The TR-3B is what many claim to be, a nuclear powered flying triangle, capable of phenomenal speeds. Some even claim that it was made using alien technology... reverse engineered from alleged captured space-craft.
This mysterious black triangle has reportedly been sighted at various locations all over the world. The TR-3B is commonly presumed to be the product of the "Aurora" black project. According to various sources, it is the most classified of top secret projects.
Edgar Fouche, an avionics expert, who claims to have worked at area 51 and knows others who have seen the TR-3B, has revealed some of the TR-3B 's technology. From his presentation we know the following: It is "alien looking", pitch black, triangular, seen at the Groom Lake facility, settles vertically on the tarmac, it is massive and measures about 600 ft across, radiates a corona of silver-blue light, the first US vehicle to use "quasi crytals" in its outer skin, it is funded by the NRA NSA and CIA, on radar the TR-3B can appear to be almost anything from a bird to a small plane, it is nuclear powered, has a Magnetic Field Disruptor which is a circular accelerator, the circular accelerator is mercury based, rotates at 60,000 rpms, pressurized at 250,000 atmospheres and supercooled to 150 degrees kelvin, this results in the TR-3B becoming 89% lighter and also reducing G forces by the same amount.
Here is an account of what I saw: Two gigantic "plasma" circles, one fluorescent green circle, and another white cricle, which seemed to collide (somehow it seemed as if one circle went infront of the other one in a downwards direction) in the sky, and that was then followed by an enormous flash(may have been 2 flashes) which covered the entire horizon, no sound at all. I witnessed this event one night, about 1.30am, circa 1999-2000, when the US navy was located in the Adriatic sea, at the time of the Serbia-Kosovo conflict. I was standing on my terrace in Split, Croatia, it was a warm night and I was looking out over the Adriatic sea.
My guess would be that the light source of the round "plasma" circles was located somewhere in the central Adriatic, south-west of the island of Vis, between Croatia and Italy. I had no idea what the lights were, I quickly woke up my brother in the other room, and I told him of what I had seen, we then waited and watched but there wasn't a repeat event.
I had no idea as to what it could have been, until recently, when I came across footage of a TR-3B which was apparently filmed over Paris: The black triangle slowly comes into view, stops mid-air and then tilts as if to allow the pilots to have a ground view, then a white circular light radiates from its center, causing a perfect white circle and subsequent flash (exactly the same as what I had seen)! This footage which some viewers claim to be a hoax, seems very convincing to me: I actually think its real. What really convinces me is the round light... it appears 2 dimensional, not 3 dimensional,(just like a spherical white street lamp, which seems 2 dimensional from a distance, but is actually 3 dimensional) and the circle isn't a glow with fuzzy edges, it is a circle with a defined edge, as if the light source is contained. And that's exactly what I saw that night.
Roll over the image below to see my flash version of what I saw, it is fairly accurate, but the flash at the end was bright white and flashed horizontally. It is interesting to note that an enormous triangle UFO was sighted by many people on the island of Pag, Croatia, in 1967. Various police patrol radio conversation transcripts bare testimony to the event. A drawing was put together by people who saw the object, and it looks alot like the TR-3B. The object apparently made it's way over the island, slowly and at low altitude.
Some people claim that the "black triangle" TR-3B is a NWO police enforcement vehicle, and that it's true purpose is yet to be made public, through some future course of events. It is also intresting to note that there were a number of sightings of the TR-3B over Belgium... Belgium is apparently the center of the worlds banking elite and NATO. Some people also claim that TR-3Bs are often seen travelling in pairs... and often seen over war-zones.
Anti gravity technology advances began gathering pace, coincideing with the infamous confiscation of Nikola Tesla's personal research and theory notes. Soon after, anything to do with antigravity, research etc... became top secret, confidential, and it is anyones guess as to what they had discovered...
Other sources suggest the existence of a subsonic stealthy recconnaissance aircraft, which is reportedly designated the TR-3A, although its actual designation and mission remain unclear.<1> Recently, it has been posited that the aircraft was designed to collect and transmit near-real-time digital photo information directly to F-117As for immediate tactical applications. The TR-3A reportedly has a range of more than 5,000 kilometers and the ability to operate at both low and high altitudes.<2>
The aircraft has been reportedly observed flying with KC-135 aerial tankers, F- 117 stealth fighters and T-38 aircraft. Its engines are said to run more quietly than the muffled General Electric F-404 powerplants on the Stealth fighter, which may explain how an aircraft of this type could elude detection for some time. Because of their vantage point, ground observations were unable to determine whether any vertical control surfaces jut from the aircraft's back.<3>
The TR-3A, if it exists, may have a slightly larger planform, possibly up to 42 feet long with a 60-65 foot wingspan. It is suggested that:<4>
"About 25-30 of the special reconnaissance aircraft -- designated the TR-3A 'Black Manta' -- could be placed in service eventually, based at Holloman AFB, NM, and Tonapah, Nev. Initial TR-3As are collected with F-117As, although housed separately in larger hangars. Several TR-3As are believed to have been deployed temporarily to Alaska, Britain, Panama and Okinawa. More recently, they are believed to have supported F-117A operations in the Persian Gulf war."
