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The s an American fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Because of its lasting impact on the airline industry and World War II, it is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made.

Design and development

The DC-3 was engineered by a team led by chief engineer Arthur E. Raymond, and first flew on 17 December 1935 (the 32nd anniversary of the Wright Brothers flight at Kitty Hawk). The aircraft was the result of a marathon phone call from American Airlines CEO Cyrus Smith to Donald Douglas requesting the design of an improved successor to the DC-2. The amenities of the DC-3 (including sleeping berths on early "DST"—Douglas Sleeper Transport—models and an in-flight kitchen) popularized air travel in the United States. With only three refueling stops, eastbound transcontinental flights across the U.S. taking approximately 15 hours became possible. Westbound trips took 17 hours 30 minutes due to typical prevailing headwinds — still a significant improvement over the competing Boeing 247. Before the arrival of the DC-3, such a trip would entail short hops in slower and shorter range aircraft, during the day, coupled with train travel overnight.
A Douglas DC-3 (a former military C-47B) of Air Atlantique taking off at Hullavington airfield, England.
A Douglas Super DC-3, taking off from Pangnirtung Airport (Nunavut, Canada).

A wide variety of engines were fitted to the DC-3 throughout the course of its development. The original civilian aircraft used Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9s, but later aircraft (and the majority of military ships) used the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp radial which offered better high-altitude and single engine performance. A few Pratt & Whitney R-2000 radials saw use. Some DC-3s were upgraded to use Rolls-Royce Dart (as in the Conroy Turbo Three), Armstrong Siddeley Mamba, or Pratt & Whitney PT6A turbines.

In 1987, Airtech Canada offered aircraft re-engined with current-production PZL ASz-62IT radial engines of 1,000 hp (745 kW) as the DC-3/2000.

The Basler BT-67 is a conversion of the DC-3. Basler refurbishes DC-3s, fitting them with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT-6 turbo-prop engines, lengthening the fuselage by over 3 feet (0.91 m) and strengthening the airframes in selected areas.

Braddick Specialised Air Services International PTY Ltd. (BSAS International) is another company to perform the "turbo-prop" conversion to DC3's designated by the Pratt & Whitney engine model PT6, over 50 DC3/C47 65ARTP / 67RTP / 67FTP's have been built and may be seen in operation around the world.
A DC-3 in service in South Africa, June 2006.

[edit] Operational history

Early U.S. airlines like United, American, TWA and Eastern ordered over 400 DC-3s. These fleets paved the way for the modern American air travel industry, quickly replacing trains as the favored means of long-distance travel across the United States. Piedmont Airlines operated DC-3s from 1948 to 1963. A DC-3 painted in the representative markings of Piedmont, operated by the Carolinas Aviation Museum, continues to fly to air shows today and has been used in various movies. Both Delta and Continental Airlines operate "commemorative" DC-3s.

During World War II, many civilian DC-3s were drafted for the war effort and just over 10,000 US military versions of the DC-3 were built, under the designations C-47, C-53, R4D and Dakota. Peak production of the type was reached in 1944 with 4853 being delivered. The armed forces of many countries used the DC-3 and its military variants for the transport of troops, cargo and wounded. Licensed copies were built in Japan as Showa L2D (487 aircraft) and in the USSR as the Lisunov Li-2 (4937 aircraft)[2].

After the war, thousands of surplus C-47s were converted to civil service and became the standard equipment of almost all the world's airlines, remaining in front line service for many years. The ready availability of ex-military examples of this cheap, easily-maintained aircraft (it was both large and fast by the standards of the day) jump-started the worldwide, post-war air transport industry.

Douglas had developed an improved version, with a greater cargo capacity and a different wing, which it attempted to sell during this time frame but with all these surplus aircraft, the Super DC-3 did not sell in the civil market. The U.S. Navy had 100 of their early R4Ds converted to Super DC-3 standard as the R4D-8, later C-117D.
A DC-3 once owned by Northwest Airlines. Now on display at The Henry Ford Museum.

