Text: Basic PhrasesText: Basic Phrases in Other More Like This
Ohayou gozaimasu / ohayou
Good morning (formal) / 'Morning (informal)
Often said until 11 AM
Often said from about 11 AM to 6 PM
Often said from about 6 PM and on
さようなら / じゃね、また / またね / バイバイ
Sayounara / ja ne, mata / mata ne / baibai
Good bye (formal) / Well, see you later (informal) / See you later (informal) / Bye bye (informal)
おやすみなさい / おやすみ
Oyasumi nasai / Oyasumi
Good night (formal) / 'Night (informal)
Said only when going to bed.
Text: Past Negative Desu FormText: Past Negative Desu Form in Other More Like This
To make past negative sentences, we combine both 'ja arimasen' and 'deshita' into one.
Sore ha watashi no inu ja arimasen deshita.
That was not my dog.
'Ja arimasen' makes the sentences negative and adding 'deshita' puts it in the past tense. 'Deshita' will always go after the negation and both will take the place of 'desu'.
To make a more formalized sentence, just replace 'ja arimasen' with 'dewa arimasen' as you saw previously.
Kore wa enpitsu dewa arimasen deshita.
This was not a pencil.
It may seem like a long thing to say/write/read to make something as short as "was not", but don't fret! There are much shorter versions that I'll cover later on. These versions will be informal tho
Text: Kore, Sore, Are, DoreText: Kore, Sore, Are, Dore in Other More Like This
Kore, sore, are, dore
You're probably heard at least some of these terms before if you've ever listened/read/over heard/etc any Japanese as these terms are quite common, as as their English meaning is in English. Let's go through them one at a time.
"Kore" means "this" and is used when referring to things that are close to the speaker (and often when they are holding the item or standing very close to it). The particle "wa" always comes after it. (Least as far as I know. I have yet to encounter a case where this isn't so.)
Kore wa nan desu ka?
What is this?
Kore wa ikura desu ka?
How much is this?
Ikura = how much (as in amount of money)
"Sore" means "that" and is used when referring to things that are further away from you but s
Text: Suffixes for NamesText: Suffixes for Names in Other More Like This
In Japan, people very often call someone by their family name and then an added on suffix depending on their relationship. Japanese people are extremely formal and rarely call someone by their first name unless they are close friends, family, etc.
The most commonly used suffix is -さん (-san). It is basically the same thing as adding Mr., Mrs., or Ms. to English names. たかなさん (Tanakasan) is "Mr. Tanaka" for example. It is a regular occurrence to add -san to the end of names and it is NEVER used to refer to oneself. No suffix is EVER added on to ones own name when referring to yourself.
For example, I would never say this:
Watashi wa Samu-san desu.
I am Ms. Sam.
I would instead, say this:
Watashi wa Samu desu.
I am Sam.
To add a suffix to your name makes you look extremely arrogant