During Operation Desert Storm, the TR-3A's secret identity could have been protected by limiting it to F-117A support.<5> At one point, for instance, Saudi Arabian air force Northrop RF-5s were requested to augment USAF RF-4C operations. One could thus infer that TR-3A data were not distributed widely for use by other than F-117As.<6> The Public Record
Apart from press reports, there is essentially no open-source information supporting the existence of such an aircraft. Indeed, what evidence does exist would tend to support the contrary proposition, that there is no such program.
During the debate in 1989 over the cancellation of the SR-71, General Michael Dugan, then serving as commander of US Air Forces in Europe, suggested that a new stealthy high-altitude, low-speed aircraft, possibly unpiloted, might take up some of the slack created by the termination of the SR-71.<7> TR-3A <8>
Another Air Force source suggested that:<9>
"There might be some thoughts about using low-observable platforms for that mission, but we are not doing that right now."
During 1991 Lockheed made a major effort to convince the Congress to support a billion dollar program to build an additional 24 F-117A aircraft, and to purchase equipment that would enable the F-117A to perform reconnaissance missions.<10> The aircraft would be modified to carry the ATARS camera system in one weapons bay, and a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in the aircraft's other weapons bay. This palletized installation would permit the aircraft to be converted back to the attack configuration in about four hours.
Although the proposal was endorsed by the Senate Armed Services Committee, it was fiercely opposed by the Air Force, which ultimately prevailed in eliminating funding for the project.
The operational characteristics of the proposed reconnaissance version of the F- 117 are virtually identical to those that have been suggested for the TR-3A. Unavoidably, this episode raises questions about the plausibility of the existence of the TR-3A.
It is very difficult to understand how Lockheed could engage in a very public controversy involving the Air Force, and Sam Nunn, chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee, regarding production of a reconnaissance version of the F- 117A, if the company were already involved in the production of a virtually identical aircraft, the TR-3A.
While it might be imagined that perhaps this episode might be explained by a decision by the Air Force to cancel the TR-3A, and that Lockheed was hoping to restart the F-117A production line in compensation, there is no evidence to support such an interpretation. And such an assumption would run counter to the assertion that the TR-3A had already achieved operational status by the time of Desert Storm.
Confirming the earlier reports, during the course of this episode one Air Force source noted that:<11>
"They tried to sell this idea to the Air Force back in 1987. The service wasn't looking for a stealthy reconnaissance aircraft back then and it isn't looking for one now."
Based on this record, the existence of the TR-3A must be regarded as suspect, unless one is prepared to accept the proposition that this entire episode, involving a large number of senior government and corporate officials, was merely part of an elaborate cover and deception operation, intended to obscure the existence of the TR-3A. Budget and Financial Data
The assertion that mystery aircraft like the TR-3A exist implies that some item in the Defense budget can be arguably associated with the program. A not- implausible accounting can be made that suggests an identifiable source of funding that may be attributed to the TR-3A stealth aircraft program. The existence of this budget item significantly bolsters the case for the existence of this program.
Prior to 1989, much of the funding for the B-2 Advanced Technology Bomber was contained in an Air Force Aircraft Procurement line item designated Other Production Charges. This line item was aggregated in a budget activity designated Aircraft Support Equipment and Facilities, which included such items as Common Ground Equipment, for which roughly half a billion dollars was budgeted in the mid-1980s, as well as other items such as War Consumable, and Industrial Responsiveness.
The comparable Navy budget activity also provided roughly half a billion dollars for Common Ground Equipment during this period. But it is interesting to note that while the Navy allocated approximately $50 million for Other Production Charges (indicative that there is indeed something that actually consists of Other Production Charges, whatever such a miscellaneous category might encompass), the Air Force allocation for Other Production Charges had peaked at over $3.5 billion by 1987. This mystery was solved with the FY 1989 budget, which for the first time provided unclassified budget figures for the B-2. The Other Production Charges line dropped nearly $2 billion from the previous year. Table 1 Stealth Aircraft Budget
Actual Actual Estimated FISCAL B-2 B-2 B-2 Other YEAR Procurement Advanced Production Procurement Charges
* Dennis begins with the Air Force's figure of $36.6 billion in FY81 dollars, applies DOD inflation factors, and uses the accepted spendout rate formula for Air Force aircraft to arrive at these numbers for ATB procurement. Table taken from Congressional Research Service report on ATB, 4 November 1987.