Numerous attempts were made to design a "DC-3 replacement", over the next three decades (including the very successful Fokker F27 Friendship) but no single type could match the versatility, rugged reliability and economy of the DC-3 and it remained a significant part of air transport systems, well into the 1970s. Even today, over 70 years after the DC-3 first flew, there are still small operators with DC-3s in revenue service and as cargo planes. The common saying among aviation buffs and pilots is that "the only replacement for a DC-3 is another DC-3." The aircraft's legendary ruggedness is enshrined in the lighthearted description of the DC-3 as "a collection of parts flying in loose formation."[3] Its ability to take off and land on grass or dirt runways also makes it popular in developing countries, where the runways may not always be a paved surface.

Some of the more common uses of the DC-3 have included aerial spraying, freight transport, passenger service, military transport and sport skydiving shuttling.

[edit] Production

A total of 10,655 DC-3s were built at Santa Monica, California, Long Beach, California, and Oklahoma City in both civil (607) and military (10,048) versions. 4937 were built in Russia, under license, as the Lisunov Li-2 (NATO reporting name: Cab). A total of 487 were built in Japan, as the L2D Type 0 transport. The overall total produced was 16,079 [4]. More than 400 remained in commercial service, in 1998.

[edit] Specifications (DC-3)
Highly modified DC-3, powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6-65AR engines, now operated by the National Test Pilot School. Formerly operated by South Africa as a maritime patrol aircraft. Airframe has been modified with belly radar pod and chin FLIR turret. Based at Mojave Airport, United States
DC-3 on amphibious EDO floats. Sun-n-Fun 2003, Lakeland, Florida, United States

General characteristics

* Crew: 2
* Capacity: 21-32 passengers
* Length: 64 ft 5 in (19.7 m)
* Wingspan: 95 ft 0 in (29.0 m)
* Height: 16 ft 11 in (5.16 m)
* Wing area: 987 ft² (91.7 m²;)
* Empty weight: 18,300 lb (8,300 kg)
* Loaded weight: 25,200 lb (25,346 with deicing boots, 26,900 in some freight versions) (11,400 kg)
* Powerplant: 2× Wright Cyclone 9 R-1820 series (earliest aircraft) or Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp S1C3G in the C-47 and later civilian aircraft, 1,100 or 1,200 hp (890 kW) max rating, depending upon engine and model (895 kW) each
* Propellers: 3-bladed Hamilton Standard 23E50 series hydraulically controlled constant speed, feathering

Performance

* Maximum speed: 237 mph (206 knots, 381 km/h (=Never Exceed Speed (VNE), or Redline speed))
* Cruise speed: 150 mph (130 knots, 240 km/h)
* Range: 1,025 mi (890 nm, 1,650 km)
* Service ceiling 24,000 ft (7,300 m)
* Rate of climb: 1,130 ft/min (5.73 m/s) initial
* Wing loading: 25.5 lb/ft² (125 kg/m²;)
* Power/mass: 0.0952 hp/lb (157 W/kg)
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this thing always seemed kind of ridiculous to me...ever notice that since september 11th it's never moved from yellow?

so i read the dhs memo on right wing extremist the other day. i thought it was a little over blown. i think it's a little suspicious that they would want to label brave men and women who swear an oath to uphold and defend the u.s. constitution as possible security threats.

why would they want to do this? could it be that they know that some of their directives are close to being un-constitutional? could it be they also know that these men and women would, if given an un-constitutional order such as seizing firearms from the american people, would not obey and possibly resist therefore becoming a national security threat in the eyes of the dhs?

anyway, i was thinking about this when i made my call to the dhs office. i told them that my neighbor had a ron paul sticker as well as an iraq veteran sticker on his car. i told the guy that i had read the dhs report on right wing extremist and was needing to know what to do. you will not believe what he suggested i do....he told me that if i was concerned i needed to call my local fbi office and make a report! i could not believe it! i swear, sometimes i do not know where i am living!

here's a link [link] to the real dhs advisory system.
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Once again helping Liberals clarify their message.

