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FDR, arguable one of the best presidents of all time. Known for his program "The New Deal" and other such accomplishments, what is not not known is his many victories in battle against many different types of enemies. FDR possessed great power and technology as can be seen from his transforming wheel chair in which he slayed many foes.

Get a print high quality11x17 print of this here-->[link]
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Get a print high quality print of this here--> [link]

Thomas Jefferson was never much of a warrior history tells us, but yet again history is wrong. This is an image of one of the many attempts by Jefferson to battle all the manliest animals on earth while trying to teach them the ways of America.


Epic Meal time.
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In the year 2055 the world was invaded, humanity sat on the brink of destruction the world governments united and sent agents back in time to get the best general we'd ever known...Andrew Jackson and throughout his life he did a lot of cool shit, dueled people...a lot which is how he ended up with a musket ball in his chest pretty much exactly like Tony Stark.Went to war, gambled, etc etc .

This is a war portrait as he stands victorious in yet another battle.

Get a print of it here--> [link]

Be sure to check out the other Presidents while they last:




Photoshop CS5
The Sopranos
Jimmy Johns
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A high definition (1920 x 1080) wallpaper based on the insignia of the Texas Brotherhood (Texas Expedition) from the Fallout universe.

"...they traveled eastward to Texas. There, he [Rhombus] discovered a prototype Vault which was abandoned and installed the Brotherhood's main base of operation in this area. Their principal mission was to eradicate the menace of all super mutants. For this reason, they created [the] new Texas Brotherhood."


(In anticipation for Fallout 4)

Fallout Flag Series:
Flag of the Brotherhood of Steel
Flag of the United States of America
Flag of the New California Republic
Flag of the Enclave
Flag of the Texas Brotherhood
Flag of the European Commonwealth
Vault-Tec Commercial Flag
Vault 111
Flag of the Followers of the Apocalypse
Flag of the Brotherhood Outcasts
Flag of the Texas Commonwealth
Flag of the Four States Commonwealth
Flag of the Northwest Commonwealth
Flag of the Gulf Commonwealth
Flag of the East Central Commonwealth
Flag of the Plains Commonwealth
Flag of the New England Commonwealth
Flag of the Columbia Commonwealth
Flag of the Northern Commonwealth
Flag of the Southeast Commonwealth
Flag of the Southwest Commonwealth
Flag of the Great Midwest Commonwealth
Flag of the Eastern Commonwealth
Flag of the U.S. Annexed Canada
Map of Pre-War America
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A cover of Todyo1798's Texas-wank. Most of the pertinent parts of the world's history are outlined in the original. I had a lot of help from him with fleshing out this world. It should go without saying that all questions about the world should be directed toward him, since he'd know more about it than I do. 

  • The French won their revolutionary wars, but were never successful as Bonaparte. They also never invaded Spain. Their empire collapsed in the 1860s, leaving them in their current position. In particular, the French lost their Polish ally to yet another partition. This cemented the Russo-Prussian alliance.
  • The Ottoman Empire was gobbled up by Russia and Hungary, as Britain was distracted elsewhere.
  • The British seized the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch made up for it through rabid colonization of Africa. The Dutch even expanded their influence in South Africa, which was taken over by the British, who were eventually expelled by the Boers when they were distracted in the Americas.
  • Alyeska was initially an area of rivalry between Texas and Russia. Ultimately, Russia could not compete, and the Russians spun it off as a protectorate. The Texans sponsored a republican takeover, and were gearing up to annex it before oil was discovered and Alyeska became an economic powerhouse.
  • The lack of opium wars has stemmed the collapse of the Chinese imperial system, but the Russians and French are making plans to carve China up into spheres of influence. Japan is also looking at China with interest.
  • The Texans wanted to expand their influence southward, as the East was "corrupt," and the West and North sparsely populated. The Texans invested a lot in throwing off Spanish-backed regimes, eventually getting into a war with Colombia (they got Venezuela to switch sides in exchange for major gains). Brazil was loosely aligned to Portugal, and the Portuguese resumed direct control of the south after the division of Brazil.
  • The Southern Cone Alliance was initially a Spanish-backed coalition, but it fell apart. Eventually, the three countries reunited: the Peruvians were concerned about Texas' conquest of Colombia, and sought an alliance with Argentina. Chile was brought along for the ride. The Southern Cone seeks to liberate the entire Hispanosphere from colonialism (read: Texan influence, but they also plan on stabbing Portugal in the back). The Southern Cone isn't exactly a loyal British ally, as they feel that they could bleed Texas white in the Andes if need be.
  • Technology is a bit behind the OTL 1930s.
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Not quite Boom, Headshot, but close. I'm not even sure if I'll continue with that scenario, since there have been so many FPSs released between now and then that could be part of that crazy crossover. While this mixes the Modern Warfare, Black Ops, Ghosts and Advanced Warfare storylines, Nazi Zombies is not part of this timeline. It's admittedly Clancy-esque, but given the source material.... 


When the Cold War ended, it seemed as though modern warfare would be constrained to regional conflicts. It did not take long for this notion to quickly disappear. The Russian unrest, between the hardline Ultranationalists and the weak Russian government, in the 1990s weakened it. The Arab Spring, which brought down Assad, Hussein, and the Saud family in the winter of 2007-2008, shattered it. American intervention succeeded in bringing down President Khaled Al-Assad (a disgruntled cousin of Bashar Al-Assad), but at the cost of a thirty thousand American soldiers falling to a nuclear trap in Basra. While there were calls for massive retaliation, it could not be proved that the People's Republic of Arabia (which had no nuclear program) was responsible for the attack, so a ceasefire was declared instead. In the meanwhile, civil disorder consumed Russia, and the Russian Federation was losing. British SAS managed to kill Imran Zakhaev, then-leader of the Ultranationalist Party, but only succeeded in turning him into a martyr. Eventually, the Ultranationalists won the presidency and became "legitimized," but more radical and violent cells remained. 

World War III was barely avoided in 2009, when an Ultranationalist cell under Vladimir Makarov attempted to begin the next great war through the most nefarious means possible. Using the nerve agent Nova-6, developed by Nazi Germany during the twilight days of WWII, Makarov launched a series of terror attacks around Russia and Europe, framing the other side for the attacks. However, cooler heads prevailed, and after Makarov was caught by the elite Task Force 141, war was averted. There were more fears of war, this time instigated by the Americans, when senator and former lieutenant general Adrian Shepherd was elected President of the United States. The overall American commander during the war in the Middle East, Shepherd believed that America would only become great if they confronted the Russians directly. But before he could start this war, several diplomatic blunders in Eastern Europe, which led to a Ukrainian civil war, and leaked emails implicating the Shepherd administration in collaborating with Russian hardliners led to Shepherd's impeachment. 

The humiliation of the Shepherd administration only succeeded in strengthening Russia. Belarus and Ukraine, where Ultranationalist factions triumphed, joined Russia to form the Russian Union. It also drew Russia and China closer together, as both now saw America as the greater threat. Together, the two states formed the Strategic Defense Coalition, an alliance which would later grow to encompass many anti-Western states throughout Eurasia, including the People's Republic of Arabia. In response, NATO drew closer together, and Task Force 141 was deployed around South America to stop the "Cordis Die" movement from gaining traction there. This backfired. 

Cordis Die was a popular socialist movement, started by Nicaraguan political activist Raul Mendez, that gained massive appeal during the economic crisis of 2012. This crisis was triggered by the Tel Aviv War, which saw Israel annihilated by the forces of the People's Republic of Arabia, and Arabia closing off all oil exports to the West. This crisis hit South America particularly hard, and Cordis Die was particularly popular there, even running as official political parties in many South American countries. A wave of popular revolutions (supported by Russia, Cuba and Venezuela) saw many South American states fall to socialist regimes. Frightened by a new hostile power rising at their doorstep, the Americans attempted to use Task Force 141 to cut off the head of the red viper before it could bite. When Task Force 141 blundered through several missions, including assassination attempts against democratically elected South American leaders, Cordis Die spun this as proof of Western imperialism. Venezuela proposed a defensive alliance, the Federation of the Americas, which the various South American states joined. Cordis Die eventually transformed the FA into a socialist dictatorship, centered on Caracas, using fear of the West (and of Cordis Die's agents) to keep the people in line. And, in 2020, the Federation joined the SDC. 

A series of violent proxy conflicts would be fought between the West and the SDC in the 2020s and the 2030s, and the Second Cold War was in full swing. An important battlefield in this war would be the Internet, as both sides attempted (but failed) to crash the others' economies via cybernetic hijinks. Of course, the physical world was also important: Korea, Serbia, Mexico, Egypt, Panama, Yemen and Vietnam were all the sites of major military engagements. A reformed Task Force 141 proved to be an effective tool in the West's arsenal, particularly as they kept up with advances in military technology. Joining them was the Atlas Corporation, a private military company founded in part by former Task Force 141 members, who sold their services to Western governments exclusively. Atlas grew extremely rich during the Second Cold War, almost becoming as great a military power as the United Kingdom. 

It is now the year 2052, and the Second Cold War continues to simmer. The West, while still the freer of two options, has begun to resemble their SDC foes more and more. Government surveillance, particularly through ubiquitous CCTVs and camera drones, means that nobody in the West is outside of the government's watch when outdoors. Surveillance and strict regulation of "Web 3.0," created in response to the cyberwarfare of the 2030s, ensures that everyone's electronic communications are watched and processed by rudimentary AIs. Sympathies with radical politics, particularly Russian ultranationalism or Cordis Die socialism, is grounds for firing and, in some cases, arrest. The United States is now merely the first among equals; the states of the European Union have gotten out of their rut and, while not totally united, as a whole have a much larger economy than the Americans. 

In the SDC, the oppression is far more overt. While all of the surveillance technology ubiquitious in the West is also present in the East, but their camera drones have guns attached to them, and political dissent is punishable by imprisonment first, execution maybe. While socialistic, the nations of the SDC also have a strong nationalist streak; in both Russia and China, many ethnic minorities have been moved to hostile wastelands to keep the cities "pure." The Federation, for instance, has started a "New Esperanto," anti-Native program, in an effort to bring the Federation together. This has led to a guerrilla war in the jungles of the Amazon, which the West is surreptitiously supporting. 

Then there is the Atlas Corporation, now the richest corporation on the planet, and the one with the single largest standing army on the planet. The Western bloc is increasingly dominated by Atlas, and even the East is not immune. Republicans and Democrats, Labour and Tory, Chinese Communist Party or Ultranationalist, it doesn't matter; a good portion of the world's politicians are on the bankroll of Jonathan Irons, Atlas' CEO. Indeed, Atlas has become so powerful that it has become a member of the United Nations Security Council, and is the owner and operator of Task Force 141. Atlas is has developed a nerve agent, derived from Nova-6, which will kill anyone with a specific genotype. This agent, codenamed Manticore, is Atlas' ace in the hole should the Second Cold War become the Third Cold War. Irons is convinced that, should Atlas develop enough of the agent, they will be able to turn mutually-assured destruction into singularly-assured destruction. And once that happens, Irons will no longer need the politicians.
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The early 21st century was a time of instability and conflict, proving those who said that the end of the Cold War was the end of history dead wrong. The September 11 attacks proved that America was not invincible, and provoked American invasions of Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria. These wars destabilized the region, and along with the Arab Spring revolutions of 2009, 2010 and 2011, opened the road*for the rise of the United Islamic Republic.

Rising from the ashes of the Arabian Spring and the broken pieces of Saddam's Iraq, the UIR quickly expanded throughout the Middle East, imposing its destructive form of fundamentalist Sunni Islam. Only the Iranians, themselves hardly secular and restrained, were strong enough to resist the UIR tide.

But while the West believed that the UIR was the greatest threat to it, history had other plans. The Russian Federation, long believed to be friendly to the West, if not neutralized, arose as a new threat. President and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, a former KGB man, was deeply saddened to see the Soviet Union fall, and wanted to remake it without all of the flaws. Communism would be replaced by Slavic nationalism. The Party would be replaced by one man - himself. Many Russians agreed with Putin, believing that he was Russia's only hope of regaining lost glory. The opposition to his regime was quickly stamped out by the FSB and Putin's supporters. Homosexuals and Muslims were, illogically enough, scapegoated as pro-Western, anti-Russian agents. Putin slowly consolidated his power throughout the early 21st century, before he went public as the Vozhd of the Greater Eurasian Union in 2014, shortly after the annexation of Belarus.

The year 2014 also saw the beginning of Eurasian expansionism. After Belarus, which welcomed Russian troops, Moscow went after Ukraine next. Although traditionally pro-Russian, the Ukrainian government was overthrown and replaced with a pro-Western regime. Fearing that the Eurasians will lose important assets in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, Putin moved quickly, seizing these areas before the Ukrainians could react. It was believed that war would begin with this bold move, but at St. Petersburg, a settlement was reached between the West and Eurasia - the Eurasians could keep their Ukrainian territories, but could take no more of the former Soviet Union; that would mean war.

But war did come. In 2015, the Eurasians attacked the Baltic states, intending to annex them into the Eurasian Union. The states of the European Union, at least those still loyal to the West, and the United States declared war. The Eurasians subsequently advanced through continental Europe, their lightning attack surprising all. The Eurasians managed to occupy the entirety of continental Europe by 2016. In the meanwhile, they cooperated with the UIR and Iranians in the Middle East, providing much-needed weaponry to the UIR during their war against the Israelis.