Shapiro and Nisbet from Armed Forces Journal International/October 1987 P.26
But the solution of this mystery revealed an enigma -- even without the Stealth Bomber, Other Production Charges received over $1 billion in 1989, and about half a billion each year thereafter. That the remaining activity in this account covers sensitive activities was confirmed by the House Appropriations Committee in 1992, when it noted that the explanation of its $118 million reduction from the $686 million request was itself classified.<12>
A careful review of the Air Force budget fails to disclose any other program of comparable magnitude which could account for this level of expenditure. All other major Air Force programs, such as the Advanced Tactical Fighter, MILSTAR, and the Advanced Cruise Missile, have discreet and identifiable line items that account for their budgets. While the Other Production Charges line item probably included funding for the F-117A program in the early 1980s, more recent activity under that program is inconsistent with a half-billion dollar annual procurement expenditure.
The recent funding level of the Other Production Charges line item is strongly suggestive of a continuing program to procure additional stealth aircraft, and is consistent with published accounts of the TR-3A program.
This connection is further strengthened by the similarity in magnitude between the funding level of Other Production Charges, and the cash flow stream and employment at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Group.
Like Al Capone, black aircraft may be uncovered not by sightings or hard testimony, but by an audit trail. If more money is flowing into a particular company's coffers than can be explained by the amount of aircraft or other hardware being produced, one may infer that some project is being financed that the public is not privy to. As early as 1988, for example, financial analysts printed sales estimates for Lockheed's Aeronautical Systems Group that far exceed any income explained by the firm's known programs. According to one analysis:<13>
"... Bernstein & Co. provided year-by-year Lockheed revenues for 'stealth programs' (plural) that showed increases from $563-million in 1982 to $1.126 billion in 1988, leveling off at $752-million annually in 1990 through 1992."
Another analysis noted that Lockheed's:<14>
"... Aeronautical Systems Group, based in Burbank, Calif., will receive more than $1.1 billion in 1988 government funding that cannot be attributed to any known program... Also, there are more cars in the division's parking lot than can be accounted for by employees of known programs, indicating the possible existence of a new and secret project."
Lockheed's Advanced Development unit is believed to have about 4,000 employees on its payroll, even though TR-1 and F-117A production and YF-22A prototype construction have been completed.<15> What are all these people working on?
While the production of the F-117A stealth attack aircraft has been completed, it was reported that up to a billion dollars a year is still being consumed by Lockheed Systems Co, at Burbank, CA.<16>
A study of this question by Kemper Securities analyst Lawrence Harris noted that Lockheed's revenues from classified aircraft programs was approximately $400 million in 1991:<17>
"Our analysis of Lockheed Skunk Works (Advanced Development Co.) sales suggests that despite the completion of the production portion of the F-117A and TR-1 programs, Skunk Works revenues have remained fairly robust...
Lockheed officials deny these reports, however, and offer a not-implausible explanation for the financial discrepancies. Ben Rich, President of Lockheed Advanced Development Projects Company (the Skunk Works), observed:<18>
"I have heard and read about Aurora, and I do not know what Aurora is. And it is not what we are doing in the Skunk Works. There are a whole bunch of programs out there, lots of them are sensor programs. And that is where we are applying our expertise."
Despite these denials, it is intriguing to note that the roughly half-billion dollars of unexplained Lockheed revenue neatly matches the half-billion dollars of unexplained expenditure in Other Production Charges. Observer Reports It is unclear whether there are any observer reports associated with the TR-3A. Interpretation
It is suggested that the TR-3A aircraft evolved from a number of 1970s era classified programs aimed at developing both a deep-interdiction strike fighter and a companion vehicle to gather target location data.<19> It appears that a plethora of black programs based on stealth techniques were recommended to the services and intelligence agencies between 1976 and 1983.<20> These included:<21>
"...the Air to Surface Technology Evaluation and Integration (ASTEI) program; created to develop concepts for an advanced deep interdiction fighter.... the Covert Survivable In-weather Reconnaissance/Strike (CSIRS) program, which was to yield two separate stealth aircraft designs.... A THAP demonstrator, which made its first flight from the secluded Groom Lake, Nev., facility in 1981. The company reportedly received a follow-on Air Force contract in 1982 to build what was to become the TR-3A, based on the THAP concept."
