maritime safety (including search and rescue)
* Maritime mobility
* maritime security
* National defense
* Protection of natural resources

The eleven statutory missions, found in section 888 of the Homeland Security Act are:

* Ports, Waterways and Coastal Security (PWCS)
* Counter Drug Law Enforcement
* Migrant Interdiction
* Other Law Enforcement (foreign fisheries)
* Living Marine Resources (domestic fisheries)
* Marine (maritime) Safety
* Marine (maritime) Environmental Protection
* Ice Operations
* Aids to Navigation (ATON)
* Defense Readiness
* Marine (maritime) Environmental Response

The OMEGA navigation system and the LORAN-C transmitters outside the USA were also run by the United States Coast Guard. The U.S. Coast Guard Omega Stations at Lamoure, North Dakota and Kāne'ohe, Hawai'i (Oahu) were both formally decommissioned and shut down on September 30, 1997.

[edit] Uniforms

In 1972, the current Coast Guard dress blue uniform was introduced for wear by both officers and enlisted personnel; the transition was completed during 1974. (Previously, a U.S. Navy-style uniform with Coast Guard insignia was worn.) Relatively similar in appearance to the old-style U.S. Air Force uniforms, the uniform consists of a blue four-pocket single breasted jacket and trousers in a slightly darker shade. A light-blue button-up shirt with a pointed collar, two front button-flap pockets, "enhanced" shoulder boards for officers, and pin-on collar insignia for Chief Petty Officers and enlisted personnel is worn when in shirt-sleeve order (known as "Tropical Blue Long"). It is similar to the World War II-era uniforms worn by Coast Guard Surfmen. Officer rank insignia parallels that of the U.S. Navy but with the gold Navy "line" star being replaced with the gold Coast Guard Shield and with the Navy blue background color replaced by Coast Guard blue. Enlisted rank insignia is also similar to the Navy with the Coast Guard shield replacing the eagle on collar and cap devices. Group Rate marks (stripes) for junior enlisted members (E-3 and below) also follow U. S. Navy convention with white for seaman, red for fireman, and green for airman. In a departure from the U. S. Navy conventions, all Petty Officers E-6 and below wear red chevrons and all Chief Petty Officers wear gold. Unlike the US Navy, officers and CPO's do not wear khaki; all personnel wear the same color uniform. See USCG Uniform Regulations [5] for current regulations.

Coast Guard officers also have a white dress uniform, typically used for formal parade and change-of-command ceremonies. Chief Petty Officers, Petty Officers, and enlisted rates wear the standard Service Dress Blue uniform for all such ceremonies, except with a white shirt (replacing the standard light-blue). A white belt may be worn for honor guards. A mess dress uniform is worn by members for formal (black tie) evening ceremonies.

The current working uniform of a majority of Coast Guard members is the Operational Dress Uniform (ODU). The ODU is similar to the Battle Dress Uniform of other armed services, both in function and style. However, the ODU is in a solid dark blue with no camouflage patterns and does not have lower pockets on the blouse. The ODU is worn with steel-toed boots in most circumstances, but low-cut black or brown boat shoes may be prescribed for certain situations. The former dark blue working uniform has been withdrawn from use by the Coast Guard but may be worn by Auxiliarists until no longer serviceable. There is a second phase of Operational Dress Uniforms currently in the trial phases. This prototype resembles the current Battle Dress blouse, which is worn on the outside, rather than tucked in.

Coast Guard members serving in expeditionary combat units such as Port Security Units, Law Enforcement Detachments, and others, wear working operational uniforms that resemble Battle Dress uniforms, complete with "woodland" or "desert" camouflage colors. These units typically serve under, or with, the other armed services in combat theaters, necessitating similar uniforms.

Enlisted Coast Guardsmen wear the combination covers for full dress, a garrison cover for Class "B," wear, and a baseball-style cover either embroidered with "U.S. Coast Guard" in gold block lettering or the name of their ship, unit or station in gold, for the ODU uniform. Male and female company commanders (the Coast Guard equivalent of Marine Corps drill instructors) at Training Center Cape May wear the traditional "Smokey the Bear" campaign hat.

A 2006 issue of the Reservist magazine was devoted to a detailed and easy to understand graphical description of all the authorized uniforms.

[edit] Issues

The Coast Guard faces several issues in the near future.

