Names of all depicted species: Europasaurus holgeri Velociraptorine dromaeosaurid
Description： In the Late Jurassic, an isolated of Europasaurus is surrounded by predators, it tries to strengthen the momentum of the deterrent to offenders. In this restoration, I try to reference the scute skin of the titanosauridae, covering a armor. And also enhanced the feather performance of dromaeosaurid more mature development.
In the Middle Jurassic of China (Bathonian epoch, 165 million years ago), herds of Shunosaurus lii and the much taller "Omeisaurus" tianfuensis feed near the edge of a landlocked lake that will one day become Dashanpu Quarry in modern Sichuan Province. There were several ancient rivers that fed this lake, filling it with the corpses of dead dinosaurs every flood season. The area is today one of the richest fossil sites in all of Asia.
Both species had tail clubs and large thumb claws for defense. It has been suggested that partial fossils of Omeisaurus (or at least its phenomenal neck) were already known centuries ago, giving rise to the popular Chinese dragon legends.
Note: This is a miniature drawing, with everything crammed onto an 8.5 x 11" page. I used photographs of multiple specimens as well as Gregory Paul's original skeletal diagrams of both species for reference. Special thanks to EmperorDinobot and DerKompsognatus for suggesting the sauropods for this piece.
A Late Jurassic scene in Portugal where the plans of the predator go horribly wrong. Three Torvosaurus tanneri launch an attack against a pair of Dacentrurus armatus only to suffer a literally gut-wrenching casualty.
In the background are the odd long-necked stegosaur Miragaia and the huge brachiosaur Lusotitan.
A little-known fact: Dacentrurus was one of the largest stegosaurs known, if not the largest, with some individuals exceeding Stegosaurus by as much as a meter. Despite this, many artists have incorrectly portrayed it as a much smaller dwarf stegosaur.
An encounter near the edge of a highland forest between a trio of Brachiosaurus altithorax and the very rare basal macronarian sauropod Haplocanthosaurus delfsi, in the Morrison formation in Colorado, 150 million years ago. Stegosaurus armatus also makes a brief appearance.
Brachiosaurus altithorax was one of the largest "classic" sauropods of the Morrison formation, with large adults (such as the one formerly known as "Ultrasauros") reaching up to 90 feet in length and weighing 45 tons. Haplocanthosaurus, a distant relative, reached only 50 feet as an adult and was a "living fossil" in its own time, thought to be descended in a direct line from the common ancestor of both brachiosaurs and camarasaurs.
Chasmosaurus shows his false eyes on the frill to protect himself from a young Albertosaurus attack
acrylic colours with martin brushes on cardboard now property of Museo di Storia Naturale di Milano
Chasmosaurus Fossil range: Late Cretaceous
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Sauropsida Superorder: Dinosauria Order: Ornithischia Suborder: Marginocephalia Infraorder: Ceratopsia Superfamily: Ceratopsoidea Family: Ceratopsidae Subfamily: Ceratopsinae Genus: Chasmosaurus Lambe, 1914 Species C. belli (Lambe, 1902 [originally Monoclonius belli]) (type) C. irvinensis Holmes et al., 2001 C. russelli Sternberg, 1940 Chasmosaurus (pronounced /ˌkæzməˈsɔrəs/ KAZ-mo-sawr-us) is a genus of ceratopsid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period of North America. Its name means 'opening lizard', referring to the large openings (fenestrae) in its frill (Greek chasma meaning 'opening' or 'hollow' or 'gulf' and sauros meaning 'lizard'. With a length of 56 metres (1620 ft) and a weight of 3.6 tonnes (4.0 short tons), Chasmosaurus was a ceratopsian of average size. Like all ceratopsians, it was purely herbivorous. It was initially to be called Protorosaurus, but this name had been previously published for another animal. In 1898, Lawrence Lambe of the Geological Survey of Canada made the first discovery of Chasmosaurus remains- part of a neck frill. Although recognizing that his find represented a new species, Lambe thought to be from a previously-known short-frilled ceratopsian - Monoclonius. He erected the new species Monoclonius belli to describe his finding. However, in 1913, Charles Sternberg and his sons found several complete "M. belli" skulls in Alberta, Canada. These were finally described as the new genus Chasmosaurus in 1914, again by Lawrence M. Lambe. Since that date, more Chasmosaurus remains, including skulls, have been found. There appears to be morphological variation among the known sample of Chasmosaurus skulls. There are a number of known species of Chasmosaurus. Lambe's original C. belli ('Bell's cleft lizard' was joined by C. canadensis ('chasm lizard from Canada' in the same year. The latter species had been described as Eoceratops canadensis by Lambe but was later reclassified as a chasmosaur by Lehman. Lull named an unusual, short-muzzled skull, collected in 1926, C. brevirostris. C. M. Sternberg added C. russelli, in 1940, from