The single-pilot Tactical High Altitude Penetrator (THAP) design concept was a spanloader airframe design approximately 38 feet long. THAP's wingspan was 56 ft and it stood approximately 14 ft. high and had a maximum takeoff weight of 55,000 to 60,000 pounds.<22> The original THAP design reportedly relied heavily on radar-absorbing material (RAM) -- as well as blended, curved surfaces -- to reduce its radar cross section. This would contrast with the faceted surfaces of the F-117A and would probably result in a heavier aircraft than today's stealth fighter. The long-range reconnaissance mission, however, is more forgiving of extra weight than the combat mission.<23>
Another potential explanation for the triangles reportedly speeding about over the western United States is that these craft are really "proof-of-concept vehicles for the Navy's now canceled A-12 attack plane, an older technology demonstrator for the B-2 or a not-off experimental prototype."<24> Some speculate that an entire "classified fleet" of these large-winged concept demonstrators exist."<25>
The existence of a few such unique technology demonstrators is more readily reconciled with the existing evidence than would the existence of a fleet of TR- 3B aircraft. It would readily explain some of the reported sightings of unusual aircraft.
It has been suggested that the TR-3B was used in conjunction with the F-117A during Desert Storm. But this is difficult to reconcile with the nature of the targets attacked by the F-117A, which were fixed targets, such as command posts and air defense stations. These targets were carefully studied and selected during the months prior to the initiation of the air campaign. Thus it is difficult to understand precisely what function the TR-3B would have been performing to assist the F-117A, which certainly had no need for additional target acquisition support. In the absence of a more explicit suggestion as to the precise relationship between the roles of the TR-3A and the F-117A, the existence of a fleet of operational, battle-tested TR-3As must be regarded as suspect.
The VC-711 Cruiser One [link] in United State Air Force VIP/VVIP Transport livery and marking.
The VC-711 replaced the VC-25 (yeah...I wish!) as Air Force One, the callsign of any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States.
The aircraft can also be operated as a military command center along side with ER-70 Guardian Angel [link] in the event of an incident such as a nuclear attack. Operational modifications include aerial refueling capability and anti-aircraft missile countermeasures.
The aircraft also have electronic countermeasures (ECMs) to jam enemy radar, flares to avoid heat-seeking missiles, and chaff to avoid radar-guided missiles. If those defensive features doesn't works against incoming missiles, its powerful engines can out maneuver them and dash in beyond supersonic speed.
Many of the VC-711 other capabilities are classified for security reasons.
The MAS SB-4 Corona is a supersonic stealth variable geometry nuclear powered global range strategic bomber designed primarily for the ZMAF strategic bomber command. It was procured specificity to fill the mission role of targeting and destroying air defense facilities and SDI ground sites with smart black body bombs. The concept of the Corona like most stealth bombers is to carry out a massive strike within the enemy aerospace defense network with limited or no warning as would be seen with conventional missile or bomber strikes and with a far lower cost per target via the use of black body smart bombs and far higher loiter time than the stealth ICCMs presently being fielded by the ZMSF or other similar organisations. Corona has capacities which therefore effectively surpass those of the somewhat dated but still highly robust Type 1000 but at a far greater per unit cost.
The Corona in essence is designed in regular service to fill a complimentary role to ZMAFs extensive Type 1000 bomber force. The SB-4 was initially proposed in 1994 with the prerequisites of a smaller airframe, payload, greater or equivalent speed and performance and above all else a stealth compared to its much older cousin.
The stealth capacity the Corona was designed primarily for its sub sonic role and is only projected to be effectively employed for deep penetration against a first world standard air defence network in said subsonic mode given the now permanent fielding of high gain infra red systems in multiple network centric platforms. Her outer very high capacity carbon based counter radar coating is designed to ablate away when she exceeds Mach 2. To aid her in avoiding infra red detection her primary out-takes are fitted with extensive cooling ducts especially given the high initial output temperature resulting from her nuclear drive compared with conventional combustion engines. This duct arrangement precludes the use of 4d thrust vectoring and thus the Corona has only 2d horizontal thrust vectoring capacity (though some models are not fitted with this and in its place is a more extensive rearward mounted ECM suite). Given this fact and given the prior less than satisfactory performance of the type 1000 in sub sonic manoeuvring the SB-4s airframe was specificity designed to allow it a maximum of sub sonic maneuverability via its inherently unstable “relaxed stability” design.