Lack of coverage affects many areas with high maritime traffic. For example, local officials in Scituate, Massachusetts, have complained that there is no permanent Coast Guard station, and the presence of the Coast Guard in winter is vital. One reason for this lack of coverage is the relatively high cost of building storm-proof buildings on coastal property; the Cape Hatteras station was abandoned in 2005 after winter storms wiped out the 12-foot (3.7 m) sand dune serving as its protection from the ocean. Faced with these issues the Coast Guard has contracted with General Dynamics C4 System to provide a complete replacement of their 1970's era radio equipment. Rescue 21 is the United States Coast Guard's advanced command, control and communications system. Created to improve the ability to assist mariners in distress and save lives and property at sea, the system is currently being installed in stages across the United States. The nation's existing maritime search and rescue (SAR) communications system has been in operation since the early 1970s. Difficult to maintain, increasingly unreliable and prone to coverage gaps, this antiquated system no longer meets the safety needs of America's growing marine traffic. In addition, it is incapable of supporting the Coast Guard's new mission requirements for homeland security, which require close cooperation with Department of Defense agencies as well as federal, state and local law enforcement authorities. Modernizing this system enhances the safety and protection of America's waterways.

Lack of strength to meet its assigned missions is being met by a legislated increase in authorized strength from 39,000 to 45,000. In addition, the volunteer Auxiliary is being called to take up more non-combatant missions. However, volunteer coverage does have limits.

Aging vessels are another problem, with the Coast Guard still operating some of the oldest naval vessels in the world. In 2005, the Coast Guard terminated contracts to upgrade the 110-foot (33.5 m) Island Class Cutters to 123-foot (37.5 m) cutters because of warping and distortion of the hulls. In late 2006, Admiral Thad Allen, Commandant of the Coast Guard, decommissioned all eight 123-foot (37 m) cutters due to dangerous conditions created by the lengthening of the hull- to include compromised watertight integrity. The Coast Guard has, as a result of the failed 110 ft (34 m) conversion, revised production schedules for the Fast Response Cutter (FRC). Of the navies and coast guards of the world's 40 largest navies, the U.S. Coast Guard's is the 38th oldest.[18]

Live fire exercises by Coast Guard boat and cutter crews in the U.S. waters of the Great Lakes attracted attention in the U.S. and Canada. The Coast Guard had proposed the establishment of 34 locations around the Great Lakes where live fire training using vessel-mounted machine guns were to be conducted periodically throughout the year. The Coast Guard said that these exercises are a critical part of proper crew training in support of the service's multiple missions on the Great Lakes, including law enforcement and anti-terrorism. Those that raised concerns about the firing exercises commented about safety concerns and that the impact on commercial shipping, tourism, recreational boating and the environment may be greater than what the Coast Guard had stated. The Coast Guard took public comment and conducted a series of nine public meetings on this issue. After receiving more than 1,000 comments, mostly opposing the Coast Guard's plan, the Coast Guard announced that they were withdrawing their proposal for target practice on the Great Lakes, although a revised proposal may be made in the future.[19][20][21][22][23]

[edit] Deployable Operations Group (DOG)

The Deployable Operations Group is a recently formed Coast Guard command. The DOG brings numerous existing deployable law enforcement, tactical and response units under a single command headed by a rear admiral. The planning for such a unit began after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and culminated with its formation on July 20th, 2007. The unit will contain several hundred highly trained Coast Guardsmen. Its missions will include maritime law enforcement, anti-terrorism, port security, and pollution response. It will include the world famous National Strike Force. Full operational capability is planned by summer 2008.[24]

[edit] Coast Guard Auxiliary

Main article: United States Coast Guard Auxiliary

The United States Coast Guard Auxiliary is the uniformed volunteer component of the United States Coast Guard, established on June 23, 1939. It works within the Coast Guard in carrying out its noncombatant and non-law enforcement missions. As of November 18, 2007 there were 30,074 active Auxiliarists. The Coast Guard has assigned primary responsibility for most recreational boating safety tasks to the Auxiliary, including public boating safety education and voluntary vessel safety checks. In recent history prior to 1997, Auxiliarists were limited to those tasks and on-water patrols supporting recreational boating safety.

In 1997, however, new legislation authorized the Auxiliary to participate in any and all Coast Guard missions except military combat and law enforcement. 33 CFR 5.31 states that: Members of the Auxiliary, when assigned to specific duties shall, unless otherwise limited by the Commandant, be vested with the same power and authority, in execution of such duties, as members of the regular Coast Guard assigned to similar duties.

Auxiliarists may support the law enforcement mission of the Coast Guard but do not directly participate in it. Auxiliarists and their vessels are not allowed to carry any weapons while serving in any Auxiliary capacity; however, they may serve as scouts, alerting regular Coast Guard units. Auxiliarists use their own vessels (i.e., boats, yachts) and aircraft, in carrying out Coast Guard missions, or apply specialized skills such as Web page design or radio watchstanding to assist the Coast Guard. When appropriately trained and qualified, they may serve upon Coast Guard vessels.