Liberal media bias at NPR - WINNING!
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The flag of the ancient Trans-dimensional Empire of Tenebrae. and the Tenebrean Collective.
During Important events in tenebrae cities these banners are hung from every building and wire. On capital buildings lengthened versions are often hung sideways.

"Update, Texture as added by emperormyric."
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Remade the logo as a vector graphic using Adobe Illustrator.

Rasterized version may be found here: [link]

I had to originally design the logo as a Raster image, due to the tools available. However, I have now been able to redesign it as a nice, vector graphic.

MMMmmmmm delicious vectors =D

Please provide attribution to [link] if you create derivative works from this. Commercial rights reserved.
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Spent a good two hours on this
Made for Space station 13 for the sheer fun of it

Bonus original quote text: [link]
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Consolidated B-24 Liberator

The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was an American heavy bomber, designed by Consolidated Aircraft Company of San Diego, California. Its mass production was brought into full force by 1943 with the aid of the Ford Motor Company through its newly constructed Willow Run facility, where peak production had reached one B-24 per hour and 650 per month in 1944.[3] Other factories soon followed. The B-24 ended World War II as the most produced Allied heavy bomber in history, and the most produced American military aircraft at over 18,000 units, thanks in large measure to Henry Ford and the harnessing of American industry.[4] It still holds the distinction as the most-produced American military aircraft. The B-24 was used by several Allied air forces and navies, and by every branch of the American armed forces during the war, attaining a distinguished war record with its operations in the Western European, Pacific, Mediterranean, and China-Burma-India Theaters.

Often compared with the better-known B-17 Flying Fortress, the B-24 was a more modern design with a higher top speed, greater range, and a heavier bomb load; however, it was also more difficult to fly, with heavy control forces and poor formation-flying characteristics. Popular opinion among aircrews and general's staffs tended to favor the B-17's rugged qualities above all other considerations in the European Theater.[5] The placement of the B-24's fuel tanks throughout the upper fuselage and its lightweight construction, designed to increase range and optimize assembly line production, made the aircraft vulnerable to battle damage.[6] The B-24 was notorious among American aircrews for its tendency to catch fire. History: Life for the B-24 heavy bomber began in 1939, when the U.S. Army Air Corps initiated a request for a new bomber designed to exceed the performance of the B-17. Consolidated Aircraft responded quickly with its proposal, labeled Consolidated Model 32 and, on March 30 of 1939, was awarded the contract. One day short of nine months later, on December 29, 1939, the first flight of the XB-24 bomber prototype took place.

Slightly smaller than the B-17, the turbosupercharger-equipped B-24 flew farther with a bigger bomb load than the much more publicized Boeing aircraft. Of seven service-test YB-24s, six were sent to the Royal Air Force (RAF) under the export designation LB-30A. Because they lacked turbosuperchargers and self-sealing fuel tanks, the RAF found them unsuitable for combat duty over Europe. Instead, they were stripped of their armament and put into service as transports on the Trans-Atlantic Return Ferry Service, which had been established to send air crews to Montreal to take delivery of American aircraft consigned to the British war effort.

Flying for the Army Air Corps as the B-24, and the U.S. Navy as the PB4Y-1, the plane also saw service in the Royal Air Force where it was known simply as the Liberator. There was also a transport version known as the C-87, one of which was Winston Churchill's personal aircraft, carrying him to historic meetings at Moscow and Casablanca, among other locations.

Before the last one was retired from Air Force service in 1953, the plane was produced in variations ranging through type M. The various model numbers were often the result of minor changes, like the relocation of internal equipment, but one major revision, the conversion of the standard Navy B-24 (PB4Y-1) to the PB4Y-2 Privateer, involved a significant rework that exchanged the familiar twin tail for a single tall tail fin and rudder combination. It also had a stretched forward fuselage that placed the pilot's compartment well in front of the un-turbocharged Pratt & Whitney R1830-94 Twin Wasp engines.