In conjunction with variable forward swept wing and canards the Corona is effectively unflyable without its extensive General Data Technologies Air Advantage 40 networked fly by light fibreless system. This system is a “carefree “ which does not permit the pilot to exceed the airframes tolerance levels. The Air Advantage 40 relies on optical ducts throughout the aircraft which are integrated into the airframe instead of fibre channels or conventional fly by wire. The system has a total of fifteen dedicated independent capable flight computer nodes which communicate to the hydraulic or electrical servo flight controls via direct laser data input. Each dedicated node is fully capable of handling the air crafts complete combat flight workload and each with a four hour emergency lithium ion independent power source which can be manually recharged in six of the repeater units cases via a set of terminals and a hand driven generator.
The Corona features a relatively lightweight construction of a 48% titanium boron alloy, 62% composites (34% heat treated carbon fibre composites + 28% reinforced glass) airframe. Roll control is primarily achieved by use of the wing flapperons. Pitch control is by operation of the canards and flapperons, the yaw control is by rudder and thrust vectoring surfaces are moved through four independent hydraulics systems that are incorporated in the aircraft, which also supply various other items, such as the canopy, brakes and undercarriage (the undercarriage is equipped with a single use emergency explosive deployment mechanism that essentially consists of a blasting cap and small shaped charge at the end of the primary hydraulic tubes and locking mechanisms). One 7000 psi engine-driven gearbox powers each system.
The SB-4 is propelled by two SCAPA Mk.XIV Damocles nuclear thermal jets which each produce 2100 kilo Newton’s of thrust. Within the Damocles XIV there is a variable shock cone to slow inbound gas to acceptable speeds or open to allow her sub sonic flight electricaly driven intake turbines maximum input, the air then is forced over a canister containing gaseous nuclear fuel. The canister is made out of a super-high-temperature quartz container, over which the air flows. It is a closed cycle engine limited by the critical temperature of quartz instead of the fuel stack and capable unlike the The Type 1000s Mk.IIIs of zero speed start. Although less efficient than an open-cycle design, the closed-cycle design delivers a rather respectable specific impulse and does not emit a radioactive "hot" exhaust which would be highly detrimental to the environment. The jet is optimised to operate at Mach 2.1 to Mach 3.2.
The primary radiation shielding is set forward of the reactor pod to give maximum protection to the flight crew who's flight suits do not require any special augmentation. While it is safe upon the ground and safe for the flight crew in flight the aircraft's radiation cone is unsafe to approach when in maximum reactor output / supersonic flight from outside the aircraft without extensive shielding. The reactor pods are jetisonable as one module along with the primary shielding array. This reactor pallet is designed for impacts from 18,000 metres without retardation and has integrated ribbon chutes for use above that height. On release from the aircraft the reactor module auto scrams unless it is linked to the specialist service vehicle or hanger service cradle.
All Coronas are equipped with both a full digital flight environment and a conventional digital glass cockpit. In addition to its extensive computer aided display systems a more conventional electro-optical viewing system that uses platinum silicide forward-looking infrared is provided. Primarily however Corona pilots are trained to fly using the high resolution low-light-level multi channel multi input digital CCD based system is provided integrated into the digital flight environment augmented by real time LIDAR/LADAR (and if operating radar or external data flow) forward looking terrain scanning and global terrain and local, squadron or global battle space database's to assist in targeting, battle assessment, and flight safety, thus further improving its combat ability and low-level flight capability. Corona is equipped with the MAS Vampire system. A large array of passive radio frequency mapping phased array receivers are mounted within the wings and with wing trailing extendible cable pods for increased baseline. These designed to use the local pre mapped and constantly locally updated high and low output radio and microwave sources as an effective passive scanning radar.
This system has an effective range and capacity in first world radio frequency pollution conditions in excess of 230 kilometres at maximum base line extension with AESA like performance at 80 kilometres and below. With the passive tracking of up to 220 targets using sources down to and including personal mobile phones as its output the Vampire gives corona a bleeding edge electronic warfare advantage. Coronas active radar system has an effective maximum range of 390 kilometres and is integrated into the Mas Vampire system receivers. The Corona has extensive multi pulsed targeting lasing capacity, along with both bounced and integrated relay man guided weapons control. The provision of two sysops allows a vastly increased number of targets to be engaged simultaneously.
The purely nuclear nature of the SB-4s drive system gives her a range limited only by crew endurance, or in the extreme, required maintenance. It has an un refueled recommended combat range in excess of 28,200 kilometres though this can be exceeded in theory with the warning that it will negate warranty. The nature of her drive system precludes mid air refueling and thus no system for this is in place and also precludes the use of a conventional afterburner. There have been trials with integrated liquid oxygen, hydrogen slush afterburner systems on modified airframes without thermal ducting and the airframe has been slated as a test bed for large scale SCRAM trials.