Auxiliarists undergo one of several levels of background check. For most duties, including those related to recreational boating safety, a simple identity check is sufficient. For some duties in which an Auxiliarist provides direct augmentation of Coast Guard forces, such as tasks related to port security, a more in-depth background check is required. Occasionally an Auxiliarist will need to obtain a security clearance through the Coast Guard in order to have access to classified information in the course of assigned tasking.

The basic unit of the Auxiliary is the Flotilla, which has at least 10 members and may have as many as 100. Five Flotillas in a geographical area form a Division. There are several divisions in each Coast Guard District. The Auxiliary has a leadership and management structure of elected officers, including Flotilla Commanders, Division Captains, and District Commodores, Atlantic and Pacific Area Commodores, and a national Commodore. However, legally, each Auxiliarist has the same 'rank', Auxiliarist.

In 2005, the Coast Guard transitioned to a geographical Sector organization. Correspondingly, a position of 'Sector Auxiliary Coordinator' was established. The Sector Auxiliary Coordinator is responsible for service by Auxiliarists directly to a Sector, including augmentation of Coast Guard Active Duty and Reserve forces when requested. Such augmentation is also referred to as force multiplication.

Auxiliarists wear the similar uniforms as Coast Guard officers with modified officers' insignia based on their office: the stripes on uniforms are silver, and metal insignia bear a red or blue "A" in the center. Unlike their counterparts in the Civil Air Patrol, Auxiliarists come under direct orders of the Coast Guard.

[edit] Coast Guard Reserve

Main article: United States Coast Guard Reserve

The United States Coast Guard Reserve is the military reserve force of the Coast Guard. The Coast Guard Reserve was founded on February 19, 1941. Coast Guard reservists normally drill two days a month and an additional 12 days of Active Duty for Training each year. Coast Guard reservists possess the same training and qualifications as their active duty counterparts, and as such, can be found augmenting active duty Coast Guard units every day.

During the Vietnam War and shortly thereafter, the Coast Guard considered abandoning the Reserve program, but the force was instead reoriented into force augmentation, where its principal focus was not just reserve operations, but to add to the readiness and mission execution of every day active duty personnel.

Since September 11, 2001, over 8,500 Reservists have been activated and served on tours of active duty. Coast Guard Port Security Units are entirely staffed with Reservists, except for five to seven active duty personnel. Additionally, most of the staffing the Coast Guard provides to Naval Coastal Warfare units are reservists.

The Reserve is managed by the Director of Reserve and Training, RDML Daniel R. May.

[edit] Medals and honors

See also: Awards and decorations of the United States military

One Coast Guardsman, Douglas Albert Munro, has earned the Medal of Honor, the highest military award of the United States.[25]

Six Coast Guardsmen have earned the Navy Cross and numerous men and women have earned the Distinguished Flying Cross.

The highest peacetime decoration awarded within the Coast Guard is the Homeland Security Distinguished Service Medal; prior to the transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Homeland Security, the highest peacetime decoration was the Department of Transportation Distinguished Service Medal. The highest unit award available is the Presidential Unit Citation.

In wartime, members of the Coast Guard are eligible to receive the U.S. Navy version of the Medal of Honor. A Coast Guard Medal of Honor is authorized but has not yet been developed or issued.

In May 2006, at the Change of Command ceremony when Admiral Thad Allen took over as Commandant, President George W. Bush awarded the entire Coast Guard, including the Coast Guard Auxiliary, the Coast Guard Presidential Unit Citation with hurricane device, for its efforts after Hurricane Katrina.

[edit] Organizations

[edit] Ancient Order of the Pterodactyl

Those who have piloted or flown in U.S. Coast Guard aircraft under official flight orders may join the Ancient Order of the Pterodactyl ("Flying Since the World was Flat").

[edit] USCGA Alumni Association

The United States Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association is devoted to providing service to and promoting fellowship among all U.S. Coast Guard Academy alumni and members of the Association.

Membership Types: Academy graduates and those who have attended the Academy are eligible for Regular membership; all others interested in the Academy and its Corps of Cadets are eligible for Associate membership. (Website)

[edit] Coast Guard CW Operators Association

The Coast Guard CW Operators Association (CGCWOA) is a membership organization comprised primarily of former members of the United States Coast Guard who held the enlisted rating of Radioman (RM) or Telecommunications Specialist (TC), and who employed International Morse Code (CW) in their routine communications duties on Coast Guard cutters and at shore stations. (Website)

[edit] USCG Chief Petty Officers Association

Members of this organization unite to assist members and dependents in need, assist with Coast Guard recruiting efforts, support the aims and goals of the Coast Guard Chief Petty Officers Academy, keep informed on Coast Guard matters, and assemble for social ammenties; and include Chief, Senior Chief, and Master Chief Petty Officers, active, reserve and retired. Membership is also open to all Chief Warrant Officers and Officers who have served as a Chief Petty Officer.

