Stage 1: youngling Essentially, the Master starts with a blank slate before him. The youngling knows little to nothing of the Force and its uses beyond instinct. It is tempting to skip this stage, but it carries a few essential stages that need to be explored if the person playing the youngling wants a good character development. Alternatively, the 'youngling' can start as somewhat older and more developed, having trained himself a bit before meeting a Master (this is more usual with Sith).
Step 1: meeting the youngling and bonding Here is a chance for the Master and the student to communicate. Make sure that the other player gets some of your char's background and personality at this stage. This is also an essential part for character development. How the Master and the student experience each other can have great effects on how they grow, together or otherwise. Here, Jedi will typically be amicable while Sith stress their tradition of eternal strife and adversity from early on.
Step 2: explaining the workings of the Force Some students may already know something about the Force. This should be explored with the master and added to the experience. Otherwise, always try to stick to the basic idea here. Don't give too much info at the same time. It's essential the student doesn't come to a full understanding yet, or learns the full ideas behind being a Jedi or Sith yet, because much will be added later through experience.
Step 3: the very basics and lots of practice This is partly based on the background and experience of the student, since some may already have some modest control over the Force. What could be done here as a first step is often opening the student to the Force with a simple meditation technique, trying to sense the area and realising what could be possible within the Force. Later on, you can move on to manipulation of objects, connection to others trough the Force, and Force-enhanced awareness. Make sure this is practiced as frequently as possible. Students shouldn't learn new Force abilities too smoothly, so make sure the student struggles some and the Master is an active guide, not only an instructor.
Step 4: applications of the basics This step often interweaves with step 3 as applications are a good practice and an opportunity for the student to learn how his newfound powers can help him. Usually, different Force powers will be taken through step 3 and then step 4 before moving on to another application of the Force. However, make sure that practice isn't entirely forgotten after you move on to something else. Be sure to frequently look back to powers already learned to increase the ease with which the student can perform them. Avoiding objects when blindfolded through Force awareness and playing catch with the Master without touching the ball physically are two examples of applications with good practice. Make sure some things are kept more like games than serious exercises (this more for Jedi than for Sith), as younglings are, well, young. Through advancing with practice, the Master then gradually helps the student develop some basic Force abilities like Force push and pull, enhanced speed and reflexes, telekinesis, speech projection etc.
Stage 2: young Padawan/Apprentice By now, the Master and the student should know each other better. Even with Sith, a sort of bond will be there, even if it is not one of friendship. With the basics of the Force studied and reasonably controlled, the Master must look toward further fields, such as combat and philosophy, as well as build on the student's abilities in the Force. Here, we also start to see developments of the student's own identity: he will develop his own style of fighting, adapt abilities in the Force that aren't taught to everyone and, perhaps most importantly, get a mind of his own.
Step 1: basic combat As the youngling becomes familiar with the basics of the Force, the next step can be made by studying the different lightsaber forms of combat and introducing them during a sparring session or observing. If the Master knows one or several forms, a demonstration can be made. Otherwise, studying instruction-holovideos is a good alternative. The Master also usually provides the student with a training saber (as well as wielding one himself for the spars), and later on a standard non-training lightsaber. Because the master and student are getting to know each other now, the master can help the student to see what fits best with his own style, and a first modest personalisation is introduced. Choice of a form fitting the player's style and the character's personality is often discussed OOC as well as in character.
Step 2: advanced Force applications As the student is now getting a taste of battle and experience needed, as well as seeing where his strengths and weaknesses lie, it is time to advance further. As the student gets to know his own form and fighting style better, it is the Master's task to show fighting is not blind trust in skills and forms. Battle goes beyond a saber blade, by additional force techniques, skills or alternative fighting styles if needed. This stage of training is also very personal, as every Jedi and Sith develops his own unique skill set. For instance, typical Sith powers introduced (but not mastered) at this stage are aggressive applications such as lightning and choking. For more battle-oriented Jedi, possibilities are neutralizing applications such as whirlwind. Outside of direct physical combat, powers such as healing and battle meditation can be applied by Jedi, and applications such as illusion can be developed by Sith. Even less battle-oriented characters have something to learn here, such as the mind trick for negotiators, cloaking for spies and perception for sentinels.