Meanwhile, in the East, tensions grew between China and Japan. The two were already fighting an undeclared naval war, and had been since 2007, but the war in Europe and their alliance with the Eurasians made the Chinese bolder. In 2015, amphibious landings were initiated in Japan, prompting a declaration of war from the United States and its regional allies. This prompted further attacks around the region, including invasions of Taiwan, Vietnam and the Philippines.

The Chinese invasions led to the Indians imposing trade embargoes against the Chinese. With Eurasia now as their only trade partner, the Chinese believed they could knock out India in a lightning strike and force them to reopen their markets. They did so via a surprise attack in 2017. This would prove to be a disastrous miscalculation, starting a bloody war between the two most populous states in the world. In the meanwhile, with Putin the master of the Eurasian continent, the Eurasians decided to strike at their most despised enemy - the UIR.

It is 2018, and it seems that the impromptu alliance between the Americans, Indians and UIR will lose to Eurasia and China. With the aid of the Iranians and Israelis, the Eurasians are ravaging the UIR's northern territories, forcing retreating UIR forces to burn the oil fields as they retreat. Although hailed as liberators at first, the Eurasians had no love for Muslims, and Eurasian Muslims were already being herded into ghettos. In occupied Europe, a dogged resistance movement distracts the Eurasians, but not enough; only ten percent of the Eurasians' total military forces are stationed in Europe. The United Kingdom does remain free, and filled with American troops. In Washington, American president William Church promises that the Americans will never surrender until the Eurasians are defeated.

In the East, the Chinese proved to be bloody occupiers, and are suffering from resistance movements all throughout their new empire. The Japanese proved to be fanatical defenders, and Chinese brutality has done little to encourage the Japanese to surrender. The collaborationist regime under the Japanese Communist Party is far from popular. Meanwhile, the Chinese continue to defeat the Indians, but the Indians are beginning to stiffen their resistance.

Nuclear weapons rest in their silos; the widespread proliferation of satellite-guided ABMs since the 1990s have rendered the weapons largely obsolete. The high technology used in the early years of the war has been expended; all sides are using weapons made during the later stages of the Cold War. The Americans are planning an ambitious invasion of the European continent, which their erstwhile UIR allies are demanding. The UIR has declared several fatwas against the Eurasians, and many UIR clerics have declared that any man who dies in combat against the Eurasians will go immediately to Heaven. And in*the outskirts of Moscow, there are discussions on a "final solution" to the Muslim problem.
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What if the United States had been a monarchy instead of a republic? The concept is not completely outlandish. After all monarchy was the default form of government back when the United States seceded from British rule. There was also plans to offer the Prussian prince Henry the throne.

Had the continental congress elected a king the title is not unlikely to have been changed to emperor, once the nation grew westwards.

This is how the flags of such an empire could have looked like.
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What if the United States had been a monarchy instead of a republic? The concept is not completely outlandish. After all monarchy was the default form of government back when the United States seceded from British rule. There was also plans to offer the Prussian prince Henry the throne.

Had the continental congress elected a king the title is not unlikely to have been changed to emperor, once the nation grew westwards.

This is how a coat of arms of an American Empire could have looked like.
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With the American Civil War dragging on the USA and the CSA enter a ceasefire agreement in 1866. Slavery continues in the South. Following international pressure slavery is finally abolished in 1896 but instead a harsh regime of racial segregation is set in place.

Economic inequality soars and not all whites are doing well either. With a small elite of large landowners growing more and more wealthy a large impoverished rural proletariat arises. The government of the CSA proves unwilling to remedy the economic inequalities.

The underground Left Socialist Party of the CSA gains popularity among the rural poor and is one of the only places in the South were the races are not segregated. The government of the CSA becomes more and more repressive and violent which only serves to increase the unpopularity of the regime among the working class.

The socialists grow more and more conscious and carries out clandestine attacks on police stations, military bases and other governmental institutions. Finally in 1919 these attacks turn into open revolt. The old regime is unpopular and looses the battles and in 1921 the president flees to Cuba along with most of the elite. This makes way for the proclamation of the Confederate Socialist States of America.
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American Empire (2032-???)
Anthem: My Country, 'Tis of Thee
Imperial Anthem: Dixieland
Motto: Loyalty, Justice, Equality, Freedom
Royal Motto: By God and Royal Decree, We Serve the Light
Capital: Dallas, Texas
Population: 2032: 500,000,000
Area: 19,811,345 km
Government: Military-democracy and Federal Monarchy
Currency: Dollar
Predecessor(s): United States and Canada
Religion: Darwinist-Roman Catholicism
Official Language(s): German, English, and French
Other Languages: Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Greek, Polish, and Albanian
Political Corruption: 25%
Dominant culture: Franco-Germanic Culture (English, Dutch, French, German, Austrian, and Scandinavian cultures combined)
Political ideology: Centralist-Conservatism, Monarchism, Anti-Fascism, Anti-Communism, Anti-Anarchism, Capitalism, Democracy, Imperialism, Racial-Equality and Multiculturalism

Symbolism: Eagle (glory and freedom), crown (power and royalty), arrows (the military), axe (might and justice), red (courage), black (authority), blue algiz (truth and protection)
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Federal Empire of Earth

Government: Militant-Democracy and Federal Monarchy
Capital: Earth, Sol System
Head of State: Emperor
Religion: Darwinist-Christianity (Scientific-Religion)
Official Language(s): English (mostly), French, Spanish, German, Chinese, Russian, Arabic, Portuguese, and Japanese
Tech Class: Rank 1
Currency: Imperial Credit
Date of Establishment: 2456 AD
Literacy Rate: 99%
Political Corruption: 15%
Ideology: Democratic-Militarism, Conservatism, Capitalism, Scientific-Religion, Nationalism, Environmentalism, Intellectualism, Monarchism
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The Congress of Earth is a Parliamentary government formed primarily by the United Kingdom, Brazil, the United States of America, the Russian Federation, Japan, France, and the People's Republic of China on August 3rd, 2093, in which marked the end of the Third World War and the Martian Civil War. With its capital located within Zurich, Switzerland, the ruling seven countries unified the world through territorial expansion and social-economic reform. By the year 2095, colonization of Mercury, Venus, and the Asteroid belt was legalized for economic purposes, saving the Earth from draining its water supply by gathering small, icy rocks that contain it. On March 21st, 2096, Israel was saved from annexation by the world powers when it was able to gain power within the last empty seat of the Congress. By 2100, the government of Communist China was replaced by the Nationalist Republic of China (which it was exiled into Taiwan since December 1949). With Communism gone, Capitalism and Democratic-Socialism became the new political ideology of the planet as the two beliefs spread throughout colonized worlds of humanity. However, in 2110, alien readings from Tau Ceti had occurred, making rumors of a possible alien invasion. By 2123, strange attacks against the colonists on Mars emerged and forced Earth forces to retreat back to their homeworld. The result was the start of the War of the Gods, which resulted from the Alien takeover of Japan.

Its military force is modeled after the German Wehrmacht of the Second World War, but consists primarily of soldiers from Israel, Britain, France, India, Serbia, Albania, Iran, Greece, Turkey, Russia, America, Germany, Finland, Italy, China, Japan, Brazil, India, Mexico, and Norway. It is a multicultural power within the Sol System with English, French, Chinese, Portuguese, Hebrew, Russian, Japanese, and Spanish as its main languages, while all others were banned during the establishment of the Congress of Earth. However, the language of Greek, as a form or resistance, demanded to become a minor member of the Congress and have a seat within the Congress, though t had no political power great enough to start its own expansion. Eventually, this helped preserved the ancient Greek culture and civilization from a radical change, thus recognizing its independence as a nation and its membership in the government. Turkey has also become a recognized member and minor power that has preserved its language and culture after ten years of unrest. By that time, India, Iran, Albania, and the resurrected Republic of Yugoslavia had soon joined and preserved their own heritage. The Unified German Republic was born when a German rebellion had erupted within occupied-German territories in France while Italy was given independence by the COE, needing a ninth member within the ruling council. The eighth and final country to ever be recognized as an independent nation and a minor member of the Congress was the Scandinavian Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy with Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Finnish as its main languages. Despite this, however, Finland decided to become its own nation. It is also confirmed that its leader, the President, requires a citizenship from either one of the nine ruling countries and be at least at age 35 in order to be elected into office. The economy is based on a Capitalistic-market economy that has thrived since the establishment of the Congress. This enables the nation into having a technological advancement and create settlements on colonized planets such as Mars in a quicker pace. However, though to the fact that they are at war, they spend most of their money on the war effort.
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The Space Force United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from space, using the orbital supremacy of the United States Space Force to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. It is one of eight uniformed services of the United States. Created in 2051, the Space Marine Corps has been a component of the United States Department of the Space Force, and works closely with space forces for training, transportation, and logistics.

Conceived shortly after the establishment of the Space Force to provide space to surface deployments of forces, at the time aimed primarily at lunar combat, the Space Marine Corps consisted largely of US Marine Corps Force Recon operators with extensive experience in space based combat. These operators were to directly engage enemy forces in space as well as deploy to terrestrial targets.

The first operation conducted by the new branch of the military was the defense of the Tycho shipyards. A group of US Force Recon Marines experienced in microgravity operations were transferred over to the Space Force and quickly deployed to secure Tycho from Japanese invasion, retake the city of Armstrong, and wipe out the Japanese military presence on the Moon. 

Following the operations on the Moon, the Space Marine corps spent the remainder of the war deploying from orbit to combat Coalition forces on Earth, most famously at the Battle of Vancouver against Japanese interests in North America, and at the Battle of Beijing. Since the end of the Third World War, the Space Marines' ranks have surged to become the largest single force in the Earth Sphere, deploying globally to secure American interests.
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Warning ASB ahead:

2012: The Euro finally collapses as the European debt crisis consumes the continent. Riots consume Europe's major cities, and several governments begin to collapse. President Obama orders US troops stationed in European bases to put down the mobs.

2013: Pro-Democracy protesters in Saudi Arabia go violent after the government, bleeding money with diminishing oil reserves, abolishes the year old Food Price Controls leaving the many in starvation. The US deploys its forces in the country to secure the capitol.

2014: After months of deadlock made only worse by record low approval ratings, the US Congress fails to pass a budget for FY 2015. With the European stability still in question, and forces stretched thin, the President signs an emergency budget, WITHOUT Congressional approval. Despite an outcry from Congressmen and Senators, American administrative officials follow the President's budget to the T.

2017: The 28th 29th and 30th Amendments are passed by state special conventions. The new amendments do the following: The US Congress is abolished and legislative powers are shifted over to electronic voting; Presidential Term Limits are removed; private corporations are defined to not have the same rights as individual citizens.

2018: The House and Senate chambers are converted to hold a large network of computers to handle all legislative and administrative matters. After votes are tallied the system recommends the appropriate tax to be levied to best serve the country's interests.

2020: The President signs the Pax Americana Act, officially annexing all territory with US military bases. The same year the US engages in a number of wars to unify North America.

2041: The long standing cold war with the BRIC nations continues, but the American Empire stands virtually untouchable. With its navy outfitted with Railguns, unmanned drones and traditional nuclear ordinance, all shielded by ground, sea and space based laser arrays, little can be done to counter the American Empire.

... silly I know, but I had an argument with this gal on DA today whose either spoke the worst English ever or had the crappiest translator program I've ever seen, and kept accusing me of being some kind of tyrannical monster because I made the case that civilian casualties in war are unavoidable while tragic. Also I just wanted to see how an actual American Empire as we are so often portrayed would actually rise to power... short of us all loosing our collective minds this is this has the least amount of holes I think.
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Empire of Louisiana: Home to the lion's share of the continent's French speaking population, and a key ally of France along with Mexico against the British and their dominions. Founded by Louis-Jules Trochu after France's crushing defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the Empire's first days were defined by former French Naval detachments aided beleaguered French Army units still fighting in Texas and Louisiana. After capturing De Moins and signing the 1874 Treaty of St. Paul, Canada agreed to recognize the Empire in exchange for the Red River Valley. A proviso of the treaty let the Quebecois leave Canada for the Empire, leading to a mass migration of the Francophone population of Canada. Louisiana and Mexico had an informal understanding as to the control of the port of New Orleans, which eventually became a formal alliance by the turn of the Century after some skillful negotiating tactics by the French to rebuild old bridges.

Second Mexican Empire: After the defeat at Antietam, the Union knew they had to create a distraction to keep the Confederates from putting their full force against the Union. President Lincoln considered compromising the Monroe Doctrine a worthy sacrifice to save the Union, but he only ensured its destruction. When Napoleon III ordered a joint Invasion of Texas with Maximilian I's Empire in 1866 it solidified the legitimacy of the Hapsburg regime in Mexico, and united Maximilian's Empire around a single cause. Texas fell with minimal effort by the Frenco-Mexican force, and while France pressed east into Mississppi and Missouri, Mexico remained behind to quell any future uprisings in Texas and the New Mexico territory. In 1870, when it was clear the Union and the Confederacy were done for, Emperor Maximilian pushed further North and began formally annexing territory in the Former United States. And was only stopped by the combined efforts of Utah, the Navajo, and California. After a decades long series of hit and run attacks, raids on supply lines, and general chaos, Mexico agreed to recognize the independence of Deseret, the Navajo Nation, and California in 1885, though they maintained a presence in the southern half of the state. Texas remained a stubborn thorn in Mexico's side, culminating in the Second Texas War in 1914, and the Third Texas War in 1945.

Spanish Empire: France's Greatest Ally in Europe the Spanish Kingdom's only remaining stake in the New World is Cuba. After several failed attempts to retake other carribean territories, and even Florida, Spain, has come to accept their consolation prize in the Americas, and happily joined the French Entente to maintain some Geopolitical relevance.