Crew: 4 (Captain, Co pilot/sysop, Co pilot/sysop, Nuclear specialist. Length: 44 metres Wingspan: 39 metres (max) Height: 21 metres Empty: (262,386 kilograms) Loaded: (644,000 kilograms) Maximum take-off: (713 kilograms)
Powerplant: 2 X SCAPA Mk.XIV Damocles closed cycle Nuclear thermal jets; 2100 kilo Newton’s of thrust each.
Approximately (210,000 kilograms) mixed ordnance—bombs, cruise missiles (optionally on two external hardpoint mounts for ICCM or stealth shroud missile pod), mines, and various missiles in two internal bays.
Maximum speed: Mach 3.1 Range: 28,200 kilometres Service ceiling: 22,300 meter Rate of climb: 5200 m/min () RCS: 0.084 square metres (Sub sonicwith coating), 1.3 with external stealth pod mounts and 8 Square metres without coating at Mach 2+ speeds.
Independent cost reviews place the SB4 at approximately 7.9 billion NS dollars per aircraft. MAS flight worthy test bed air frames (civilian) 5 ZMAF: 428 in service, seventy more budgeted for. ZMSF: 53 in service, twelve more budgeted for. (3 system testbeds 50 ASAT, high altitude warfare modified) ZMN: 2 in service (system test beds) INT-SEC: 10 in service (modifications for ram air personnel carrying glide pod deployment on at least three, extensive ECM loads)
Production is located in the Barsin County secure military production zone in the MAS Nine River Valley facility in the ZMI home territory, theoretical maximum output is 1300 units per year.
The Hawk was the first mobile medium-range guided anti-aircraft missile deployed by the U.S. Army, and was the oldest SAM system still in use by U.S. armed forces in the late 1990s.
Development studies for a semi-active radar homing medium-range surface-to-air missile system were begun by the U.S. Army in 1952 under the designation SAM-A-18 Hawk (Homing All the Way Killer). In July 1954, development contracts were awarded to Raytheon for the missile, and to Northrop for launcher, radars, and fire-control system. The first launch of an XSAM-A-18 test missile occurred in June 1956, and the initial development phase was completed in July 1957. By that time, the Hawk had been redesignated as Guided Missile, Aerial Intercept, XM3 (and XM3E1). Initial Operational Capability of the M3 Hawk was achieved with the U.S. Army in August 1959, and in 1960 the M3 was also fielded by U.S. Marine Corps units. The Hawk system was used by many NATO and other countries, and the missile was license-built in Western Europe and Japan. There were two training versions of the original Hawk missile, designated XM16 and XM18.
The M3 Hawk surface-to-air missile is powered by an Aerojet General M22E8 dual-thrust (boost/sustain) solid-propellant rocket motor, and is controlled in flight by its large triangular fins with trailing-edge control surfaces. It is armed with a 54 kg (119 lb) high-explosive blast-fragmentation warhead, which is equipped with both impact and radar proximity fuzes. The missile is guided by an X-band CW (Continuous Wave) monopulse semi-active radar seeker, and has an effective engagement range of 2-25 km (1.25-15 miles). A Hawk unit uses several different ground radars and control systems. The radar systems include the AN/MPQ-35 C-band PAR (Pulse Acquisition Radar) for high/medium-altitude threat detection, the AN/MPQ-34 CWAR (Continuous Wave Acquisition Radar) for low-level threat detection, the AN/MPQ-33 (or -39) HPI (High-Power Illuminator) which tracks designated targets and provides target illumination for the missile's seeker, and the AN/MPQ-37 ROR (Range Only Radar) which is a K-band pulse radar to provide ranging data when the other radars are jammed by countermeasures (the ROR reduces jamming vulnerability by transmitting only when designated). Photo: U.S. Army MIM-23A
The Hawk missiles are transported on and launched from M192 triple-missile towed launchers. In 1967, the U.S. Army tested a self-propelled Hawk ("SP-HAWK") system, which mounted the launchers on tracked M727 (modified M548 transports) vehicles. The first Hawk units were equipped with SP-HAWK in 1969, but the system is no longer in service. Photo: U.S. Army MIM-23A (on M727)
In June 1963, all Hawk missiles were redesignated in the MIM-23 series as follows: Old Designation New Designation XM3 XMIM-23A M3 MIM-23A XM16 XMTM-23B XM18 XMTM-23C
The XMTM-23B/C designations were short-lived, however, and the B/C suffix letters were later reused for improved Hawk missiles.