Among the features that distinguished the B-24 from the B-17 were its tricycle landing gear (the first installed in a heavy operational aircraft), the mid-mounted, high-lift Davis wing that achieved 20 percent less drag than conventional airfoils of the time, twin tail fins, oval-shaped engine cowlings necessitated by the mounting of turbosuperchargers, unique roll-up bomb bay doors that reduced drag considerably when open, and a fully retractable ventral machine gun turret. The B-24 was also the first to employ Hamilton hydromatic quick-feathering three-blade propellers.

While designed as a heavy bomber, the B-24 experienced more than 100 modifications and conversions for such assignments as photography, mine laying, and cargo hauling (including a C-109 fuel tanker version that flew "the Hump" to refuel B-29s operating out of forward bases in China). More than 18,000 B-24s were built during WWII, more than any other American aircraft. Given its abilities and "convert-abilities," the numbers make perfect sense. However, a postwar attempt to combine portions of the B-24 and PB4Y-2 with a new fuselage to create the Convair Model 39 airliner was not a commercial success, with only one prototype being built.

Of the many thousands of B-24s and derivatives built, only three remain airworthy, all in the United States. [History by Kevin Murphy]

Nicknames: Lib; Ford's Folly; Flying Boxcar; Liberator Express (C-87 variant); C-One-Oh-Boom (C-109 fuel-carrying variant); Lamp Lighter (PB4Y-2s dropping parachute flares in Korea).

Specifications (B-24H/J):
Engines: Four 1,200-hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-65 Twin Wasp turbocharged radial piston engines.
Weight: Empty 36,500 lbs., Max Overload Takeoff 71,200 lbs.
Wing Span: 110ft. 0in.
Length: 67ft. 2in.
Height: 18ft. 0in.
Performance:
Maximum Speed at 25,000 ft: 290 mph
Cruising Speed: 215 mph
Ceiling: 28,000 ft.
Range: 2,100 miles
Armament:
10 12.7-mm (0.5-inch) machine guns in nose, upper/ventral ball turrets and tail turret, and lateral fuselage positions.
12,800 lb. maximum bomb load.

Number Built: 18,000+

Number Still Airworthy: Three (Two B-24Js and one LB-30)
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A design I did for the 2012 Ron Paul movement. I wanted to do something that would grab people's attention when they see it. Not commissioned from Ron Paul or his campaign but from a group of people who want to make people informed of the truth and the availability of other options other than what Fox News tells you about. We got lost in the day to day routines of working, going to school, feeding our families, etc and lose the interest to research and understand what is going on in the country we live in. I appreciate any feedback about the art and understand that there are those who disagree with Dr. Ron Paul's beliefs and that is one of the very freedoms he looks to preserve. So please feel free to criticize my work and give any advice(I am new to this type of art) that might make it better but please keep the political debates to other forums. Thanks for taking the time to look!
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In October 1942, this Heinkel He 100D-4 Trop (Werknummer unknown) was found on Martuba airfield (LG 4). It was restored to flying condition by mechanics of 3 Squadron RAAF and given the serial number HK849. The plane received standard RAF camouflage used for planes in Africa: Dark Earth and Middle Stone on upper surfaces and sides, lower surfaces were painted with Azure Blue.

This He 100 was flown on 2 November 1942 by Squadron Leader Bobby Gibbes. Robert Henry Maxwell (Bobby) Gibbes DSO, DFC & Bar, OAM was a leading Australian fighter ace of World War II. He was officially credited with shooting down 10 enemy aircraft, although his score is often reported as 12 destroyed. Born in rural New South Wales, Gibbes worked as a jackaroo and salesman before joining the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) in February 1940. Posted to the Middle East in May 1941, he became commanding officer of No. 3 Squadron RAAF during the North African campaign, where his leadership and fighting skills earned him the Distinguished Service Order and the Distinguished Flying Cross and Bar. Besides Gibbes, 'Dora' was also flown by Flight Lieutenant Ron Watt. On 8 December 1942, HK849 was handed over to Gazala where it was piloted mainly by Pilot Officer Reg Pfeiffer.
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