Dominican Republic: An observer state within the Entente, but by no means a position it desires. Old hatreds with the Spanish and Haitians have yet to go away.

Haiti: Once the bane of France's existence, Haiti has achieved a tentative alliance with the Entente. France professes only regret for the actions of Napoleon, and Haiti only the thanks to France for respecting the independence... but in reality France just needs a stable port in the Caribbean, and Haiti needs someone to keep the DuBuoisists from stirring up trouble on their island. 

British Dominions: Canada was largely uninvolved with the War Between the States, simply serving to supply British forces invading from the Carribean when they could, but largely more concerned with the Red River Rebellion and the 1867 Uprising in Quebec. Where Britain looked on in horror at the presence of French empires in America, Canada itself saw it as an opportunity to rid themselves of a troublesome population and secure a position in the Red River Valley. When it became clear that the Union wasn't putting itself back together anytime soon, Canada staged a successful incursion into the Red River Valley. The locals were just glad to have someone there to stop this French General from taking them over. After an emergency vote by the State Government, Oregon agreed to join British Columbia, fearing conquest by Mexico. The rest of the Washington Territory put up little resistance to annexation. Canada found themselves feeling like a real power, and with the absence of their Quebecois population, truly united and dynamic. In 
1881 Queen Victoria both legitimized this united spirit, and tore its dynamism with the Proclamation of American Dominions; cleaving from the heard the newly acquired Oregon and their own province of British Columbia to create the Dominion of Columbia. The British Empire solidified its position in the Americas, even going so far as to welcome New England in as a Protectorate. British efforts in the New World all aimed at trying to keep the Entente in check, placing blockades, and tariffs on goods passing through their Caribbean colonies, even fighting a short war against Spain to secure Puerto Rico.

Republic of Georgia: After the great Confederacy imploded, Georgia simply went back to the home rule they briefly experienced after first leaving the Union. The rest of the South was too busy trying to hold itself together, and Georgia had seen relatively little combat during the War beyond the naval blockade that nearly starved them. The British were quick to use the state as a staging point against the Union, and the influx of British money and manpower gave the state a reprieve from the Blockade and a boost to the local economy. After the war turned into a fiasco, many British soldiers simply chose to settle in Georgia, rather than continue fighting a war that wasn't even there's. History has been kind to the former penal colony, content to sit with one of the last straight borders on the continent with Florida, and relatively unmolested by rival powers. 

Republic of Florida: Much like Georgia, Florida saw relatively little action during the War Between the States, but that largely changed after the French began their Caribbean campaign to split the British off from their Assault into the Union after 
McClellan's Coup. Confederate units from Alabama and Mississippi fought with the British against the French in the Florida Panhandle as one of the last great Front's of the war, when it still looked like the Confederates could achieve a real victory. After the French broke through and Sacked the provisional Capital in Jackson, Mississippi, the Panhandle became just one part of an endless and incomprehensible conflict with every state fighting for survival. Eventually the Panhandle declared Independence as the Republic of West Florida simply out of outrage that the Tallahassee government's near disinterest in the conflict. West Flordia survived as one of the Quasi British states until the January Revolution in 1909 swept across the South. Florida joined Virginia, Georgia and Tennessee to stop the advance of the Duboisist revolution, and took part in the international man-hunt for W.E.B. Dubois before his execution in Virginia. Florida remains a firm ally to the British and shares a peaceful border with Georgia, pooling their militaries into a single defensive force.

Free Republic of Texas: After three wars for Independence, Texas is once again a battleground between the Great Powers. Officially, the state claims everything East of the Colorado River, but in reality the government in Houston doesn't have much control beyond the city itself. The skies over Texas are full of aircraft from Britain, France, Mexico, Louisiana, even Germany, along with their own meager Air Force, and the land plays host to yet another proxy war between European and American Empires, to say nothing of militia units loyal not to the Republican government in Houston, but the DuBoisist cause under Sister Ferguson. 

Confederacy of Virginia: After the loss of Jefferson Davis's government in Jackson, and the coup in the Union, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina found themselves in a peculular position. General/President McClellan was willing to negotiate peace with a Confederate government that no longer existed, and none of the local militias were willing to fighting to save the rest of their rebel brothers. McClellan was even offering to let Virginia keep West Virginia as an act of good faith (though in reality McClellan just wanted something between him and Sherman's territory). So, under the leadership of General Lee, Virginia simply accepted McClellan's peace on behalf of the Confederate States, NOT the Confederate States of America. Virginia established the Confederate Government in Richmond, and South Carolina and North Carolina's militias swore fealty to their General, who'd they'd been fighting under since the Battle of Washington. the governments of North and South Carolina were dealing with Rebel British Army units on their border, so they agreed to join the Confederacy with the provisio that they could leave when the fighting was done. Needless to say they never bothered to secede, and the Confederacy of Virginia remained one of the more stable governments on the continent.

American Federation: After a close election in 1864 where General George. B McClellan attempted to unseat President Lincoln and sue for peace with the Confederacy, the good General returned to New York where he was approached by a group of US Army officers, who felt Lincoln was going to be the doom of the Union. Many members of the military believed the civilian government had lost legitimacy after the disastrous Battle of Washington, and desertion became a serious problem as the war became more protracted. In 1867 it reached a fever pitch when Lincoln reportedly rejected a peace offering by the British (in reality no peace treaty had even been proposed, and this was a rumor created to spread discontent in the ranks by the Anglo-Confederate alliance). McClellan and a Senior Officers of the US Army staged a coup-de-tat, capturing Philadelphia and the President. Abraham Lincoln was tried and executed for High Treason and General McClellan was named Acting Commander-in-Chief. His first act was to sue for peace with the British and the Confederates, but found his effort to save the union from Lincoln only doomed it. Units loyal to Generals Grant and Sherman would not recognize McClellan's government, and soon McClellan found what remained of the Union crumbling beneath his feet. He spent what remained of the war with an unofficial peace with the Confederates and the British while fighting Sherman's forces in the West. In 1871 McClellan's plea for peace was finally answered, but only after he was left with what was barely a rump of his former country. McClellan never recognized New England's secession or Sherman's regime in Ohio, and died of a stroke the day the British declared New England a protectorate. The American Federation was formally created on July 4, 1884 after the Philadelphia Convention called for a new constitution, officially ending the existence of the United States of America.

Protectorate of Tennessee: As the war became an ever more confusing affair, discontent in the ranks of the British forces sent to fight in America grew worse and worse. A few units manged to push as far north as the Ohio River, but were plagued with attacks by the civilian populace. After being sandwhiced between a multi-way conflict between post-confederate states in the South and various French Forces, this division was effectively trapped in the Tennessee valley when the orders came in for the British to pull out, they didn't hear about it until a month after it had happened, and in October 1871 these soldiers staged a mutiny, sacking towns, and roving as bandits in the country they had come to know and despise. One faction started offering protection to the people of the Tennessee valley, and eventually marshaled enough local support to put down the raiders. The Tennessee Valley was declared to be a protectorate under this division of the British Army, and the rest is history.

Freeman's Republic of the Mississippi Delta: The collapse of the Confederacy saw the Southern states return to unconfederated Republics, keeping the institution of Slavery alive and well along with the Southern Gentry who functionally became European-style nobles. Slavery persisted in the South in the Magnolia Republic, Virginia, Georgia, Florida, West Florida, and Alabama up until the turn of the century. Tennessee's military government abolished slavery when they took power in the 1870s, and Mexico abolished Slavery in Texas, but the rest of the former South kept the institution intact, but poverty swept through the south as time went on. Without the wealth of the Northern States to aid them, or a unified financial or monetary system, the Southern States fell into a Depression. Discontent in the general population only grew as the Plantation owners continued to treat their slaves and white laborers with equal apathy towards their lives. Slavery came to a violent end in West Florida, Mississippi and Alabama when Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois led a Marxist uprising against the gentry with the support of poor whites. Establishing the first Freeman's republic in 1909. The communist government remained a thorn in the side of its neighboring powers, but with a hyper militarized society, no one's bothered to unseat them.

Rocky Federation: New York was never enough for Teddy Roosevelt. The Harvard educated son of the East left New York for untamed ranges of Montana. Working as a rancher T.R. saw how the near constant raids of the Souix continued to plague the various settlements in the Rockies. This would drive him to raise his hands to raid and drive out the Souix from the territory during the harsh winters of 1886. His "Rough Riders," quickly gained support from his old college mates back East, and Teddy rode across the Rockies escorting supply lines and rooting out bandits, his legend growing with each act. More people joined his Rough Riders or became part of what would be Roosevelt's Army, marching across the lawless mountains and taking territory back from the brink. Even former US Army General Custer, now the warlord of much of Montana, swore fealty to Roosevelt, and in 1905 the former blue blood declared the creation of the Rocky Federation.

Directorate of Ohio: After General Grant attempted to spirit Vice President Johnson away into Ohio, only to be killed by the British while Johnson was captured, the line of succession was only further complicated. The British didn't know who to negotiate with, as Sherman controlled roughly a third of the army and 
McClellan the remaining third, Grant's forces scattered to the winds and staged a Guerrilla war in Ohio for over a year. After the British simply elected to use McClellan's peace offering as an excuse to leave, the continent, Johnson was handed over to the provisional government in New York, only for the former Vice President to be executred for treason. General Sherman withdrew his forces in full to his home state of Ohio after the British announced plans to pull out and declared a provisional government of his own from Columbus. Sherman, however, was forced to spend most of his military strength keeping the French from crossing the Mississppi, and with forces spread so thin, he had no hope of actually retaking much territory beyond the Great Lakes region. Ohio became the industrial powerhouse of the continent, and maintains an uneasy peace with its neighbors to get its goods to foreign markets. High tariffs by the Canadians, Louisianians, and Federalists have started their share of brushfire wars.

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The USA, formally known as the United States of America, emerged from the original Thirteen Colonies established by the British between 1603 and 1733. Its disputes over increased independence and representation within the British Empire (‘no taxation without representation’) led to the formation of a Continental Congress and the Declaration of Independence in 1776. The new USA staged the world’s first successful independence war against a colonial empire. Throughout the nineteenth century, the USA embarked on a massive campaign of expansion, conquering ever more lands, displacing or liquidating native tribes and establishing new member states. By 1900 and despite a devastating civil war (1861 – 1865), the USA extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific, boasted the largest economy in the world and was confirmed as a military power in the Spanish-American War and First World War. It became a super power (along with the USSR) following the Second World War and, despite the resurging power of China and post-Soviet Russia, has retained much of its power and global influence at the dawn of the twenty-first century.

The original flag of the USA, known as ‘Betsy Ross’, was first flown in 1777. It consisted of thirteen horizontal stripes of alternating red and white, with a blue canton displaying a circle of thirteen stars to represent the country’s founding states. The design was similar to that of the British East India Company and was in use until 1795.

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The German Empire (German: Deutsches Reich) emerged from the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War (1870 − 1871) and the subsequent proclamation of a united German state (excluding the Austrians) under Prussian leadership. The empire rapidly rose to the status of a great power: by 1913, it boasted one of the most urbanised societies in the world, one of the strongest and most innovative industrial bases, one of the largest armies and navies and key accomplishments in the fields of industry, technology and science. The empire nevertheless collapsed in the First World War and was turned into a republic by the victorious Allies. On top of defeat and the dissolution of their empire, the 1919 Treaty of Versailles blamed the war responsibility entirely on the Germans and imposed severe territorial concessions and reparation payments.

The German Empire’s war flag (German: Reichskriegsfahne) consisted of a white field with a black-white cross offset to the hoist and with a white disc and the Prussian eagle in its centre. The canton displayed the empire’s national flag with a centred black Iron Cross, a Prussian decoration established in 1813.

