Text: IruText: Iru in Other More Like This
This tutorial will cover the verb ru-verb 'iru'. As you may recall from the previous tutorial, 'aru' is used for inanimate or nonliving things. 'Iru', on the other hand, is used for living things.
'Iru' still follows the same rules as 'aru' in regards to particle use with 'ga' and 'ni'.
Let's see some examples.
Soko ni ryuugakusei ga imasu.
There is an international student there.
Notice the difference between the above and the below:
Bobu-san wa ryuugakusei desu.
Bob is an international student.
The first points out the existence of an international student whereas the latter says Bob /is/ international student.
Koko ni kame ga imasu.
There is a turtle here.
(Kame = t
Text: Verbs: Dictionary FormText: Verbs: Dictionary Form in Other More Like This
Hopefully by now you've had time to look over all the verbs that I posted previously. If not, I highly suggest doing that first before reading on!
Please note that this is not a tutorial on how to use verbs. This is only explaining them, their base form and their dictionary form. How to use them will come at a later time!
To be blunt and honest, verbs are, in my opinion, the most difficult thing to master of the Japanese language. Don't be scared though, I'll be taking you one step at a time and (hopefully) make things easy to understand and learn. So let's get to it!
Looking at all the verbs I've posted, I'm sure some of you have noticed a trend. (If not, that's fine.) All of the verbs end in an 'u'. You might have noticed that all the 'ru' verbs end in 'ru'. Well, that's where the name came from c: The 'u' verbs are verbs that can end in things other, but not excluding, 'ru'. This could be 'ku', 'mu', 'bu', 'u' (just itself), etc. An 'u' or 'ru' is added on to the verb base ('ik' as
Text: Invitation (masenka)Text: Invitation (masenka) in Other More Like This
In this tutorial, I will be going over inviting someone to join you in something. To make an invitation, you take the present negative form of the verb and add the particle 'ka' at the end. You cannot use the affirmative form to extend an invitation. It would only make a question, not an invitation.
Let's try some:
Bangohan wo tabemasen ka.
Would you like to have dinner (with me)? (Or something to that effect.)
Sakkaa wo shimasen ka.
Would you like to play soccer (with me)?
To give a reply to an invitation, you would use replies like the ones below:
Ii desu ne.
Sounds good. / It's good. / etc.
This would obviously be used as a positive response in which the person accepts your invitation. To turn someone down, you would use a reply such as the one
Text: Using Frequency AdverbsText: Using Frequency Adverbs in Other More Like This
For this tutorial, we will be making use of the frequency adverbs that I posted earlier. If you have not looked them over, I suggest you do so now.
Frequency adverbs help you better describe how often you do something, be it every day, not at all, or somewhere in between c:
Watashi wa tokidoki worumaato ni ikimasu.
I sometimes go to Walmart.
Watashi wa yoku shukudai wo shimasu.
I often do homework.
Watashi wa mainichi pan wo tabemasu.
I eat bread every day.
You do not need a particle after a frequency adverb.
To describe how infrequent you do something, you would use 'zenzen
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Verbs 2Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Verbs 2 in Other More Like This
て form of verbs
Verbs can take on many different forms. The て form of a verb does not mean anything by itself, but it can be used for a variety of structures, such as sentence joining, so it is important to learn how to change a verb into its て form.
In Japanese, there are 3 types of verbs: いちだん (ichidan) verbs, ごだん(godan) verbs and irregular verbs.
There are only 2 irregular verbs which do not follow any rules when taking on different forms so they need to be rote learned. Generally, there are more ごだん verbs than there are いちだん verbs.
For information on how to tell verbs apart, please read the grammar guide "Distinguishing Verbs".
Formation for いちだん verbs
Take the verb stem - that is, the part of the verb that comes before ます(masu) - and add て to it. Simple!
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Adjective useMystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Adjective use in Other More Like This
Adjectives are describing words and are used to describe nouns. Something we've all learnt since we were at primary school. Where some languages, such as French, distinguish between
feminine and masculine adjectives, Japanese distinguishes between い-adjectives (i-adjectives) and な-adjectives (na-adjectives). Because I am a lazy person, for the rest of the lesson whenever the word "い-adjective" or "な-adjective" comes up, I will use the abbreviation "adj".