To counter advanced low-altitude threats, the Army began a Hawk Improvement Program (HAWK/HIP) in 1964. This involved numerous upgrades to the Hawk system, including the addition of a digital data processing central information coordinator for target processing, threat ordering, and intercept evaluation. The AN/MPQ-35 PAR, AN/MPQ-34 CWAR, AN/MPQ-33/39 HPI, and AN/MPQ-37 ROR were replaced by upgraded variants designated AN/MPQ-50, AN/MPQ-48, AN/MPQ-46, and AN/MPQ-51, respectively. The Hawk missile itself was upgraded to MIM-23B I-HAWK (Improved Hawk) configuration. The MIM-23B had a larger 74 kg (163 lb) blast-fragmentation warhead, a smaller and improved guidance package, and a new M112 rocket motor. The I-HAWK system was declared operational in 1971, and by 1978 all U.S. Hawk units had converted to the new standard. The effective range envelope of the MIM-23B is extended to 1.5-40 km (5000 ft - 25 miles) at high altitude (2.5-20 km (8200 ft - 12.4 miles) at low altitude), and minimum engagement altitude is 60 m (200 ft). There is also a training version of the I-HAWK designated MTM-23B. The XMEM-23B is a variant with a full telemetry equipment for test and evaluation purposes. Photo: U.S. Army MIM-23 (exact model unknown)
Beginning in 1977, the U.S. Army started an extensive multi-phase Hawk PIP (Product Improvement Plan), mainly intended to improve and upgrade the ground equipment. PIP Phase I involved replacement of the CWAR with the AN/MPQ-55 Improved CWAR (ICWAR), and the upgrade of the AN/MPQ-50 PAR to Improved PAR (IPAR) configuration by the addition of a digital MTI (Moving Target Indicator). The first PIP Phase I systems were fielded in 1979. PIP Phase II, developed from 1978 and fielded between 1983 and 1986, upgraded the AN/MPQ-46 HPI to AN/MPQ-57 standard by replacing some tube electronics with modern solid-state circuits, and added a TAS (Tracking Adjunct System). The TAS, designated OD-179/TVY, is an electro-optical (TV) tracking system to increase Hawk operability and survivability in a high-ECM environment. The PIP Phase III development was started in 1983, and was first fielded by U.S. forces in 1989. Phase III is a major upgrade which significantly enhanced computer hard- and software for most components (new CWAR is designated AN/MPQ-62), added single-scan target detection capability, and upgraded the HPI to AN/MPQ-61 standard by addition of a Low-Altitude Simultaneous Hawk Engagement (LASHE) system. LASHE allows the Hawk system to counter saturation attacks by simultaneously intercepting multiple low-level targets. The ROR is no longer used by Phase III Hawk units.
The following table summarizes the designations of the main radars of the Hawk air-defense system: System Configuration PAR CWAR HPI ROR Basic Hawk AN/MPQ-35 AN/MPQ-34 AN/MPQ-33/39 AN/MPQ-37 Improved Hawk AN/MPQ-50 AN/MPQ-48 AN/MPQ-46 AN/MPQ-51 PIP Phase I AN/MPQ-55 PIP Phase II AN/MPQ-57 PIP Phase III AN/MPQ-62 AN/MPQ-61 (n/a)
The MIM-23B Hawk missile was improved in parallel with the PIP upgrades. The MIM-23C, introduced around 1982, has improved ECCM capabilities. The MIM-23D is similar to the MIM-23C, but I don't have any further details. The official source  describes it plainly as an "upgraded MIM-23C", but this is simply a standard phrase used for subsequent versions and could mean anything, including a non-tactical model used for live training. The telemetry-equipped test and evaluation model of the MIM-23C/D is designated MEM-23C.
The MIM-23E and MIM-23F, introduced in 1990, are developments of the MIM-23C and MIM-23D, respectively, with an improved guidance section for low-level engagements in high-clutter/multi-jamming environments. The MEM-23D is the telemetry-equipped test and evaluation model of the MIM-23E/F.
The MIM-23G and MIM-23H are variants of the MIM-23E and MIM-23F, respectively, with a new body section assembly. The corresponding test and evaluation missile is the MEM-23E. Photo: U.S. Army MIM-23 (exact model unknown)
In 1991, the USMC successfully demonstrated the use of a modified Lockheed Martin AN/TPS-59 tactical long-range radar system to search and track Theater Ballistic Missiles (TBM) in conjunction with a Hawk fire-control unit. The AN/TPS-59(V)3 radar can track targets at up to 475 km (295 miles) range and 150 km (90 miles) altitude. Although no actual firing took place, these tests prompted the USMC to upgrade its Hawk units with an anti-TBM capability. The MIM-23G/H Hawk missiles were upgraded to Enhanced Lethality Missile configuration, designated MIM-23K and MIM-23J, respectively (note "reversed" suffix letters). The MIM-23J/K has a new high-grain fragmentation warhead and new fuzing circuitry to make it effective against ballistic missiles, and in 1994, several intercepts of MGM-52 Lance short-range ballistic missiles were successful. The MIM-23L and MIM-23M missiles have the new fuzing circuits of the MIM-23K and MIM-23J, respectively, but don't have the latter's new warhead. The telemetry-equipped test and evaluation model of the MIM-23J/K/L/M missiles is designated MEM-23F.