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The Roman Empire, AD 125

753 BC
Founding of Rome (according to Varro) – Beginning of recorded time for the Romans (ab urbe condita) – The (legendary) rule of the Seven Kings begins: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullus, Tarquinius Superbus

c. 510 BC
Establishment of the Roman Republic – Rome’s first international treaty: Carthage’s trade monopoly in the western Mediterranean is recognised, on condition that Carthage refrains from attacking Rome and its allies

498 – 493 BC:
First Latin War
Rome becomes the dominant power in Latium and forces the Latin cities into a military alliance, in exchange for recognition of their political autonomy

450 BC
The Law of Twelve Tables (leges duodecim tabularum) is constituted as the fundament of Roman law

396 BC
Rome captures the Etruscan city Veii and begins its territorial expansion

390 BC:
Battle of the Allia
The Roman army is decisively defeated by a Celtic invasion, leaving Rome vulnerable to attack

387 BC
The Celtic invaders largely sack Rome

380 BC
The reconstruction of Rome begins

358 BC
Rome re-establishes its alliances with the Latin cities

343 – 341 BC:
First Samnite War
Rome takes over Capua

340 – 338 BC:
Second Latin War
Rome smashes a revolt of the Latin cities

326 – 304 BC:
Second Samnite War
Rome annexes all of Campania and secures footholds in southern Italy, thus surrounding Samnium and crippling its expansion

298 – 290 BC:
Third Samnite War
A coalition of the Samnites, Celts, Etruscans, Lucanians, Sabines and Umbrians is smashed by Rome at the Battle of Sentinum (295 BC): Rome controls central Italy

282 – 272 BC: Rome goes to war against Tarentum, the last major city on the Italian peninsula to resist the Romans
+ 280 BC: Tarentum calls on Pyrrhus of Epirus for help, resulting in a stalemate with Rome after two Pyrrhic victories at Heraclea (280 BC) and Asculum (279 BC)
+ 272 BC: Rome captures Tarentum and controls the Italian peninsula almost up to the Po Valley

264 BC – 241 BC:
First Punic War
+ 264 BC: Rome accepts Messana’s call to arms against Carthage (and Syracuse) and invades Sicily
+ 260 BC: Rome narrowly defeats Carthage at the naval Battle of Mylae
+ 256 BC: a close victory at the naval Battle of Ecnomus allows the Romans to invade the Carthaginian motherland in Africa
+ 255 BC: Carthage defeats Rome at the Battle of Tunis but Rome has by now conquered most of Sicily and allied with Hiero II of Syracuse
+ 241 BC: a decisive Roman victory at the naval Battle of the Aegates Islands marks the end of the war

241 – 238 BC
Rome takes control of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica and establishes its first provinces: Sicilia and Corsica et Sardinia

229 BC:
First Illyrian War
Roman fleets combat Illyrian piracy

226 BC:
Ebro Treaty
Rome recognises Carthage’s dominance south of the Ebro

222 BC
Rome defeats the Insubres in the Po Valley at the Battle of Clastidium and tightens its hold on northern Italy

220 – 219 BC:
Second Illyrian War
Rome diminishes the power of the Illyrian tribes and forces Demetrius of Pharus to flee to Macedon

219 BC
Rome accepts Saguntum’s call for help against Carthage, despite the Ebro Treaty

218 – 201 BC:
Second Punic War
+ 218 BC: Carthaginian commander Hannibal leads his army across the Alps into Italy, rallies the Celtic tribes there and defeats the Romans at the Battle of the Trebia
+ 217 BC: Hannibal smashes the Romans at the Battle of Lake Trasimene and advances south
+ 2 August 216 BC: a crushing Carthaginian victory at the Battle of Cannae leaves over 50,000 Romans killed
+ 215 BC: Hannibal allies with Philip V of Macedon (Beginning of the First Macedonian War, until 205 BC) – Syracuse betrays Rome and sides with Carthage
+ 212 BC: Rome takes Syracuse, reconquers Sicily and allies with Syphax of Numidia and the Aetolian League – Carthage conquers Tarentum – Most of southern Italy switches sides to Hannibal
+ 211 BC: Rome reconquers Capua
+ 209 BC: Publius Cornelius Scipio conquers Carthago Nova
+ 206 BC: Rome finishes the conquest of Carthaginian territories in Spain (started in 217 BC)
+ 204 BC: Scipio invades Africa from Sicily
+ 203 BC: a Roman victory at the Battle of Tunis forces Carthage to call Hannibal back home
+ 202 BC: Scipio decisively defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama
+ 201 BC: Carthage surrenders to Rome – the Carthaginian Empire is dissolved

200 – 190 BC
Rome conducts successful campaigns against the Celts in northern Italy

200 – 197 BC:
Second Macedonian War
Rome comes to the aid of Pergamum, Rhodes and Athens and breaks the power of Philip V of Macedon at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC

197 BC
Rome establishes the provinces of Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior, securing major footholds in Spain

196 BC
Rome declares ‘freedom’ for the Greek cities and leaves Greece by 194 BC

192 – 188 BC
Antiochos III of the Seleucid Empire allies with the Aetolian League and invades Thessaly (Greece) – Rome defeats both Antiochos III and the Aetolian League and becomes the dominant power in the eastern Mediterranean

171 – 168 BC:
Third Macedonian War
Macedon is irreversibly defeated at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC

168 BC:
Third Illyrian War
Though allied with Rome, the Illyrian king Gentius switches sides to Macedon during the Third Macedonian War and attacks the Roman settlements at Apollonia and Dyrrhachium – Rome defeats Gentius and creates the new province of Illyricum in his erstwhile kingdom

149 – 146 BC:
Third Punic War
Rome utterly destroys the city of Carthage and turns its remaining territory into the province of Africa

146 BC
Rome destroys Corinth after a revolt of the Achaean League and formally annexes all of Greece into the province of Macedonia

136 – 132 BC:
First Servile War
Slave uprisings on Sicily result in the crucifixion of c. 20,000 slaves

133 BC
Rome burns down Numantia, defeating the Celtiberian tribes and ending the Numantine War (started in 143 BC) – Attalus III of Pergamum leaves his kingdom to Rome by testament

129 BC
Rome turns Pergamum into the province of Asia

133 – 121 BC
The reformatory movement of the Gracchi brothers, aimed at a distribution of patrician lands to the plebeians, is crushed by the Senate

123 BC
Rome conquers the Balearic Islands

121 BC
Rome gains its first footholds in southern Gaul

113 – 101 BC
Migratory invasions of the Teutones and Cimbri are crushed by the legions of Gaius Marius at the Battles of Aquae Sextiae (102 BC) and Vercellae (101 BC) – Marius’ legions are the first to be organised by a commander instead of the Senate (Marian Reforms since 107 BC)

111 – 105 BC:
Jugurthine War
Rome deals a defeat to Numidia

104 – 100 BC:
Second Servile War
Rome crushes another slave uprising on Sicily

96 BC
Apion of Cyrenaica dies and bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans, who merge it with the island of Crete into the province of Cyrenaica et Creta in 66 BC

91 – 89 BC: Social War
Rome’s Italian allies and subject states break away and form the new state of Italia with its capital at Corfinium – Rome grants all the Italic peoples the full Roman citizenship and regains their loyalty

88 BC:
Vespers of Ephesus
Approximately 80,000 Romans are murdered in Asia Minor on the instigation of King Mithridates of Pontus

88 – 84 BC:
First Mithridatic War
Roman forces led by Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeat Mithridates at the Battles of Chaeronea (86 BC) and Orchomenus (85 BC), before concluding the Treaty of Dardanus

88 BC
Marius and his supporters repress senatorial power in Rome while Sulla is away

86 BC
Marius dies during his seventh consulship

83 – 81 BC:
Second Mithridatic War
Rome compels Pontus to fulfil the conditions of the earlier Treaty of Dardanus

83 BC
Sulla returns to Italy

82 BC:
Battle of the Colline Gate
Sulla decisively defeats the Marian faction while his general Pompey clears Marian forces from Sicily and Africa

82 – 79 BC
The dictatorship of Sulla is marked by political repression of the Marian faction and renewed senatorial power

78 BC
Sulla dies after having voluntarily abdicated his dictatorship one year earlier

77 – 71 BC:
Sertorian War
Pompey defeats the Marian forces of Quintus Sertorius

74 – 64 BC:
Third Mithridatic War – Led by Lucius Licinius Lucullus, Roman forces attack Pontus and Armenia
+ 68 BC: Lucullus is recalled by the Senate after a mutiny in his army
+ 66 BC: Pompey is given command of Rome’s forces in Asia Minor, after having destroyed piracy in the Adriatic Sea in 67 BC
+ 64 BC: Pompey’s campaigns in the East result in a complete victory for Rome – Fall of Pontus and the Seleucids – The Armenian and Hasmonean kingdoms become Roman vassals – The provinces of Bithynia et Pontus, Cilicia and Syria are established

73 – 71 BC:
Third Servile War
A slave uprising led by Spartacus cuts a bloody swathe through southern Italy, but is ultimately crushed by the legions of Marcus Licinius Crassus

70 BC
Consulate of Pompey and Crassus

63 – 62 BC:
Conspiracy of Lucius Sergius Catilina
An alleged attempt to overthrow the Republic is exposed and eliminated by Cicero

62 BC
Pompey returns to Italy in triumph and disbands his legions with the promise of a land distribution, which is refused by the Senate

60 BC
The First Triumvirate is concluded: a private agreement of mutual political support and cooperation between Pompey, Crassus and Julius Caesar

59 BC
Pompey and Crassus get Caesar elected as consul – Caesar authorises a provincial tax reform and Pompey’ land distribution – Caesar becomes governor of the provinces Gallia Cisalpina (northern Italy), Gallia Narbonensis and Illyricum for five years

58 BC
The Romans take over the island of Cyprus

58 – 51 BC:
Roman conquest of Gaul by Caesar’s legions
+ 58 BC: the Romans smash the Helvetii at the Battle of Bibractes and the Suebi near the Rhine
+ 57 BC: the Belgic tribes are subdued
+ 56 BC: successful Roman campaigns against the tribes in Armorica and Aquitania
+ 55 BC: attacks by the Germanic Tencteri and Usipetes are repelled – Roman forces cross the Rhine for the first time – Roman forces reach the British Isles for the first time
+ 55 BC: consulate of Pompey and Crassus – The Triumvirate divides up Rome’s proconsular provinces; Pompey receives Spain, Caesar receives Gaul and Crassus receives Syria
+ 54 BC: Caesar invades the British Isles in full force and is victorious against the Britons led by Cassivellaunus before returning to Gaul – Uprising of the Eburones, Nervi and Treveri
+ 53 BC: Caesar ruthlessly destroys the revolting Belgic tribes and pursues the survivors across the Rhine
+ 52 BC: major Gallic uprisings led by Vercingetorix end in a Roman victory at Alesia – Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar and is brought to Rome, where he is executed in 46 BC
+ 51 BC: Caesar finishes the conquest of Gaul

53 BC:
Battle of Carrhae
Crassus’ invasion of Parthia ends with a humiliating Roman defeat and his death

52 BC
Pompey is elected consul without colleague (consul sine collega) after riots in Rome

50 BC
Caesar refuses the Senate’s demand to disband his armies and crosses the Rubicon (“alea iacta est”)

49 – 45 BC: Civil war of Caesar against Pompey and the Pompeian faction in the Senate
+ 49 BC: Caesar takes Rome and conquers Italy – Pompey and much of the Senate flee to Greece – Caesar turns around and invades Spain within a month, defeating Pompeian forces at the Battle of Ilerda 
+ 9 August 48 BC: a decisive Caesarian victory at the Battle of Pharsalus, Pompey flees to Egypt and is assassinated by order of Ptolemy XIII
+ 48 – 47 BC: Caesar enters Egypt, defeats Ptolemy XIII and gives the Ptolemaic realm to Cleopatra VII under Roman protection – Caesar and Cleopatra have a child, Caesarion
+ 47 BC: Caesar defeats Pharnaces of Pontus at the Battle of Zela (“veni, vidi, vici”)
+ 46 BC: the Battle of Thapsus ends in a decisive Caesarian victory – Caesar becomes dictator and praefectus moribus
+ 45 BC: Caesar defeats the last Pompeian forces at the Battle of Munda in Spain and becomes dictator perpetuus, imperator and pontifex maximus – Caesar authorises an enlargement of the Senate to 900 members, a census of Roman citizens, municipial reforms in Italy, provincial reforms, a calendar reform (Julian calendar) and land distributions for veterans

15 March 44 BC
A senatorial conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius assassinates Caesar on the Ides of March

43 BC
The Second Triumvirate is concluded between Caesar’s former generals Antony and Lepidus and Caesar’s grand-nephew and heir Octavian

42 BC
Antony and Octavian defeat Brutus and Cassius at the twin Battles of Philippi

40 BC
The Treaty of Brundisium divides the Roman world between the Triumvirs: Antony in the east, Octavian in the west, Lepidus in the south with Italy as joint territory (but de facto under Octavian)

38 BC
The Second Triumvirate is renewed for five years

36 BC
Antony marries Cleopatra VII and allegedly plans to build a Roman-Egyptian empire – Octavian and his able general Vispanius Agrippa defeat Sextus Pompey on Sicily – Lepidus is made pontifex maximus and thus politically removed from the Triumvirate

32 – 30 BC: Final War of the Roman Republic – Rome (pro-Octavian) declares war on Ptolemaic Egypt (pro-Antony)
+ 2 September 31 BC: Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium
+ 1-3 August 30 BC: Octavian enters Alexandria – Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide
+ Rome annexes Egypt

27 BC
+ 13 January: Octavian nominally returns power to the Senate and restores the Roman Republic
+ 16 January: Octavian is given the honorary title of Augustus by the Senate and begins establishing the Principate – The ‘end’ of Republican Rome and beginning of Imperial Rome under Augustus as ‘emperor’ (princeps, ‘first citizen’)
+ The bulk of Roman holdings in Spain is turned into the new province of Hispania Tarraconensis
+ The provinces of Epirus and Achaea are created out of Macedonia

25 BC
Galatia becomes a Roman province

22 BC
Augustus and Agrippa reorganise Caesar’s Gallic conquests into three new provinces; Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Lugdunensis and Gallia Belgica – The island of Cyprus is made into a province of its own

20 BC
Augustus reaches an agreement with the Parthian Empire by which the legionary eagles lost by Crassus at Carrhae in 53 BC are returned

19 BC
Augustus finishes the conquest and pacification of Spain

17 BC
Augustus declares ‘world peace’ (pax Augusta)

16 – 15 BC
Roman forces led by Augustus’ stepsons Tiberius and Drusus establish the provinces of Raetia and Noricum

14 BC
Most of the western Alps are brought under Roman control by the creation of the provinces of Alpes Maritimae and Alpes Poeninae

13 BC
The provinces of Hispania Lusitania and Hispania Baetica are created, finishing the administrative reorganisation of Spain

13 – 9 BC
Agrippa and Tiberius subdue the Pannonians

12 BC
Agrippa, Augustus’ favourite general and would-be heir, dies

12 – 9 BC
Drusus subjugates the Frisii, Batavi and Chauci, drives off the Quadi and Marcomanni and successfully advances to the Elbe, where he dies