Distinguishing between the two types
There is no clear cut way of telling whether an adjective is an い-adj or な-adj. The only way of knowing is to rote learn them!
However, I know a couple of things which should help:
If the final character is い, it is most likely to be an い-adj. It is not definite, but it's likely.
e.g. うれしい (ureshii) for "happy" and おいしい (oish
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Ability to doMystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Ability to do in Other More Like This
Ability - I can...
There are two ways to say "Able to do something" in Japanese. One is using -られる (-rareru) which is the potential form of a verb. The method I'm going to explain will be できる (dekiru) which is easier to use but lengthier.
Aは verb (plain present)ことが できます。
A-wa verb (plain present) koto ga dekimasu.
A can do verb
Note that the particle that comes after the verb is が。
The plain present form of the verb is also known as the dictionary form. This is the form in which the verb is found in a dictionary. It is NOT the verb stem (the verb stem is the part of the verb that comes before ます [masu] when the verb is in the polite form).
Usually, when the verb is する (suru) meaning "to do", the する is left out. This is usually
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Random PhrasesMystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Random Phrases in Other More Like This
I have compiled a list of random phrases you will probably never use. I'm pretty certain they are grammatically correct, but sometimes, jokes don't work in another language...
Have fun with these. Even though I have no idea of the circumstances in which you will use these...
If you are interested in learning a particular structure I have use, feel free to ask, and I will make a lesson for it.
わたしは ドイツごを はなせません。
Watashi-wa Doitsu-go o hanasemasen.
I can't speak German.
Amerika jin desu ka?
Are you American?
I will kill you!
Jigoku ni ik
mystichuntress's Japanese grammar - comparisonsmystichuntress's Japanese grammar - comparisons in Other More Like This
There are several ways to make comparisons in Japanese. Here is the simplest way: to use より (yori)
Where I have underlined words, you replace them with your own. Each sentence is repeated 3 times: once in Japanese, second in romaji, third in English.
より can be used to make comparisons between two nouns. It roughly translates to "more than" or "-er than" in English.
A は B より adjective です。
A wa B yori adjective desu.
A is adjective-er than B.
バスは タクシーより やすい です。
basu-wa takushii yori yasui desu.
The bus is cheaper than the taxi.
ねこは いぬより しずか です。
neko-wa inu yori shizuka
mystichuntress's Japanese grammar - comparisons 2mystichuntress's Japanese grammar - comparisons 2 in Other More Like This
Comparisons 2: ～の ほうが
Also used to make comparisons, in my opinion, ～の ほうが has more uses than より.
It can be used to say "which is more____, A or B?" "B is more ____ than A" etc.
Words that are underlined you replace with your own. There are 3 parts to each of the sentences: First in Japanese, second in romaji, third in English. Each structure is followed by an example.
Aと Bと (では) どちら (の ほう)が adjectiveですか。
A-to B-to (de wa) dochira (no hou) ga adjective desu-ka?
Out of A and B, which is more adjective?
いえと くるまと （では） どちらの ほうが ちいさい &
Mystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: VerbsMystichuntress's Japanese Tutorial: Verbs in Other More Like This
This lesson will teach you how to convert between the different forms of verbs in Japanese and how to tell them apart.
There are 3 distinct groups of verbs in Japanese: the いちだん (ichidan) verbs, ごだん (godan) verbs and irregular verbs. The いちだん verbs are also known as "iru/eru" verbs because when they are in their plain forms, they end with an "iru/eru" sound. HOWEVER this does not mean that all verbs that end in "iru/eru" are いちだん verbs. The ごだん verbs are also known as "u" verbs because they change into the polite form by dropping the "u" and adding "imasu". Because I am lazy, for the rest of the lesson, I shall refer to いちだん vebs as "iru/eru" verbs and ごだん verbs as "u" verbs.
Iru/eru-verbs are so called いちだん ve
Chocolate Cake RecipeChocolate Cake Recipe in Artisan Crafts More Like This
The Chocolate Cake With Excessively Thick Icing
Two 9 inch cake tins with removable bases
2 circles of greaseproof paper the size of your baking tins' bases
A large pan of water and a smaller pan (feel free to use a double boiler instead if you own one)
At least two mixing bowls
Whisk (normal or electric, a hand cranked one won't work!)