southwestern Alberta. The most recently described species is C. irvinensis, which stems from the uppermost beds of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Thomas Lehman described C. mariscalensis in 1989 from Texas, which has now been renamed Agujaceratops. Ceratopsians are split into two subfamilies by taxonomists; those with short frills (centrosaurines), such as Centrosaurus and those with long frills (chasmosaurines), of which Chasmosaurus was one. In addition to the larger frill, the long-frilled ceratopsians typically had longer faces and jaws and it is suggested by some paleontologists that they were more selective about the plants they ate. Long frills were a relatively late development in dinosaur evolution, since even Chasmosaurus dates from the late Cretaceous Period, 76 to 70 million years ago. The frill of Chasmosaurus has been described as "heart-shaped", since its bone structure consists of two large 'loops' from a central bone. Some finds include a number of smaller ossifications (called epoccipitals), which may have grown from the perimeter of the frill. The frill may also have been brightly colored, to draw attention to its size or as part of mating display. However, the frill was so large and yet so flimsy (since it was mainly skin stretched between the bones) that it could not have provided much functional defense. It is possible that it was simply used to appear imposing or conceivably for thermoregulation. In the event of a chasmosaur herd being attacked by a predator (such as Tyrannosaurus), the males could have formed a ring and, with all the frills facing outwards, would have presented a formidable sight. Like many ceratopsians, chasmosaurs had three main facial horns - one on the nose and two on the brow. Different fossil finds have produced inconclusive results - one species of Chasmosaurus, named C. kaiseni, bore long brow horns, while C. belli had only short ones. Although these were initially named as different species, it now seems possible that the long horns belonged to males and the shorter horns to females. Interestingly, a Chasmosaurus specimen recovered by Sternberg was accompanied by fossilized skin. The skin appears to have had many bony knobs (osteoderms) in evenly spaced rows, with five or six sides per knob. Unfortunately, nothing can be learned about the coloration of Chasmosaurus from the known fossil skin samples. [link]
Fabio Pastori's painting favourite by Mike Fredericks(Prehistoric Times publisher:visit the website![link]
acrylic colours with very thin martin brushes airbrush 4 background
Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Sauropsida Superorder: Dinosauria Order: Saurischia Suborder: Theropoda (unranked): Tetanurae or Dilophosauridae Genus: Cryolophosaurus Hammer & Hickerson, 1994 Species C. ellioti Hammer & Hickerson, 1994 (type) Cryolophosaurus (pronounced /ˌkraɪoʊˌlɒfoʊˈsɔrəs/ or /kraɪˌɒləfəˈsɔrəs/, meaning "cold crest lizard") was a large theropod dinosaur, with a bizarre crest on its head that looked like a Spanish comb. Due to the resemblance of this feature to Elvis Presley's pompadour haircut from the 1950s, this dinosaur was at one point informally known as "Elvisaurus". Cryolophosaurus was excavated from Antarctica's Early Jurassic Hanson Formation (former the upper Falla Formation) by paleontologist Dr. William Hammer in 1991. It is the first carnivorous dinosaur to be discovered in Antarctica and the first dinosaur of any kind from the continent to be officially named. Dating from the Early Jurassic Period, it was originally described as the earliest known tetanuran, though subsequent studies have found that it is probably more closely related to the dilophosaurs. Cryolophosaurus was about 6 to 8 meters (20 to 26 feet) long, which is significantly smaller than the largest Allosaurus, which reached up to 12 meters (40 feet) in length. A high, narrow skull was discovered, 65 centimeters (25 inches) long. The peculiar nasal crest runs just over the eyes, where it rises up perpendicular to the skull and fans out. It is furrowed, giving it a comb-like appearance. It is an extension of the skull bones, near the tear ducts, fused on either side to horns which rise from the eye sockets (orbital horns). While other theropods like the Monolophosaurus have crests, they usually run along the skull instead of across it. Classification
"Cryolophosaurus is also of significance because it represents the oldest known tetanuran from any continent it is the only one from the Early Jurassic." William R. Hammer Classification is difficult because the Cryolophosaurus has a mix of primitive and advanced characteristics. The leg bone (femur) has traits of early theropods, while the skull resembles much later species of the clade Tetanurae, like China's Sinraptor and Yangchuanosaurus. Originally, Hammer and colleagues suspected that Cryolophosaurus might be a ceratosaur or even an early abelisaur, with some traits convergent with those of more advanced tetanurans, but ultimately concluded that it was itself the earliest known member of the tetanuran group. While a subsequent study by Hammer (along with Smith and Currie) again recovered Cryolophosaurus as a tetanuran, a later (2007) study by the same authors found that it was more closely related to Dilophosaurus and Dracovenator than to tetanurans. [link]