8 – 6 BC
Tiberius takes up command of the Roman armies in Germania and advances to the Elbe

7 BC
Augustus reorganises the administration of Italy

4 BC
Augustus adopts Tiberius and appoints him as heir to the Principate

AD 4
Tiberius begins constructing roads and legionary camps in Germania, in anticipation of its annexation as a Roman province

AD 6
Rome establishes the province of Iudaea

AD 6 – 9
A revolt of the Pannonians is crushed

AD 9: Battle of Teutoburger Forest (Clades Variana)
Led by Arminius, the Cherusci ambush and destroy three Roman legions – Rome abandons Germania and retreats to the Rhine

AD 10
The province of Illyricum is split up into the new provinces of Pannonia­ and Dalmatia

AD 14
+ 18 August: Death of Augustus
+ 18 September: Tiberius is declared the new emperor

AD 14 – 16: Tiberius’ nephew Germanicus leads Roman reprisals against the Germanic tribes for the Teutoburg defeat
+AD 14: Germanicus’ legions are victorious against the Marsi, Bructeri and Usipetes
+ AD 15: Germanicus drives the Chattii from their lands and destroys their capital Mattium
+ AD 15: Roman forces enter the battlefield at Teutoburg and bury the Roman dead still lying there
+ AD 16: Arminius’ horde is crushed by the Romans at the Battle of the Weser
+ AD 16: Germanicus recaptures the legionary eagles lost at the disaster of Teutoburg, retreats to the Rhine and is recalled to Rome by Tiberius, where he is given a triumph

AD 17
Rome creates the province of Cappadocia

AD 19
Germanicus dies in Syria, Tiberius loses his favoured general and would-be heir

AD 26
Tiberius goes to live on the island of Capri, embittered and disillusioned (tristissimus hominum)

AD 26 – 29
Tiberius’ Praetorian Prefect Sejanus seizes Tiberius’ retirement from Rome to further his own ambitions – Countless public trials, executions and forced suicides happen at Sejanus’ instigation

AD 31
Sejanus plots to assassinate Tiberius, but is himself executed first – Tiberius orders the infamous treason trials: anyone associated with Sejanus must be arrested and killed

AD 37
+ 16 March: Tiberius dies, leaving his teenage grandson Tiberius Gemella and his adoptive grandson Gaius Caesar Germanicus as joint-heirs
+ 24 March: Gaius Caesar Germanicus, better known by his childhood nickname Caligula (‘little soldier boot’), becomes the new emperor – Caligula stops the treason trials and recalls senators exiled by Tiberius
+ October: Caligula nearly dies of illness, possibly poisoning, but recovers (at least physically)

AD 38
Caligula returns the right to elect the magistracy to the Roman people – Caligula’s sister Drusilla dies, further embittering the already unstable emperor

AD 38 – 39
Caligula works to turn the semi-republican Principate into an oriental Hellenic monarchy after Alexander the Great and the Achaemenids and liquidates any who might oppose him

AD 40
Caligula annexes the vassal kingdom of Mauretania after executing its king Ptolemy

24 January AD 41
Caligula is assassinated by Praetorian and senatorial conspirators – His uncle Claudius is proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard

AD 43
Claudius begins a Roman invasion of the British Isles – The new province of Britannia is established and gradually expanded (finished by AD 78)

AD 44
Claudius splits up Mauretania into the new provinces of Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis

AD 46
Claudius establishes the province of Thracia

13 October AD 54
Claudius is murdered by his fourth wife Agrippina – Agrippina’s son (Claudius’ adopted son) Nero becomes the new emperor

AD 58 – 63
War with the Parthian Empire over Armenia ends in a compromise peace

AD 59
Nero has his mother Agrippina murdered

AD 61
Rome crushes a Briton revolt

AD 62
Nero reintroduces trials presided over by the emperor, uses excessive violence against any who oppose him but focuses on enacting decrees and reforms popular with the masses

AD 64
The Great Fire of Rome starts on 18 July: over the course of several days, Rome largely burns down – Nero organises rescue efforts, provides shelter and food to those rendered homeless – Nero blames the fledgling Christian community for the fire and orders the first persecutions of Christians – Nero orders the construction of the Golden House (Domus Aurea) on the Palatine Hill in Rome

AD 64
The province of Alpes Cottiae is created

AD 65: Conspiracy of Piso
An attempt to eliminate Nero fails

AD 66 – 73: First Jewish-Roman War – Religious tension and resistance to taxation spark a Jewish revolt against Rome
+ AD 66: Jewish rebels overtake the Roman garrison of Jerusalem after the Romans execute thousands of Jews
+ AD 66: Jewish rebels deal a crushing defeat to the Romans at the Battle of Beth Heron
+ AD 67: Nero sends future emperor Vespasian to deal with the Jewish revolt – Roman forces systematically destroy Galilee to isolate the rebels in Jerusalem – The Romans besiege and destroy Yodfat
+ AD 68 – 69: infighting in Jerusalem severely weakens the Jewish rebels
+ AD 69: Vespasian journeys to Rome to become emperor, leaving his son Titus in command of the war
+ February AD 70: Roman legions under Titus surround and besiege Jerusalem – Infighting and starvation continue to weaken the defenders
+ August AD 70: Titus’ legions break into Jerusalem, burning nearly the entire city (including the Temple of Herod) and killing most of its inhabitants
+ AD 71: Titus returns to Rome but a few pockets of Jewish rebellion continue to resist
+ AD 72 – 73: Rome begins the Siege of Massada, the last Jewish centre of resistance
+ 16 April 73 AD: the defenders of Massada commit mass suicide as the fortress falls to the Romans

AD 68
Gaius Julius Vindex (governor of Gallia Lugdunensis), Marcus Salvius Otho (governor of Hispania Lusitania) and Servius Sulpicius Galba (governor of Hispania Tarraconensis) rebel against Nero – Nero flees Rome and ultimately commits suicide – End of the Julio-Claudian dynasty

AD 69
Year of the Four Emperors (Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian) – The Batavian Revolt breaks loose, but is crushed by AD 70

21 December AD 69
Vespasian is proclaimed emperor by the Senate – Beginning of the Flavian dynasty

AD 74
Rome incorporates the region between the Rhine and Danube (agri decumates)

AD 79
+ 23 June: Vespasian dies and is succeeded by his son Titus
+ 24 August: Mount Vesuvius erupts and destroys the cities of Pompeii, Stabiae and Herculaneum – Titus visits Pompeii shortly after and personally compensates the survivors

AD 80
A fire ravages Rome for three days and nights: Titus again pays for reparations and compensations to the afflicted – The Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium) is finished and inaugurated

13 September AD 81
Titus dies and is succeeded by his younger brother Domitian

AD 83
Domitian organises the provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior and orders the construction of the limites in the Rhine-Danube frontier region

AD 84
Significant Roman incursions into Scotland

AD 85 – 89
Rome goes to war with the Dacian tribes led by Decebalus after a Dacian invasion of Moesia – Decebalus becomes a Roman client king, in return for financial support – Domitian creates the provinces of Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior

18 September AD 96
Domitian is assassinated by a conspiracy between the Praetorian Guard and imperial freedmen – Marcus Cocceius Nerva is declared emperor – Beginning of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty

AD 97
Nerva adopts Trajan as his heir

AD 98
Nerva dies after a fifteen month rule – Trajan becomes the new emperor

AD 101 – 102, AD 105: Roman-Dacian Wars
Trajan’s legions cross the Danube and subdue the Dacian tribes

AD 106
The province of Dacia is established – Most of Nabataea is turned into the province of Arabia

AD 107
Trajan devaluates the Roman denarius to increase his funds

AD 114
Trajan is given the title Optimus by the Senate – Roman forces occupy the Kingdom of Armenia, turning it into the new province of Armenia

AD 115: Second Jewish-Roman War
Jews engage in uprisings in the provinces of Cyrenaica, Aegyptus, Cyprus and Iudaea but are defeated by AD 117

AD 115 – 116
Trajan leads the Roman invasion of the Parthian Empire and establishes the new provinces of Mesopotamia and Assyria – Roman forces sack the Parthian capital at Ctesiphon and reach the Persian Gulf

9 August 117
Trajan dies, leaving the Roman Empire at its greatest extent ever – Hadrian, the governor of Syria, is declared emperor with the support of Trajan’s widow Pompeia

AD 118
Hadrian restores the Euphrates as Rome’s eastern frontier in return for peace with Parthia

AD 121 – 125, AD 126 – 129
Hadrian travels all across the empire to personally supervise its administrative and military conducts

AD 122
Hadrian orders the construction of his famous Wall in Britain

AD 123
Hadrian prevents a new war with Parthia through diplomacy

AD 125
The Pantheon in Rome is rebuilt by order of Hadrian

AD 130
Rome outlaws the execution of slaves without a trial

AD 131
Hadrian orders Jerusalem (essentially destroyed since AD 70) rebuilt as the Roman colony Aelia Capitolina

AD 132
The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens is finished after c. 630 years and dedicated by Hadrian

AD 132 – 135: Bar Kokhba Revolt (Third Jewish-Roman War)
Rome’s plan to rebuild Jerusalem as a Roman colony provokes the Jews of Judea to enter open revolt under the leadership of Bar Kokhba – Despite heavy losses, Rome overwhelms the Jewish rebels by AD 135 – By order of Hadrian, the Jews of Judea are systematically annihilated, Jerusalem is rebuilt and renamed as Aelia Capitolina and the Roman province of Iudaea is merged into Syria

AD 138
+ 25 February: Hadrian adopts Antoninus as his son and heir
+ 10 July: Hadrian dies of heart failure after a prolonged period of illness and is succeeded by Antoninus

AD 139
Hadrian’s ashes are given their final resting place in his own mausoleum (Mausoleum Hadriani), known today as the Castle of the Holy Angel in Rome

© 2014 – 2015


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an just for fun

Alpha strike

Alpha strike is a term used by the United States Navy to denote a large air attack by an aircraft carrier air wing, first coined during the Vietnam War.[1] It is the Navy's version of the more widely used term "strike package".

An Alpha strike is typically a large strike representing a "deck load" of aircraft, i.e.,the amount of aircraft that can be brought to the flight deck, armed and launched against a high-value target. This will generally amount to about half of the aircraft aboard and will comprise aircraft from all squadrons on board and are also referred to as airwing-size strikes. The other half will normally have been recently recovered aircraft, and will be parked and prepared for their next mission on the hangar deck below the flight deck. During an Alpha strike the carrier will remain into the wind and at General Quarters with a "ready deck" to recover any aircraft returning to the ship with battle damage. During the Vietnam War an Alpha strike also meant that the target of a strike was specifically taken from a target list maintained by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and as such required JCOS authorization.

The alternate form of carrier operations are "cyclic operations" during which a carrier will launch and recover aircraft (a launch and recovery is a complete cycle) on a prescribed schedule. Several factors will contribute to the length of a cycle depending on the type of aircraft, the time and distance to the target, and the mission. With virtually all fast moving, jet aircraft aboard, carriers during the Vietnam War would launch and recover every 90 minutes and complete 9 cycles daily over typically a 12-13 hour period. These carriers were generally assigned to Yankee Station located about a 100 miles from the target area. When a carrier stood down after flight quarters another carrier would commence flight operations. Typically three and on rare occasions four carriers operated on Yankee Station and provided continuous fleet air operations around the clock. A carrier would typically be on the line for a "line period" of 30 to 35 days, and then leave the line for 6 to 8 days of rest and recreation. A deployment to the Western Pacific usually amounted to six line periods and typically lasted about 10 1/2 months including transit from and to the continental United States.

During the peak of the war a carrier typically launched 9 to 13 thousand sorties. If a sortie may be used as a measure of activity, the periods from 1966 to early 1968 and 1970 to 1973 probably amounted to the most intensive level of combat flying in the history of naval warfare.

Sometimes some very large air raids were staged by coordinating aircraft from three US Navy carriers in the Gulf of Tonkin and the US Air Force flying from airfields in Thailand. This could amount to 90 to 100 Navy aircraft and a similar number from the Air Force. During these very large raids either the Navy or the Air Force would strike first and the other service would re-strike the target 15 minutes later. The planning for these strikes was extensive, and typically a strike would remain over target no longer than two minutes in an effort to minimize losses in what was also the most intensive air defense system composed of fighters, anti-aircraft guns, and missiles ever encountered.

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F-15 Eagle

The F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. The Eagle's air superiority is achieved through a mixture of maneuverability and acceleration, range, weapons and avionics. The F-15 has electronic systems and weaponry to detect, acquire, track and attack enemy aircraft while operating in friendly or enemy-controlled airspace. Its weapons and flight control systems are designed so one person can safely and effectively perform air-to-air combat. It can penetrate enemy defense and outperform and outfight current or projected enemy aircraft.

The F-15's superior maneuverability and acceleration are achieved through high engine thrust-to-weight ratio and low wing loading. Low wing-loading (the ratio of aircraft weight to its wing area) is a vital factor in maneuverability and, combined with the high thrust-to-weight ratio, enables the aircraft to turn tightly without losing airspeed.

A multimission avionics system sets the F-15 apart from other fighter aircraft. It includes a head-up display, advanced radar, inertial navigation system, flight instruments, UHF communications, tactical navigation system and instrument landing system. It also has an internally mounted, tactical electronic-warfare system, "identification friend or foe" system, electronic countermeasures set and a central digital computer.

Through an on-going multistage improvement program the F-15 is receiving extensive upgrade involving the installation or modification of new and existing avionics equipment to enhance the tactical capabilities of the F-15.