Step 3: Jedi/Sith philosophy A big opportunity for character development for the student, and to a lesser extent for the Master as well. Of course, the Code (Jedi or Sith) will be amply discussed, but other aspects should certainly be touched upon. The Master mustn't shy away from explaining his own views to the student and even directly influence the student's own views, but don't overdo it. Naturally, the discussions are also influenced by alignment. Jedi will discuss things like Form 0, duty as a Jedi and moral choices, Sith will bring up rule of 2, eternal strife and moral weakness.
Step 4: advanced combat The Master explores various modes and forms of combat with the student and guides the student in choosing and developing a fighting style for himself, more individual than adhering to the various established lightsaber forms. This will often be discussed between both players OOC as well. As a Master, be sure to advise on which styles fit the student's personality and fighting prowess, but don't make the decisions for him. Depending on how combat-aimed the players and the characters are, the time spent on this item can vary greatly. Sometimes a student will chose to combine multiple forms together, or chooses neither form at all. In these cases, knowledge about the regular forms is still asked.
Step 5: lightsaber construction By now, the character (and the player) should have an idea of where he wants to take his character. With this in mind, the lightsaber can be constructed in accordance to combat prowess and style, the character's build and his personality. Less character-oriented character will likely construct a very simple single-blade lightsaber, more combat-aimed players can experiment with a great number of other varieties in hilt, blade, crystal etc. The Master will instruct his student on what to do to obtain parts for the lightsaber as well as construct it. The student must follow his instincts in the Force to find (or make) the right crystal and collect the right parts on an excursion. This step is often underestimated in importance and overlooked in training, causing a sudent's new lightsaber to be conjured out of nowhere. It is very important that the Master actively guides his student in both gathering parts and constructing the lightsaber itself.
Stage 3: advanced Padawan/Apprentice Here, the student stops learning things by being told and shown. From now on, it all comes down to experience, either from real life situations or from artificial training courses and objectives instilled by the Master. For the Master, now is the time to test his student. He must frequently ask questions about things that should be known, present tests and discuss events. Don't hesitate to reprimand mistakes, but be constructive. For Jedi Padawans, now is the time the temptation of the Dark side is at its greatest. Companionship with the Master is very important to counter this, and the Master must be very vigilant about it.
Step 1: direct and practical application and combination of the Force, combat and philosophy Essentially the combination of frequent tests, training, questionnaires and discussions, this is the dynamic interaction between Master and student that guides the student to learn from experience through situations that are mostly safety-controlled by the Master. This is the 'true test of life' for the student. For Sith students, failure becomes potentially fatal here, more so than for Jedi Padawans.
Step 2: missions Stepping out if the comfort-zone of safety-controlled situations, Master and student will be assigned missions together. The person playing the Master must make sure to present the student with a number of various challenges that have occurred naturally in rp. However, make sure that the challenges remain doable and realistic. A pair of Jedi will not face an entire army by themselves, a Sith will not infiltrate the Jedi Temple unchecked. For Jedi, make sure the student faces the various challenges that entail the events that mark a Padawan to be ready for his trials. For Sith this is not mandatory, but still a helpful guideline for challenges. Make sure not to overlook the importance of diplomacy, philosophy and investigation in such missions, rather than only concentrating on fights.
Stage 4: Knighthood/Lordhood Even after the Padawan rises to the rank of Knight, or the Apprentice to that of Lord, the Master and student remain linked. This is more likely so for Jedi than for Sith, but in either Order a connection in the Force is inevitably established. It is not unusual for the Master to keep monitoring his student, even if that student is officially promoted.
Step 1: monitoring and advice A Master must always be available to his former student for advice or a discussion. The Master will now treat his learner as an equal, and discuss matters openly. Even so, a Master can also still instruct a former student when he has questions and, when there is reason for it, monitor his progress. For Sith, a former Apprenticeship can often evolve into a lasting rivalry, in which the Master often reprimands his former Apprentice.
Step 2: lasting companionship People who once trained together are inevitably linked through the Force, and will therefore often encounter each other. Most likely, a lasting friendship (or rivalry in case of Sith) will remain even after the Master can no longer teach his former student anything. Jedi can often uphold a partnership by going on missions together and seeking advice with each other, Sith can uphold their ideals of eternal strife by developing a rivalry in which the Master and former student repeatedly attempt to kill each other.