The following table summarizes the designations of the developments of the MIM-23B I-HAWK missile, and the corresponding test and evaluation versions. Because the MEM versions use sequential suffix letters, and each MEM variant corresponds to several MIM missiles, the letters for MIM and MEM versions are "out-of-sync". Type of Missile Tactical Model T&E Model Basic I-HAWK MIM-23B XMEM-23B Improved ECCM MIM-23C MIM-23D MEM-23C Low-level/multi-jamming capability MIM-23E MIM-23F MEM-23D New body section MIM-23G MIM-23H MEM-23E New warhead + fuzing (anti-TBM) MIM-23K MIM-23J MEM-23F New fuzing only, old warhead MIM-23L MIM-23M
The U.S. Army also used the MIM-23K missile for a brief period, but not in the anti-TBM role. The last active Army Hawk unit was deactivated in 1994, and the last Army National Guard units disposed of the Hawk system in the 1996/97 time frame. The Hawk has been replaced in U.S. Army service by the MIM-104 Patriot and FIM-92 Stinger (and Stinger-based systems like Avenger) missiles for medium- and short-range air-defense, respectively.
The MIM-23K missile and AN/TPS-59(V)3 radar was operational with USMC units from 1995 onwards. Beginning in 1998/99 the USMC started to phase out the Hawk to replace it with the FIM-92 Stinger (leaving some gap in the medium-range air-defense capabilities of the USMC). There are conflicting reports as to whether the phaseout is complete at the time of this writing (late 2002).
Including foreign production, more than 40000 MIM-23 Hawk missiles of all versions were built. Specifications
Note: Data given by several sources show slight variations. Figures given below may therefore be inaccurate!
Data for MIM-23A/B: MIM-23A MIM-23B Length 5.08 m (16 ft 8 in) 5.03 m (16 ft 6 in) Finspan 1.19 m (3 ft 11 in) Diameter 37 cm (14.5 in) Weight 584 kg (1290 lb) 635 kg (1400 lb) Speed Mach 2.5 Ceiling 13700 m (45000 ft) 17700 m (58000 ft) Range 25 km (15 miles) 40 km (25 miles) Propulsion Aerojet M22E8 dual-thrust solid-fueled rocket Aerojet M112 dual-thrust solid-fueled rocket Warhead 54 kg (119 lb) blast-fragmentation 74 kg (163 lb) blast-fragmentation
A design I did for the 2012 Ron Paul movement. I wanted to do something that would grab people's attention when they see it. Not commissioned from Ron Paul or his campaign but from a group of people who want to make people informed of the truth and the availability of other options other than what Fox News tells you about. We got lost in the day to day routines of working, going to school, feeding our families, etc and lose the interest to research and understand what is going on in the country we live in. I appreciate any feedback about the art and understand that there are those who disagree with Dr. Ron Paul's beliefs and that is one of the very freedoms he looks to preserve. So please feel free to criticize my work and give any advice(I am new to this type of art) that might make it better but please keep the political debates to other forums. Thanks for taking the time to look!
what would the U.S.A. flag look like [in ca. 1866] if the Confederate States of America won the Civil War? there are 25 stars and 10 stripes on this fictional flag.
25 stars stand for 25 states:
- 6 stars on the right quarter represent: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont - 6 stars on the upper quarter represent: Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio
- 6 stars on the bottom quarter represent: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Missouri, Kentucky
- 6 stars on the left quarter represent: Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, Nevada, Oregon, California
- the central star represents [West] Virginia, which split from the confederated Virginia.
the diagonal lines are taken from the best known Southern flag - the "Battle Flag".
empty places within symbolize the desire to reacquire the confederated states back to the Union.
10 stripes stand for these 10 [out of 13] original colonies that didn't join the Confederation, but including Virginia because in this alternative timeline West Virginia is considered the legitimate successor of Virginia.
Missouri and Kentucky are represented both by the stars and by lack of them within the diagonal lines [an allusion to the "Battle Flag" with 13 stars].