The head-up display projects on the windscreen all essential flight information gathered by the integrated avionics system. This display, visible in any light condition, provides the pilot information necessary to track and destroy an enemy aircraft without having to look down at cockpit instruments.

The F-15's versatile pulse-Doppler radar system can look up at high-flying targets and down at low-flying targets without being confused by ground clutter. It can detect and track aircraft and small high-speed targets at distances beyond visual range down to close range, and at altitudes down to tree-top level. The radar feeds target information into the central computer for effective weapons delivery. For close-in dog fights, the radar automatically acquires enemy aircraft, and this information is projected on the head-up display.

The APG-63 radar was developed over 20 years ago and has an average mean time between failure less than 15 hours. APG-63 LRUs have become increasingly difficult to support both in the field and at the depot. First, individual parts have become increasingly unavailable from any source; incorporating newer technology parts often entails module redesign and fails to address the root cause. Second, continuing reliability deterioration impacts both sustainment, particularly during deployment, as well as ACC’s ability to implement two-level maintenance. In addition, the APG-63 radar has virtually no remaining processing and memory capacity to accommodate software upgrades to counter evolving threats. The APG-63(V)1 radar has been designed for improved reliability and maintainability to address user requirements. The radar incorporates components designed for improved reliability and lower failure rates and enhanced diagnostics for improved fault detection and fault isolation. Along with other design features, these should improve radar reliability to 120 hours MTBM, an order of magnitude better than the existing APG-63.

An inertial navigation system enables the Eagle to navigate anywhere in the world. It gives aircraft position at all times as well as pitch, roll, heading, acceleration and speed information.

The F-15's electronic warfare system provides both threat warning and automatic countermeasures against selected threats. The "identification friend or foe" system informs the pilot if an aircraft seen visually or on radar is friendly. It also informs U.S. or allied ground stations and other suitably equipped aircraft that the F-15 is a friendly aircraft.

The Fiber Optic Towed Decoy (FOTD) provides aircraft protection against modern radar-guided missiles to supplement traditional radar jamming equipment. The device is towed at varying distances behind the aircraft while transmitting a signal like that of a threat radar. The missile will detect and lock onto the decoy rather than on the aircraft. This is achieved by making the decoy’s radiated signal stronger than that of the aircraft.

A variety of air-to-air weaponry can be carried by the F-15. An automated weapon system enables the pilot to perform aerial combat safely and effectively, using the head-up display and the avionics and weapons controls located on the engine throttles or control stick. When the pilot changes from one weapon system to another, visual guidance for the required weapon automatically appears on the head-up display.

The Eagle can be armed with combinations of four different air-to-air weapons: AIM-7F/M Sparrow missiles or AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles on its lower fuselage corners, AIM-9L/M Sidewinder or AIM-120 missiles on two pylons under the wings, and an internal 20mm Gatling gun (with 940 rounds of ammunition) in the right wing root.

The current AIM-9 missile does not have the capabilities demonstrated by foreign technologies, giving the F-15 a distinct disadvantage during IR dogfight scenarios. AIM-9X integration will once again put the F-15 in the air superiority position in all arenas. The F-15/AIM-9X weapon system is to consist of F-15 carriage of the AIM-9X missile on a LAU-128 Air-to-Air (A/A) launcher from existing AIM-9 certified stations. The AIM-9X will be an upgrade to the AIM-9L/M, incorporating increased missile maneuverability and allowing a high off-boresight targeting capability.

Low-drag, conformal fuel tanks were especially developed for the F-15C and D models. Conformal fuel tanks can be attached to the sides of the engine air intake trunks under each wing and are designed to the same load factors and airspeed limits as the basic aircraft. Each conformal fuel tank contains about 114 cubic feet of usable space. These tanks reduce the need for in-flight refueling on global missions and increase time in the combat area. All external stations for munitions remain available with the tanks in use. AIM-7F/M Sparrow and AIM-120 missiles, moreover, can be attached to the corners of the conformal fuel tanks.

The F-15 Eagle began its life in the mid 1960s as the Fighter Experimental (FX) concept. Using lessons learned in Vietnam, the USAF sought to develop and procure a new, dedicated air superiority fighter. Such an aircraft was desperately needed, as no USAF aircraft design solely conceived as an air superiority fighter had become reality since the F-86 Sabre. The intervening twenty years saw a number of aircraft performing the air-to-air role as a small part of their overall mission, such as the primarily air-to-ground F-4 Phantom and the F-102, F-104 and F-106 interceptor designs. The result of the FX study was a requirement for a fighter design combining unparalleled maneuverability with state-of-the-art avionics and weaponry. An industry-wide competition ended on December 23, 1969 when McDonnell Douglas was awarded the contract for the F-15.

* The first F-15A flight was made on 27 July 1972, culminating one of the most successful aircraft development and procurement programs in Air Force history. After an accident-free test and evaluation period, the first aircraft was delivered to the Air Force on Novermber 14, 1974. In January 1976, the first Eagle destined for a combat squadron was delivered to the 1st Tactical Fighter Wing at Langley Air Force Base, Va. Three hundred and sixty-five F-15As were built before production of the F-15C began in 1978. In January 1982, the 48th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at Langley Air Force Base became the first Air Force air defense squadron to transition to the F-15. After twenty years of service, the F-15A has recently been reassigned from active duty Air Force fighter squadrons to Air National Guard units. The F-15A is flown by Air National Guard squadrons in the states of Oregon, Missouri, Georgia, Louisiana, Hawaii, and Massachussets.
* The first flight of the two-seat F-15B (formerly TF-15A) trainer was made in July 1973. The first F-15B Eagle was delivered in November 1974 to the 58th Tactical Training Wing, Luke Air Force Base, Ariz., where pilot training was accomplished in both F-15A and B aircraft. The F-15B incorporates a tandem seating configuration, with a second crewmember position aft of the pilot's seat. The primary purpose of the F-15B is aircrew training, with an instructor pilot occupying the rear seat while an upgrading pilot mans the front seat controls. The rear seat pilot has a full set of flight controls and can fly the aircraft throughout the envelope, including takeoff and landing. Even though space is sacrificed to accomodate the second crew member, the F-15B retains the same warfighting capability as the F-15A. In keeping with the trainer concept, however, the rear seat is not equipped with controls for the combat avionics and weaponry. In fact, the rear seat is not a mandatory crew position, and F-15Bs are often flown with empty rear cockpits.
* The F-15C is an improved version of the original F-15A single-seat air superiority fighter. Additions incorporated in the F-15C include upgrades to avionics as well as increased internal fuel capacity and a higher allowable gross takeoff weight. The single-seat F-15C and two-seat F-15D models entered the Air Force inventory beginning in 1979. Kadena Air Base, Japan, received the first F-15C in September 1979. These new models have Production Eagle Package (PEP 2000) improvements, including 2,000 pounds (900 kilograms) of additional internal fuel, provision for carrying exterior conformal fuel tanks and increased maximum takeoff weight of up to 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms). Externally, the differences between the F-15A and F-15C are so slight as to make identification difficult; the only reliable indicator is the aircraft serial number. All F-15As have tail numbers starting with 73- through 77-, while F-15Cs have tail numbers beginning with 78- through 86-. The F-15C is the Air Force's primary air superiority fighter, serving with active duty units at Langley AFB, VA, Eglin AFB, FL, Mountain Home AFB, ID, Elmendorf AFB, AK, Tyndall AFB, FL, Nellis AFB, NV, Spangdahlem AB, Germany, Lakenheath AB, England and Kadena AB, Okinawa. The operational F-15C force structure is approximately 300 aircraft assigned to operational units. In the mid-1990s the F-15C experienced declining reliability indicators, primarily from three subsystems: radar, engines, and secondary structures. A complete retrofit of all three subsystems could be done for less than $3 billion.
* The F-15D is a two-seat variant of the single-place F-15C. The primary purpose of the F-15D is aircrew training, with an instructor pilot occupying the rear seat while an upgrading pilot mans the front seat controls.

F-15C's, D's and E's were deployed to the Persian Gulf in 1991 in support of Operation Desert Storm where they proved their superior combat capability with a confirmed 26:0 kill ratio.

The F-15C has an air combat victory ratio of 95-0 making it one of the most effective air superiority aircraft ever developed. The US Air Force claims the F-15C is in several respects inferior to, or at best equal to, the MiG-29, Su-27, Su-35/37, Rafale, and EF-2000, which are variously superior in acceleration, maneuverability, engine thrust, rate of climb, avionics, firepower, radar signature, or range. Although the F-15C and Su-27P series are similar in many categories, the Su-27 can outperform the F-15C at both long and short ranges. In long-range encounters, with its superiorr radar the Su-27 can launch a missile before the F-15C does, so from a purely kinematic standpoint, the Russian fighters outperform the F-15C in the beyond-visual-range fight. The Su-35 phased array radar is superior to the APG-63 Doppler radar in both detection range and tracking capabilities. Additionally, the Su-35 propulsion system increases the aircraft’s maneuverability with thrust vectoring nozzles. Simulations conducted by British Aerospace and the British Defense Research Agency compared the effectiveness of the F-15C, Rafale, EF-2000, and F-22 against the Russian Su-35 armed with active radar missiles similar to the AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM). The Rafale achieved a 1:1 kill ratio (1 Su-35 destroyed for each Rafale lost). The EF-2000 kill ratio was 4.5:1 while the F-22 achieved a ratio of 10:1. In stark contrast was the F-15C, losing 1.3 Eagles for each Su-35 destroyed.
F-15E Strike Eagle

Although the slogan of the F-15's original design team was "Not a pound for air-to-ground," the F-15 has long been recognized as having superior potential in the ground attack role. In 1987 this potential was realized in the form of the F-15E Strike Eagle. The mission of the Strike Eagle is as succinct as that of its air-to-air cousin: to put bombs on target. The F-15E is especially configured for the deep strike mission, venturing far behind enemy lines to attack high value targets with a variety of munitions. The Strike Eagle accomplishes this mission by expanding on the capabilities of the air superiority F-15, adding a rear seat WSO (Weapon Systems Operator) crewmember and incorporating an entirely new suite of air-to-ground avionics.

The F-15E is a two seat, two engine dual role fighter capable of speeds up to MACH 2.5. The F-15E performs day and night all weather air-to-air and air-to-ground missions including strategic strike, interdiction, OCA and DCA. Although primarily a deep interdiction platform, the F-15E can also perform CAS and Escort missions. Strike Eagles are equipped with LANTIRN, enhancing night PGM delivery capability. The F-15E outbord and inboard wing stations and the centerline can be load with various armament. The outboard wing hardpoint are unable to carry heavy loads and are assign for ECM pods. The other hardpoints can be employed for various loads but with the use of multiple ejection racks (MERs). Each MER can hold six Mk-82 bombs or "Snakeye" retarded bombs, or six Mk 20 "Rockeye" dispensers, four CBU-52B, CBU- 58B, or CBU-71B dispensers, a single Mk-84 (907 kg) bomb F- 15E can carry also "smart" weapons, CBU-10 laser quided bomb based on the Mk 84 bomb, CBU-12, CBU-15, or another, laser, electro-optical, or infra-red guided bomb (including AGM-G5 "Marerick" air-to-ground) missiles.

Conformal Fuel Tanks were introduced with the F-15C in order to extend the range of the aircraft. The CFTs are carried in pairs and fit closely to the side of the aircraft, with one CFT underneath each wing. By designing the CFT to minimize the effect on aircraft aerodynamics, much lower drag results than if a similar amount of fuel is carried in conventional external fuel tanks. This lower drag translate directly into longer aircraft ranges, a particularly desirable characteristic of a deep strike fighter like the F-15E. As with any system, the use of CFTs on F-15s involves some compromise. The weight and drag of the CFTs (even when empty) degrades aircraft performance when compared to external fuel tanks, which can be jettisoned when needed (CFTs are not jettisonable and can only be downloaded by maintenance crews). As a result, CFTs are typically used in situations where increased range offsets any performance drawbacks. In the case of the F-15E, CFTs allow air-to-ground munitions to be loaded on stations which would otherwise carry external fuel tanks. In general, CFT usage is the norm for F15Es and the exception for F-15C/D's.

The F-15E Strike Eagle’s tactical electronic warfare system [TEWS] is an integrated countermeasures system. Radar, radar jammer, warning receiver and chaff/flare dispenser all work together to detect, identify and counter threats posed by an enemy. For example, if the warning receiver detects a threat before the radar jammer, the warning receiver will inform the jammer of the threat. A Strike Eagle’s TEWS can jam radar systems operating in high frequencies, such as radar used by short-range surface-to-air missiles, antiaircraft artillery and airborne threats. Current improvements to TEWS will enhance the aircraft’s ability to jam enemy radar systems. The addition of new hardware and software, known as Band 1.5, will round out the TEWS capability by jamming threats in mid-to-low frequencies, such as long-range radar systems. The equipment is expected to go into full production sometime in late 1999.