250g Margarine or Butter (suitable for baking)
200g Plain flour
50g Cocoa Powder
250g Caster Sugar
4 tsp. Baking Powder/Soda
2 tbsp. hot water
125g Butter or Margarine (only solid butter will do, no spreads or shortenings)
50-100g of cocoa powder (to taste)
50-100g icing sugar or white caster sugar (to taste)
156ml whipping cream
200g Dark Chocolate
Preheat the oven to 180 degrees C.
Grease the tins and place the greaseproof paper on the base of each.
Chop up the butter or margarine (for the sponge) and plac
Mocha Flavoured Bread RecipeMocha Flavoured Bread Recipe in Artisan Crafts More Like This
WARNING: Keep in mind this bread will still contain caffeine equal to the amount in the coffee you use to make it (this could be anything up to 800mg per loaf depending on the coffee in question). You can, of course, use decaffeinated coffee if you prefer.
Mocha flavoured bread
300ml lukewarm coffee (any coffee will do, the easiest method is to prepare a few shots of espresso and dilute them, which has the advantage of cooling it down)
1-3 tbsp. cocoa powder
1 tbsp. caster sugar
2 tbsp. whipping or single cream
1 packet/tablespoon of dry yeast
360g plain or bread flour (either will work)
25g of butter
1 tsp. vanilla extract/flavouring
1/4 tsp. salt
Stir the cream and the caster sugar into the coffee, place them in a bowl.
Sift the flour, salt and cocoa powder into another bowl, add the vanilla.
Melt the butter and put it to one side to cool.
Mix the yeast into the coffee mixture. Leave everything for 15 minut
Lemon Wafer RecipeLemon Wafer Recipe in Artisan Crafts More Like This
125g Plain Flour
80ml lemon juice (1 lemon)
Preheat the oven to 180 degrees Celsius
Grease a baking tray (or line it with baking parchment if you prefer).
Beat the butter and sugar together until creamy.
Rub in the flour. The result should resemble bread crumbs.
Add the lemon juice and stir it in with a broad knife.
Once all the lemon has been absorbed knead everything together with your hands to form a dough. Keep kneading until you get something soft and very slightly springy.
Roll out your dough on a floured surface. You should aim to get it thin enough to see through.
Cut the sheet into shapes of about 5cm (squares work best if you just plan to use them for Lemon Moments, but you can use pretty much any shape you like).
Bake for 10-15 minutes until the edges are just browning. Leave to cool before transferring to a cooling rack. They should still be slightly soft but harden to a crispy texture as they cool.
Custard Slice RecipeCustard Slice Recipe in Artisan Crafts More Like This
Note: Since I didn't come up with it myself (and the source is far
more helpful than anything I could put up here) I will simply link to the
custard recipe here.
A 400g pack of ready to roll puff pastry
150g of icing sugar
2 tbsp cold water
360g of confectioner's custard (the recipe to which is linked at the top of the
page). See the instructions for when to prepare it.
Preheat your oven to the temperature indicated on the pastry's pack (most likely 220
Sprinkle some flour around and roll the pastry until it's about half a centimetre
Cut shapes out of the pastry. Rectangles or squares are the most efficient and
tradition, but feel free to use any shape from stars to scalene triangles
Fruit Curd RecipesFruit Curd Recipes in Culinary Arts More Like This
Note: The following recipe will produce roughly 450g-500g of curd. If you aren't sure about your jar or container, measure out a pint of water and use it to fill your jar; that's roughly the volume the recipe will produce. If you only have a small jar you can half the ingredients to make half the amount (reduce cooking times by about 1/4). If you don't want to keep the curd for long then you can just place it in a bowl to chill. Curd lasts for about 4 weeks in the fridge.
The following recipe is for a simple lemon curd, ingredients you can substitute for other types of curd are listed below.
At least one lemon's zest (about a tbsp.)
150ml lemon juice
2 eggs, beaten
Mix the sugar, lemon zest and juice in a double boiler (or a saucepan suspended over a boiling pan of water).
Boil the water in the double boiler and heat the mixture for about 10 minutes, stiring constantly.
Stir in the butter until it melts. The mixture should