[edit] Publications

The Coast Guard maintains a library of publications for public use as well as publications for Coast Guard and Auxiliary use.

Coast Guard, COMDTPUB P5720.2, is the regular publication for Coast Guardsmen.

[edit] Notable Coast Guardsmen and others associated with the USCG

Source: U.S. Coast Guard

* Derroll Adams, folk musician
* Nick Adams, actor
* Brandon Alani, singer, songwriter
* Beau Bridges, actor
* Lloyd Bridges, actor
* Sid Caesar, comedian
* Lou Carnesecca, basketball coach, St. John's University
* Howard Coble, U.S. Congressman, North Carolina
* Chris Cooper, actor
* Richard Cromwell, actor
* Walter Cronkite, newscaster
* William D. Delahunt, U.S. Congressman, Massachusetts
* Mel Torme, jazz musician
* Jack Dempsey, professional boxer
* Buddy Ebsen (1908–2003), actor, comedian, dancer
* Blake Edwards, writer, director, producer
* Edwin D. Eshleman (1920-1985), former U.S. Congressman, Pennsylvania
* Arthur Fiedler, conductor
* Arthur A. Fontaine, captain, college sailing national champion, ISCA Hall of Fame
* Charles Gibson, newscaster
* Arthur Godfrey, entertainer
* Otto Graham, professional football player and coach
* Alex Haley, author of Roots and Coast Guard chief journalist
* Alan Hale, Jr., actor
* Weldon Hill, pseudonym of William R. Scott, author of novel Onionhead, based on his World War II Coast Guard service
* William Hopper, actor
* Tab Hunter, actor
* Harvey E. Johnson, Jr., Vice Admiral, Deputy Director FEMA
* Steve Knight, Vocalist for Flipsyde
* Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, athlete, actor
* Jack Kramer, tennis professional
* Jacob Lawrence, artist
* Victor Mature, actor
* Douglas Munro, the only Coast Guardsman to be awarded the Medal of Honor
* Frank Murkowski, former governor and former U.S. Senator, Alaska
* Sam Nunn, former U.S. Senator, Georgia
* Arnold Palmer, professional golfer
* Ed Parker, martial artist
* Claiborne Pell, former U.S. Senator, Rhode Island
* Jon Douglas Rainey, co-host of the Discovery Channel reality series It Takes a Thief
* Cesar Romero, actor
* Sergei I. Sikorsky, son of Igor Sikorsky and former chairman of Sikorsky Aircraft Corp. [6]
* Sloan Wilson, writer
* Dorothy C. Stratton first director of the SPARS
* Gene Taylor, U.S. Congressman, Mississippi
* Ted Turner, businessman
* Rudy Vallee, entertainer
* Tom Waits, musician and actor
* Thornton Wilder, writer
* Gig Young, actor
* Popeye, Cartoon character, had tattoos and uniforms signifying he was in the USCG. "Popeye the Sailor Meets Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" shows him under a USCG sign.

[edit] Popular culture

* The Coast Guard has been featured in several television series, such as Baywatch, Miami Vice, CSI: Miami, and Deadliest Catch; and in film.
* A comedy, Onionhead, portrayed Andy Griffith as a Coast Guard recruit.
* The 2000 film The Perfect Storm depicted the rescue operations of the USCGC Tamaroa (WMEC-166) as one of its subplots.
* Special Counter-Drug helicopter units known as Helicopter Interdictions Squadrons (HITRON) are seen in action on Bad Boys II.
* In the 2005 family comedy Yours, Mine, and Ours, Dennis Quaid plays a fictional U.S. Coast Guard Academy superintendent who marries a character played by Rene Russo and together have 18 children.
* The 2006 film The Guardian, starring Kevin Costner and Ashton Kutcher, was based on the training and operation of Coast Guard Rescue Swimmers.
* A Coast Guard cutter and its commander and crew figured prominently in Tom Clancy's book Clear and Present Danger.
* The 2008 fourth season of the television series Lost erroneously depicted air crash survivors being transported to Hawaii in a Coast Guard HC-130 aircraft. However, since the survivors had landed on the Indonesian island of Sumba (in the Indian Ocean, thousands of miles from any Coast Guard district), arrangements for their repatriation would have been the business of the US State Department.