The Defense Department plans to sustain production of the F-15E for at least two more years, purchasing three aircraft in both FY 1998 and FY 1999. Without FY 1998 procurement, the F-15 production line would begin to close in the absence of new foreign sales. These six additional aircraft, together with the six aircraft approved by Congress in FY 1997, will sustain the present 132-plane combat force structure until about FY 2016. Under current plans by 2030, the last F-15C/D models will have been phased out of the inventory and replaced by the F-22.
Service Life

Designed in the 1960s and built in the 1970s, the F-15A - D aircraft has now been in service for over twenty years. While the Eagle's aerodynamics and maneuverability are still on a par with newer aircraft, quantum leaps in integrated circuit technology have made the original F-15 avionics suite obsolete. The objective of the Multi-Stage Improvement Program (MSIP) was to set the Eagle in step with today's vastly improved information processing systems. Some F-15C/D aircraft (tail numbers 84-001 and higher) came off the assembly line with MSIP in place. All F-15A/B/C/D aircraft produced before 84-001 will receive the MSIP retrofit at the F-15 depot. Improvements incorporated via MSIP vary between F-15A/B and F-15C/D aircraft; the C/D MSIP has been completed. However, all air-to-air Eagles gain improved radar, central computer, weapons and fire control, and threat warning systems.

The purpose of the F-15 Multi-stage Improvement Program (MSIP) was to provide maximum air superiority in a dense hostile environment in the late 1990s and beyond. All total, 427 Eagles received the new avionics upgrades. Along with later model production aircraft, these retrofitted aircraft would provide the Combat Air Forces (CAF) with a total MSIP fleet of 526 aircraft. The MSIP upgraded the capabilities of the F-15 aircraft to included a MIL-STD-1760 aircraft/weapons standard electrical interface bus to provide the digital technology needed to support new and modern weapon systems like AMRAAM. The upgrade also incorporated a MIL-STD-1553 digital command/response time division data bus that would enable onboard systems to communicate and to work with each other. A new central computer with significantly improved processing speed and memory capacity upgraded the F-15 from 70s to 90s technology, adding capacity needed to support new radar and other systems. The original Eagle had less computer capacity than a 1990s car. Some of the work prefaced the addition of the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System, adding space, power, and cooling that would allow the new avionics to run in the harsh environments in which the Eagle operates. The new programmable armament control set (PACS) with a multi-purpose color display (MPCD) for expanded weapons control, monitoring, and release capabilities featured a modern touch screen that allowed the pilot to talk to his weapons. A data transfer module (DTM) set provided pre-programmed information that customized the jet to fly the route the pilot had planned using mission planning computers. An upgrade to the APG-63 Radar for multiple target detection, improved electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) characteristics, and non-cooperative target recognition capability enabled the pilot to identify and target enemy aircraft before he was detected or before the enemy could employ his weapons. An upgrade of the advanced medium range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM), that carried up to eight missiles, represented an improvement that complimented the combat-proven AIM-7 Sparrow by giving the pilot capability to engage multiple targets to launch and leave, targeting and destroying enemy fighters before they could pose a threat. The upgraded Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) and an enhanced internal countermeasures set (ICS) on F-15C/D models improved threat detection and self-protection radar jamming capability that allowed pilots to react to threat and to maneuver to break the lock of enemy missiles.

The F-15 initial operational requirement was for a service life of 4,000 hours. Testing completed in 1973 demonstrated that the F-15 could sustain 16,000 hours of flight. Subsequently operational use was more severely stressful than the original design specification. With an average usage of 270 aircraft flight hours per year, by the early 1990s the F-15C fleet was approaching its service-design-life limit of 4,000 flight hours. Following successful airframe structural testing, the F-15C was extended to an 8,000-hour service life limit. An 8,000-hour service limit provides current levels of F-15Cs through 2010. The F-22 program was initially justified on the basis of an 8,000 flight hour life projection for the F-15. This was consistent with the projected lifespan of the most severely stressed F-15Cs, which have averaged 85% of flight hours in stressful air-to-air missions, versus the 48% in the original design specification.

Full-scale fatigue testing between 1988 and 1994 ended with a demonstration of over 7,600 flight hours for the most severely used aircraft, and in excess of 12,000 hours on the remainder of the fleet. A 10,000-hour service limit would provide F-15Cs to 2020, while a 12,000-hour service life extends the F-15Cs to the year 2030. The APG-63 radar, F100-PW-100 engines, and structure upgrades are mandatory. The USAF cannot expect to fly the F-15C to 2014, or beyond, without replacing these subsystems. The total cost of the three retrofits would be under $3 billion. The upgrades would dramatically reduce the 18 percent breakrate prevalent in the mid-1990s, and extend the F-15C service life well beyond 2014.

The F-15E structure is rated at 16,000 flight hours, double the lifetime of earlier F-15s.
Foreign Military Sales

The Eagle has been chosen by three foreign military customers to modernize their air forces. Japan has purchased and produces an air-to-air F-15 known as the F-15J. Israel has bought F-15A, B, and D aircraft from USAF inventories and is currently obtaining an air-to-ground version called the F-15I. Similarly, Saudi Arabia has purchased F-15C and D aircraft and acquired the air-to-ground F-15S.
F-15I Thunder

Israel has bought F-15A, B, and D aircraft from USAF inventories and is currently obtaining an air-to-ground version called the F-15I. The two seat F-15I, known as the Thunder in Israel, incorporates new and unique weapons, avionics, electronic warfare, and communications capabilities that make it one of the most advanced F-15s. The F-15I, like the US Air Force's F-15E Strike Eagle, is a dual-role fighter that combines long-range interdiction with the Eagle's air superiority capabilities. All aircraft are to be configured with either the F100-PW-229 or F110-GE-129 engines by direct commercial sale; Night Vision Goggle compatible cockpits; an Elbit display and sight helmet (DASH) system; conformal fuel tanks; and the capability to employ the AIM-120, AIM-7, AIM-9, and a wide variety of air-to-surface munitions.

F-15 production, which began in 1972, has been extended into 1999 by orders F-151 aircraft for Israel. Israel selected the F-15I in January, 1994 after evaluating a variety of aircraft to meet its defense needs. The government of Israel initially ordered 25 F-15I Thunders, powered by two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 low bypass turbofan engine. This foreign military sale was valued at $1.76 billion dollars. The Israeli Air Force received the first two of 25 F-15I aircraft in January 1998. On 22 September 1998 the US Department of Defense announced the sale to the Government of Israel of 30 F-15I aircraft; 30 AN/APG-70 or AN/APG-63(V)1 radar; and 30 each LANTIRN navigation and targeting pods. Associated support equipment, software development/integration, spares and repair parts, flight test instrumentation, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, US Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related requirements to ensure full program supportability will also be provided. The estimated cost was $2.5 billion.
F-15S Peace Sun IX

F-15 production has been extended into 1999 by orders for 72 F-15S aircraft for Saudi Arabia. Peace Sun IX is an F-15 Foreign Military Sales production program, with development, to deliver 72 F-15S aircraft including support equipment, spares, and training to the Royal Saudi government. Saudi Arabia has purchased a total of 62 F-15C and D aircraft and later procured the F-15S, which is a two-seater aircraft based on the F-15E airframe, with downgraded avionics, downgraded LANTIRN pods, and a simplified Hughes APG-70 radar without computerised radar mapping. Four F-15S Eagles were delivered in 1995. On 10 November 1999 the last of 72 F-15S aircraft was delivered to Saudi Arabia. In November 1995 Saudi Arabia purchased 556 GBU-15 Guided Bomb Units (including six training units), 48 data link pods, personnel training and training equipment and other related elements of logistics support. The estimated cost is $371 million. Saudi Arabia would use the GBU-15s to enhance the stand off attack capability of the F-15S aircraft.
F-15J Peace Eagle
Japan has purchased and produced a total of 223 air-to-air F-15 known as the F-15J, assembled in Japan from largely indigenously manufactured sub-assemblies and equipment. The Mitsubishi F-15J/DJ Eagle is the principal air superiority fighter operated by the JASDF. These differ from the F-15C/D with the deletion of sensitive ECM, radar warning, and nuclear delivery equipment. The AN/ALQ-135 is replaced by indigenous J/ALQ-8 and the AN/ALR-56 RHAWS is replaced by J/APR-4.

Primary Function Tactical fighter.
Contractor McDonnell Douglas Corp.
Power Plant Two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-100 turbofan engines with afterburners.
Thrust (C/D models) 25,000 pounds each engine ( 11,250 kilograms).
Length 63 feet, 9 inches (19.43 meters).
Height 18 feet, 8 inches (5.69 meters).
Wingspan 42 feet, 10 inches (13.06 meters)
Speed 1,875 mph (Mach 2.5-plus) at 45,000 ft.
Ceiling 65,000 feet (19,697 meters).
Maximum Takeoff Weight (C/D models) 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms).
Range 3,450 miles (3,000 nautical miles) ferry range with conformal fuel tanks and three external fuel tanks.
Armament 1 - M-61A1 20mm multibarrel internal gun, 940 rounds of ammunition
4 - AIM-9L/M Sidewinder and
4 - AIM-7F/M Sparrow missiles, or
combination of AIM-9L/M, AIM-7-F/M and AIM-120 missiles.
F-15C Weapon Loads
7 9 120 88 MM
4 4

4 2 2
2 2 4
4 4
4 900

4 4 4 900

F-15E Weapon Loads

12 CBU-52 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-59 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-71 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-87 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-89 (6 with wing tanks)
20 MK-20 (6 with wing tanks)

65 130 87 89 97 10 12 28 15 JDAM 9 120 MM

4 500


4 500


4 500


4 500


4 500


4 500


4 500


4 500


4 500

4 500

4 4 500

2 6 500
# Systems AN/APG-63 X-band pulsed-Doppler radar [Hughes]
# AN/APG-70 X-band pulsed-Doppler radar [Hughes]
[ on F-15E, F-15C/D, F-15A/B MSIP]
# AN/APX-76 IFF interrogator [Hazeltine]

# AN/ALQ-135(V) internal countermeasures system
# AN/ALQ-128 radar warning [Magnavox] suite
# AN/ALR-56 radar warning receiver (RWR) [Loral]
# AN/ALE-45 chaff/flare dispensers [Tracor]

# AN/AVQ-26 Pave Tack
# AN/AXQ-14 Data Link System
Crew F-15A/C: one. F-15B/D: two.
Unit cost $FY98
[Total Program] $43 million.
Date Deployed July 1972
[for USAF] 360 F-15A/B
408 F-15C
61 F-15D
203 F-15E
Total Inventory 275 F-15A/B
410 F-15C/D
203 F-15E

Approximately 100 F-15s are in storage @ AMARC
Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory 45 F-15A/B Air National Guard Air Defense Force
45 F-15A/B Air National Guard
126 F-15C/D Air Combat Command
90 F-15C/D Pacific Air Forces
36 F-15C/D US Air Forces Europe
342 F-15A/C TOTAL

66 F-15E Air Combat Command
18 F-15E Pacific Air Forces
48 F-15E US Air Forces Europe
132 F-15E TOTAL

Only combat-coded aircraft and not development/ test, attrition reserve, depot maintenance, or training aircraft.
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A type-2 phaser or phaser pistol is a typical hand-held directed-energy phaser weapon used by Starfleet and United Federation of Planets personnel during the 23rd and 24th and the 29th century.

More powerful and generally larger in size than the type 1 phaser, type 2 phasers were kept aboard Starfleet and Federation starships, starbases, space stations and at planetary facilities.

General specifications

A descendant of the EM weapons and phase pistols of the 22nd century, the type 2 phaser was introduced before the mid-23rd century and was standard issue aboard Starfleet vessels by the 2260s. In the nearly two hundred years since their introduction to Starfleet personnel, several models and makes have been observed.

Utilized primarily in defensive situations, the phaser type-2 had several applications, from use as a weapon to use as a cutting tool, explosive device, or energy source. Storing considerable energy, most phasers were distinguished by a roughly pistol or gun-type configuration, firing a focused energy discharge in the form of a beam or steady stream. (TOS: "The Naked Time", "The Conscience of the King", "The Galileo Seven")
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Models and variations
23rd centuryEdit

As early as the 2260s, Federation type 2 phasers were characterized by an unmistakably gun-like appearance. Varying in color from black and white, gray and black, and gray and copper combination, the 2260s model featured identifiable barrel and trigger structures, with an elongated handle/power pack capable of being quickly swapped out and "reloaded".

Unlike the majority of its progeny, the type 2 phaser of the 2260s – and later the 2280s – featured an integrated companion, top-mounted type-1 hand phaser. (TOS: "The Devil in the Dark", "The Omega Glory")

Type 2 phasers of this period were, like later models, capable of power adjustment. Beam intensity and even speed and motion could be altered depending on the intended function. They could be utilized to produce a cutting beam, capable of slicing through a bulkhead, or to generate a phaser "spread". The energy from a 2260s model could also be drained (a process which took several hours) and used as a power source. The energy from six phasers was capable of launching a small vessel or shuttlecraft into an unsustainable orbit around a planet for several hours. Adjustments could be made by a small knob at the rear of the device, and one on the front of the left side. (TOS: "The Naked Time", "Wink of an Eye", "The Galileo Seven"; ENT: "In a Mirror, Darkly, Part II"). When overloaded, a 2260s type 2 phaser had the capacity to destroy a significant portion of a starship. (TOS: "The Conscience of the King")

The destructive power of the phaser type-2 of this era has been measured in thousands of lives, when large numbers of Yangs were killed on the planet Omega IV in 2268. Proconsul Claudius Marcus, of planet 892-IV's equivalent of the Roman Empire, noted that 100 men armed with hand phasers could "defeat the combined armies of Rome". At its maximum setting, it could disintegrate an object up to the size of an average humanoid. (TOS: "The Omega Glory", "Bread and Circuses")

During the period ranging between the late 2270s and the early 2290s, at least three phaser type-2 variants were put into service aboard Federation starships and space stations.

Consisting of single-piece and phaser type-1 and type-2 combination units, most phasers of this time were characterized by a dark-gray coloration, some with a number of control buttons allowing adjustments to be made for the desired affect.