Albertosaurus (pronounced /ælˌbɜrtɵˈsɔrəs/; meaning "Alberta lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived in western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period, more than 70 million years ago. The type species, A. sarcophagus, was restricted in range to the modern-day Canadian province of Alberta, after which the genus is named. Scientists disagree on the content of the genus, with some recognizing Gorgosaurus libratus as a second species. As a tyrannosaurid, Albertosaurus was a bipedal predator with tiny, two-fingered hands and a massive head with dozens of large, sharp teeth. It may have been at the top of the food chain in its local ecosystem. Although relatively large for a theropod, Albertosaurus was much smaller than its more famous relative Tyrannosaurus, probably weighing less than 2 metric tons. Since the first discovery in 1884, fossils of more than thirty individuals have been recovered, providing scientists with a more detailed knowledge of Albertosaurus anatomy than is available for most other tyrannosaurids. The discovery of 22 individuals at one site provides evidence of pack behavior and allows studies of ontogeny and population biology which are impossible with lesser-known dinosaurs. Albertosaurus was smaller than the truly gigantic tyrannosaurids like Tarbosaurus and Tyrannosaurus. Typical adults measured up to 9 meters (30 ft) long, while rare individuals of great age could grow to over 10 meters (33 ft) in length. Several independent mass estimates, obtained by different methods, suggest that an adult Albertosaurus weighed between 1.3 tonnes (1.4 short tons)and 1.7 tonnes (1.9 tons). The massive skull of Albertosaurus, perched on a short, S-shaped neck, was approximately 1 meter (3.3 ft) long in the largest adults. Wide openings in the skull (fenestrae) reduced the weight of the head while also providing space for muscle attachment and sensory organs. Its long jaws contained more than 60 banana-shaped teeth; larger tyrannosaurids possessed fewer teeth. Unlike most theropods, Albertosaurus and other tyrannosaurids were heterodont, with teeth of different forms depending on their position in the mouth. The premaxillary teeth at the tip of the upper jaw were much smaller than the rest, more closely packed, and D-shaped in cross section. Above the eyes were short bony crests that may have been brightly colored in life and used in courtship to attract a mate.
Restoration All tyrannosaurids, including Albertosaurus, shared a similar body appearance. Typically for a theropod, Albertosaurus was bipedal and balanced the heavy head and torso with a long tail. However, tyrannosaurid forelimbs were extremely small for their body size and retained only two digits. The hind limbs were long and ended in a four-toed foot. The first digit, called the hallux, was short and only the other three contacted the ground, with the third (middle) digit longer than the rest. Albertosaurus may have been able to reach speeds of 14−21 kilometers per hour (8−13 miles per hour). Albertosaurus is a member of the theropod family Tyrannosauridae, in the subfamily Albertosaurinae. Its closest relative is the slightly older Gorgosaurus libratus (sometimes called Albertosaurus libratus; see below). These two species are the only described albertosaurines, although other undescribed species may exist. Thomas Holtz found Appalachiosaurus to be an albertosaurine in 2004, but his more recent unpublished work locates it just outside Tyrannosauridae, in agreement with other authors. The other major subfamily of tyrannosaurids is the Tyrannosaurinae, including Daspletosaurus, Tarbosaurus and Tyrannosaurus. Compared with these robust tyrannosaurines, albertosaurines had slender builds, with proportionately smaller skulls and longer bones of the lower leg (tibia) and feet (metatarsals and phalanges).
Como Bluff, 1995 (Brachiosaurus brancai, Apatosaurus ajax, Dryosaurus altus
Marco Antonio Pineda Gouache 30.0 x 48.0 cm Particular collection
Some famous plant eaters from Upper Jurassic of North America. This artwork was made in 1995, according to ideas of Robert T. Baker about paleoenviroment for Como Bluff and Gregory S. Paul and his conception of dinosaurs.
lobo en la boca, 2000 (Allosaurus atrox / Apatosaurus ajax)
Marco A. Pineda acrílico 35,0 x 50,0 cm colección particular (Colección Lanzendorf)
Hice esta escena especulativa pero emocionante en dos dinosaurios famosos de todos los tiempos. Tal vez alosaurios no puede cazar un dinosaurio muy grande como un adulto "brontosaurio", pero algunas pistas sugieren que su probable. Sin embargo, traté de describir como reptiles muy avanzadas con algunos aspectos que recuerdan las aves (pájaros prehistóricos) en un comportamiento en el desarrollo de estrategias de caza.