[edit] See also
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Carnotaurus is a big ableisaurid and also the best knwon. Even its skin is knwon.
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Camarillasaurus is a new ceratosaurian from spain. Not much is known about him, fossil matrila is few. The animal was small and a quite primitive member of the ceratosaurian family, although it lived later like its famous cousin ceratosaurus. Still the animal was more derived than the plant eating limusaurus
This is the first pic ever of camarillasaurus and also the first on DA
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This is the reason why I didnt upload that much pictures the last week. I searched very long and did some research of how to draw a dilophosaurus so I can make an infographic out of it. It turned out quite god, although the legs are a bit too short. This is because the paper I used was too small. I already taped together 2 a4 pieces of papers and dint want to put 2 more on it! Dilophosaurus is a famous lower jurassic theropod and represents one of the first big theropods. He was 6 metres long and had huge teeth which were ideal for cutting through meat.
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corporate cannibals
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party on partison politics collaborated with gonzoville
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Another RevolutionaryRascal Cartoon for the Blog
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This is an alternate version of my original Second American Civil War map: [link]

In 2011 Michigan becomes the first state in the Union to repeal collective bargaining rights for public employees. Michigan and Ohio follow shortly thereafter with more radical legislation that results in "Financial Marshal Law," across much of the states, breaking up private unions as well as public ones.

In 2012 Anti-Union legislation has passed in Florida, Virginia and Pennsylvania as well, destroying one of the last major sources of campaign donations for the Democratic Party, costing them the White House and the Senate.

In 2013 Herman Cain is sworn in as the 45th President of the United States. Having won with a strong backing from the most powerful business interests, Cain begins to lead the charge for more intense Union Busting. The same year the Republican controlled Congress, as well as a number of states, pass legislation that makes it more difficult for Unions to contribute to political campaigns, and strips federal employees of their collective bargaining rights.

2014: Democratic Senator Dick Durbin collapses on the Senate floor after three straight days of filibuster, resulting in the passage of the Snyder Act, which makes the policies of Michigan's 2011 budgetary law national, granting a half a trillion dollar tax break to businesses and the rich, while eliminating tax cuts for the middle class. The law also lets the President declare whole states to be in a state of Fiscal Emergency and grant powers to local officials or appointed directors to break up any local contracts (such as collective bargaining agreements), and even remove local elected officials from office. The act sparks a national outcry and after Fiscal Martial Law is declared in many states, Wisconsin secedes from the Union. Ohio follows days later and after a bloody coup in Michigan the rest of the Rust belt joins to form the American Workers Union.

2015: The Second War between the States rages on.
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---United States of America---
Capitol: Alexandria, Virginia
Religion: Southern Baptism (33%) American Evangelism (55%), Atheist Kurzwellianism (12%)
Language: Virginian, Vulgar American
Population: 5.21 Million (368 LY)
Government: Autocracy
*President: Zachary Adams IX
Since the fall of the United States of America, the American Continent has splintered into dozens of new Kingdoms, Empires, Hoods, States, Deserets, Commonwealths and Sheriffdoms; however on the Eastern Seaboard, based around the Potomac, lies the last remnant of the United States of America. Since its establishment by President Theodore Bryan III after the loss of the Middle United States in the 22nd Century, the Washingtonian Empire has progressively fought an endless string of wars all in the effort to try and reassert itself as a major power in the former United States. At its greatest Extent in the 25th Century, the Washingtonians controlled most of the Territory East of the Mississippi, and even had conquered territory in Mexico and South America. However, after countless insurrections, the Empire has since shrunk to a shell of its former self, based in Alexandria and controlling barely beyond the immediate area of the Potomac, with its furthest extent lying in South Jersey.
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United Earth
Capital: New Washington
Largest City: Tokyo
Demonym: Human/Earthling (Tosevite)
Official Language: English (For Government and Administrative purposes; local languages not prohibited)
Government: Federal Presidential Constitutional Republic
-President: Michael Freeman
-Vice President: Chen Bingde
-Speaker of the House: Stephen Fry
-Chief Justice: Michelle Obama
Legislature: World Congress
-Upper House: Senate
-Lower House: House of Commons
-United Nations Charter 24 October 1945
-Human Resistance 2 December 2014
-United Earth Charter 24 October 2018
-Current Constitution 11 February 2019
Population: 7 Billion (2020 Census)
GDP (Nominal): 44 Trillion
Currency: Global Dollar (¤)
-United Earth Navy
--United Earth Marine Corps
-United Earth Army
--United Earth Planetary Guard
-United Earth Space Force
*USS Titan
*USS Dauntless
*USS Vanguard
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Done for some Stephen Colbert contest before.
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