Functioning similarly to the 2260s-style type 2 phaser, the phaser-2 models of this period were powerful enough to vaporize targets up to the size of an average humanoid and could throw a stunned individual several feet in certain circumstances. (Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan; Star Trek III: The Search for Spock)

By 2287, type 2 phasers had become sleek, black models with removable clips at the handle. They were stowed in equipment lockers aboard Federation starships and shuttlecraft, though they would trigger an alarm if fired at certain settings. A phaser of this design fired on stun at close range was lethal. (Star Trek V: The Final Frontier; Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)

In the alternate reality created in 2233 by Nero, the alternate 2250s version of the type 2 phaser became silver, albeit with a body reminiscent of the original design, with a rotating barrel for switching between stun and kill settings. They were only seen to fire bolts rather than continuous beams. (Star Trek)
Type 2 phaser, TOS
A type 2 phaser in 2269
Type 2 phaser, 2266
Precision firing a type 2 phaser using the flip-up sight
Type 2 phaser, 2285
A type 2 phaser in 2285
A type-2 with type-1 attached in 2285
Type 2 phaser, ST6
A type 2 phaser in 2287 - 2293
Alternate reality phaser kill and stun
Kill and stun settings on the alternate reality phaser pistol, 2258

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24th century and beyondEdit
Type 2 phaser circuitryInternal circuitry of a type-2 in 2366.

By the 2360s, the type 2 phaser had evolved past the pistol-like configuration, becoming a sleek, silver-colored device with a handle flowing into the form of a muzzle cowling and emitter.

With two small buttons for beam width and intensity control and a large one to fire the device, the phaser type-2 of this period featured a large, illuminated power level readout. The phaser of this time retained the functionality of the previous designs, but increased the power and versatility. Like their predecessors, these units could be adjusted for use as cutting tools or power sources. They could also be set to overload, becoming a powerful explosive device. (TNG: "Encounter at Farpoint", "The Hunted", "Silicon Avatar")

By the 29th century, Starfleet utilized pistol-style phasers again. (VOY: "Relativity")
Phaser settingsA type 2 phaser, settings one through sixteen

The type 2 phasers of the 24th century were capable of achieving sixteen settings, ranging from mild stun to disintegration. They were as follows:

    Level one: lowest setting, Light Stun, capable of stunning most base humanoids for approximately five minutes. According to Starfleet regulations all phasers must be stored at this setting. Possesses enough force to break large urns. (Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual; TNG: "Aquiel"; TAS: "The Lorelei Signal")

    Level sixteen: Capable of vaporizing rock to widen an opening in a lava tube partially blocked by rubble, or blowing large holes in walls. (TNG: "Chain of Command, Part I", "Frame of Mind")

In addition to variable power settings, type-2s can be set for a narrow (affecting a single target) or "wide" beam (affecting two or more targets over a certain area). The frequency of the beam may also be adjusted to make it more effective against certain types of shields and/or force fields. (TNG: "The Arsenal of Freedom", "The Best of Both Worlds", "Power Play"; VOY: "Initiations") Type 2 phasers could also cause severe to deadly phaser burns. (TNG: "Night Terrors")
Type 2 phaser, 2364
A type 2 phaser circa 2364
Type 2 phaser, 2360s
A type 2 phaser circa 2366
Type 2 phaser, 2269
A type 2 phaser (without setting indicators) circa 2368
Type 2 phaser, 2370s
A type 2 phaser circa 2372
Type 2 phaser, 2379
The inner workings of a type-2 in 2379
Phaser Rifle storage, circa 2379
Type-2 and type-3 phasers in a weapons locker circa 2379
Seven of Nine meets Anna Jameson
Seven of Nine with a 29th century Starfleet pistol phaser

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Phaser technology

Lieutenant Malcolm Reed in "Broken Bow" explicitly stated that phase pistols had only two settings, while several TNG-era episodes have established phasers as having up to sixteen. Aside from this, no data or even lip service has been given as to just what differentiates a phase pistol from a phaser - it is quite possible that little or no differences exist beyond settings. The first TOS pilot, "The Cage" established the use of lasers before phasers, but is often regarded as an anachronism. The Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Manual describes phasers operating on a "modified version of the rapid nadion effect" which "produce a pulsed protonic charge".

Although never shown on screen, production illustrations suggest that the type 2 phaser used in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan had removable type-1 components like the model used in Star Trek: The Original Series and the model used in Star Trek III: The Search for Spock. The design of the "assault phaser" from Star Trek V: The Final Frontier and Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country also included a removable type-1 located beneath the cowling.

  For TNG, the type-2 phaser was intentionally differentiated from the style used in TOS. In a 1987 interview, Rick Sternbach explained, "We've gotten away from the pistol look of the handheld phasers. We have based the new design on the fact that there are many ways for the human hand to grip one." (Starlog issue #125, p. 48) Sternach included a complete version of the TNG design of type-2 phaser in a series of sketches which were dated 6 February 1987 and which he prepared for construction bidders interested in building the props required for the show. (Star Trek: The Next Generation

  Star fleet Type 2 phaser X by bagera3005 Star fleet Type 2 phaser by bagera3005 Phaser  Type-IIa by bagera3005 Phaser  Type-II by bagera3005 Assault Phaser by bagera3005 Star fleet Type 1 phaser X by bagera3005  
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The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.A.), commonly referred to as the Confederate States (CS or C.S.), Dixie, sometimes called the Southern States, and locally referred to as The South and the The Confederacy, is a confederal republic consisting of 15 republics and a federal district. The 14 contiguous states and Richmond, are in North America between the United States and Mexico. the Republic of Puerto Rico is located in the Caribbean. At 1.005 million square miles ( 2.06 million sq km) and with around 115 million people, it the worlds 10th largest country by total area and 12th largest by population. Within the last 60 years, the Confederate States has seen a major increase in immigrates, and thus has grown very diverse ethnically. The geography is very varied from the mountainous regions of the Appalachians to the deserts the west, and wildlife is diverse. The climate is usually humid.

Tensions between those living the southern United States and the north were already very tense before the American Civil War. Slavery, while not illegal in the US, had steadily been growing uncommon the north by the beginning of the 19th century. In many northern states, abolitionism had become very successful in outlawing slavery in the majority of states, while in others it was very dominant. Those who lived below the Mason-Dixon Line, however, relied on slavery to fuel the economy in most southern states. This split in cultures caused many states above and below this line to have to debate whether they wished to be a slave state or a free state. Beyond slavery, states rights was the other major issue brought up by southerners. Those who believed in states rights felt the US was rejecting the rights of citizen in owning their own property, such as slaves. These tensions finally came to a head during the 1860 presidential election, the Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln defeated Democrat candidate James Buchanan. Due to Lincolns anti-slavery policies, he was very unpopular with many southerners. after his election, seven states declared declared secession and formed the CSA on February 4, 1861; these states were South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. A constitution was signed on March 11. North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Virginia soon followed. Four states that permitted slavery, which were Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri, chose to stay with the United States, and came to be known as the "border states."

War between the United States, which would come to be known as the Union during the war, and the Confederate States was not formally declared until April 12, 1861, when the CSA attacked and occupied Fort Sumpter, a Union fort in South Carolina. After the blockade of southern waters by the Union navy, the CSA threatened to cut all trade of cotton and other crops to European countries should they refuse to assist, and after the Confederate victory at the Battle of Gettysburg, the powers of the United Kingdom, France, and Prussia elected to assist the CSA by sending supplies and volunteering troops. In response, the US cut trade with Europe, thus hurting their ability to fight. After three years of fighting, the United States declared peace with the Confederates signing the Treaty of Richmond on September 23, 1864, with the United States promising to recognize the existence and sovereignty of the CSA. The state of Kentucky chose to join the Confederacy the next day, and the occupied territory of Oklahoma and the eastern half the Arizona territory were turned to states, with the latter becoming New Mexico. In exchange, the rest of the Arizona Territory was returned to the US, and the CSA would leave the states of Missouri, Maryland and the newly formed West Virginia. By September 31, all of the European nations would recognize the CSA.

The rest of the 19th century saw the Confederate States grow in industry, and steadily decline in slavery. By 1872, slavery was banned in most states, and on March 20, 1873, was declared illegal by President Gregory Hartland and amended to the constitution. The CSA also fought a conjoined war with the United States against Spain in 1898, resulting in both the CSA and US gaining territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. During the early 20th century, the CSA economy rose quickly and healthy trade was occurring with other nations. They also joined the First World War on the side of the Entente in 1917; this would later coincide in the signing of the Document of American Military Cooperation. However, in 1929, the Wall Street stock market crash occurred in New York City, throwing the United States in what's now known as the Great Depression. The Confederate States were directly affected by the crash, with stocks on southern industries landsliding. Agriculture was also devastated, during what is known as the Dust Bowl. Unemployment levels in both countries was very high, with the CSA suffering worse due to millions of farmers losing their crops. The economy rose slowly during the 1930's, and in 1941, when the CSA and United States joined the declared war against the Empire of Japan and joined the Allies, the economy returned to a stabilized position as it shifted to a war economy. At the end of World War II, the CSA would be a major player in world affairs, becoming a regional superpower in the Americas, and the second nation after the US to develop nuclear weapons. They became a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, and were part of the Cold War with the United States and the Soviet Union. The end of the Cold War left the United States and the Confederate States as the two remaining superpowers left.

The Confederate States is a developed country, and the second largest economy nominally, which is fueled by agriculture and natural resources. It is a post-industrial nation, and one of the worlds largest manufacturers. Since working with the United States on their military, the CSA accounts for 15% of the worlds military spending, and has made major advances in military research. The CSA has become a major influence on the world, both politically and culturally, and is a leader in industrial and agricultural advancement.


A continuation to my "Dixie" series.

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The Second Korean War (January 1, 2017 to March 12, 2018) was a war that occurred between the nations of the Republic of Korea (South Korea), supported by the United States and the United Nations, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). Though North Korea and South were still technically a war, due to the Korean Armistice Agreement, a cease-fire has always been present between the two nations. 

The war was a result of North Korea launching nuclear warheads across South Korea at 12:00 midnight, having declared war exactly one hour earlier. Though no formal reasons for the declaration are known, many Korean officials say that it was because of an incident that occurred weeks earlier, where a artillery cannon accidentally fired on a North Korea barracks at the Demilitarized Zone, resulting a firefight that lasted for two hours. South Korea had said that the shot was due to malfunction within the cannons launcher; however North Korea denied this claim and stated that it was a direct tactic to fear-monger the North. 

Initially North Korea had managed to push South Korea back to Seoul, however, this quickly changed as South Korea's military managed to regroup and push the North back. Though the United States did not formally declare war with North Korea, they did relegate the USFK to assist the South Koreans. With one year, North Korea had been pushed all the way back into the mountains, and on March 12, 2018, unconditionally surrendered to South Korea. South Korea then annexed the North and officially announced the reunification of North and South Korea on March 14, and also announced to renaming of the Korean country to the Unified Korean Republic.

The Second Korean War is considered one of the costliest wars in history. Due to the suddenness of the nuclear attack at the beginning of the war, most people were not able get shelters in time, resulting in millions dead. It's estimated that of the 61 million people living South Korea before the war, over 70% of people were killed during the entirety of the war. it was even worse for North Korea, where many people killed themselves to prevent them from being captured by the South, owed in part to North Korea's brainwashing tactics.


An updated version of my original picture, which was just a couple pictures.

This is also my first time doing a Wikipedia style template. Pretty fun, though a bit monotonous.

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After months of playing Halo Reach, I've finally been able to recreate Master Chief.

Since the game takes place during the Fall of Reach, the Chief would be wearing his Mark V helmet

To do this you need the Mark V helmet, the Mark V shoulder pieces, and the golden visor. To unlock all these you'll need to be at least a Brigadier, once you reach that rank you should have more than enough credits for the armor pieces (provided you haven't excessively spent your credits on other things)

I'd like to see the Chief in action with a combat knife (He'd probably be like Jason Voorhees or something), and I'd like to hear what kind of witty remark Cortana would say in response to it.
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Everybody run! It's the Meta!"

After months of playing Halo Reach I've been able to recreate the Meta, the antagonist of the Red vs Blue Recollections trilogy.

(If you haven't seen the Revelations Finale yet, SPOILER ALERT!)




The Meta, formerly known as Agent Maine, was a rogue Freelancer agent with goals to obtain armor enhancements and artificial intelligence to increase his power.

At the end of the Recollections Trilogy, after a fierce battle with the Red and Blue Blood Gultch soldiers he fell to his death.

Since the next season of Red vs Blue is apparently going to take place in Epsilon's memory world, it is possible that he may return along with the other villains the Red and Blue soldiers have fought over the years.

Since his primary weapon (The Brute Shot) didn't return in Halo Reach I opted for the Concussion Rifle since it's the closest we're going to get.

None of the armor permutations in Reach are exactly the same as they were in Halo 3 so I had to improvise here. For the left shoulder I gave him a grenadier, for his right shoulder I did commando, I used my Multi-Threat for the Chest Piece, visor color is gold, and for the helmet I opted for Emile's simply because I thought it looked cool. (EVA was never really one of my favorites)
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After months of playing Halo Reach I've finally been able to recreate the cast of Red vs Blue.

Here we have Freelancer Tex.

I seriously thought they would have given Tex more than just default armor permutations since she's a Freelancer. I mean come on, Rooster Teeth had access to the Mark VI helmet months before the game even hit the street.

"Payback's a bitch, and so am I."
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